Hail to the Thief
|Hail to the Thief|
|Studio album by Radiohead|
|Released||9 June 2003|
|Recorded||September 2002 – February 2003 at Ocean Way Recording in Hollywood and Canned Applause in Oxfordshire|
|Genre||Alternative rock, experimental rock, electronica|
|Producer||Nigel Godrich, Radiohead|
|Singles from Hail to the Thief|
Hail to the Thief[nb 1] is the sixth studio album by the English alternative rock band Radiohead, produced by Nigel Godrich and released on 9 June 2003. Following the electronic and jazz styles of Kid A (2000) and Amnesiac (2001), Hail to the Thief returned to the guitar rock of Radiohead's earlier albums, but retained electronic elements such as drum machines, synthesisers and digital manipulation. To avoid the protracted recording sessions of previous albums, the band recorded it quickly, employing a live, "spontaneous" approach.
Many of the album's lyrics were written in response to the War on Terror and the resurgence of right-wing politics in the West after the turn of the millennium. Songwriter and vocalist Thom Yorke said the album expresses "frustration and powerlessness and anger, and the huge gap between the people that put themselves in control and the people that allegedly voted for them."
Despite a high-profile internet leak ten weeks before its release, Hail to the Thief debuted at number one in the United Kingdom and number three in the United States. It produced three charting singles: "There There", "Go to Sleep" and "2 + 2 = 5". It is certified platinum in the UK, Canada, and the US. It was praised by critics and became the fifth consecutive Radiohead album to be nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album. It was the last album released under Radiohead's six-album record contract with Parlophone.
- 1 Background
- 2 Recording
- 3 Lyrics and themes
- 4 Artwork
- 5 Music
- 6 Promotion and release
- 7 Critical reception
- 8 Reissues
- 9 Track listing
- 10 Personnel
- 11 Charts and certifications
- 12 References
- 13 External links
With their previous albums Kid A (2000) and Amnesiac (2001), Radiohead had replaced their earlier guitar-led rock sound with a more electronic style. On tour in 2000 and 2001, the band learned how to perform the electronic music live, combining synthetic sounds with conventional rock instrumentation. Songwriter Thom Yorke said: "Even with electronics, there is an element of spontaneous performance in using them. It was the tension between what's human and what's coming from the machines. That was stuff we were getting into." He stated that Radiohead did not want to make a "big creative leap or statement" with their next album.
In early 2002, after the Amnesiac tour had finished, Yorke sent his bandmates CDs containing demos of songs he was considering for Radiohead's sixth album. The three CDs, titled The Gloaming, Episcoval and Hold Your Prize, comprised electronic music and piano and guitar sketches. Radiohead had previously tried to record some of the songs, such as "I Will" and "A Wolf at the Door", in the joint sessions for Kid A and Amnesiac, but had not been satisfied with the results. The band spent May and June of 2002 arranging and rehearsing the songs before performing many of them on their tour of Spain and Portugal in July and August.
In September 2002, Radiohead moved to the Ocean Way Recording studios in Hollywood, Los Angeles with producer Nigel Godrich and artist Stanley Donwood, both of whom have worked with the band since their second album, The Bends (1995). The location was suggested by Godrich, who had previously used the studio to produce records by Travis and Beck and thought it would be a "good change of scenery" for Radiohead. Yorke said: "We were like, 'Do we want to fly halfway around the world to do this?' But it was terrific, because we worked really hard. We did a track a day. It was sort of like holiday camp."
Radiohead's previous albums Kid A and Amnesiac were created through a years-long process of recording and editing that drummer Phil Selway described as "manufacturing music in the studio". For their next album, the band sought to capture a more immediate, "live" sound. Yorke told MTV: "The last two studio records were a real headache. We had spent so much time looking at computers and grids, we were like, that's enough, we can't do that any more. This time, we used computers, but they had to actually be in the room with all the gear. So everything was about performance, like staging a play." Most electronic elements were not overdubbed, but recorded live in the studio as the band performed. Greenwood used the music programming language Max to sample and manipulate the band's playing in real time, and continued to use modular synthesisers and the ondes Martenot, an early theremin-like electronic instrument he first used on Kid A and Amnesiac. After using effects pedals heavily on previous albums, Greenwood mostly used clean guitar sounds to "see if I could come up with interesting things without [effects]."
Radiohead tried to work quickly and spontaneously, avoiding procrastination and over-analysis. Inspired by the Beatles' ability to write songs shorter than they seemed, they tried to keep the songs succinct, "instead of taking the listener on a journey." The opening track, "2 + 2 = 5", was initially recorded as a studio test, and was finished in two hours. Yorke was forced to write lyrics differently, as he did not have time to rewrite them in the studio; for some songs, he returned to the Dadaist method of drawing words and phrases from a hat he had employed for Kid A and Amnesiac. Greenwood said: "We didn't really have time to be stressed about what we did. We got to the end of the second week before we even heard what we did on the first two days, and didn't even remember recording it or who was playing things. Which is a magical way of doing things." The approach protected against the tension of previous sessions; O'Brien told Rolling Stone that Hail to the Thief was the first Radiohead album "where, at the end of making it, we haven't wanted to kill each other."
Most of the album was recorded in two weeks, with additional recording and mixing at Radiohead's studio in Oxfordshire, England in late 2002 and early 2003. In contrast to the relaxed Los Angeles sessions, which Godrich described as "very fruitful", mixing and sequencing the album created conflicts. Yorke said: "We had massive arguments about how it was put together and mixed. Making it was a piece of piss, for the first time it was really good fun to make a record ... but we finished it and nobody could let go of it. 'Cause there was a long sustained period during which we lived with it but it wasn't completely finished, so you get attached to versions and we had big rows about it." Godrich estimated that rough mixes from the Los Angeles sessions were used for about a third of the final album.
Lyrics and themes
Hail to the Thief's lyrics were influenced by Yorke's unease about what he called the "general sense of ignorance and intolerance and panic and stupidity" following the 2000 election of George W. Bush. He took words and phrases from discussion of the unfolding War on Terror and used them in the album's lyrics and artwork. Yorke denied any intent to make a "political statement" with the songs, and told the Toronto Star: "I desperately tried not to write anything political, anything expressing the deep, profound terror I'm living with day to day. But it's just fucking there, and eventually you have to give it up and let it happen."
At the time the father of an infant son, Yorke adopted a strategy of "distilling" the political themes into "childlike simplicity". He took phrases from fairy tales and folklore, such as the tale of Chicken Little, and children's literature and television he shared with his son, including the 1970s TV series Bagpuss, whose creator Oliver Postgate is thanked in the liner notes. Parenthood made Yorke concerned about the condition of the world and how it could affect future generations. Jonny Greenwood felt Yorke's lyrics expressed "confusion and escape, like 'I'm going to stay at home and look after the people I care about, buy a month's supply of food'."
Yorke also took phrases from Dante's Inferno, the subject of his partner's PhD thesis. Several songs, such as "2 + 2 = 5", "Sit Down Stand Up", and "Sail to the Moon", reference Christian versions of good and evil and heaven and hell, a first for Radiohead's music. Other songs reference science fiction and horror, such as the wolves and vampires of "A Wolf at the Door" and "We Suck Young Blood", the reference to the 1949 dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four in "2 + 2 = 5", and the allusion to the giant of Gulliver's Travels (1726) in "Go to Sleep".
Yorke has described Hail to the Thief variously as expressing "a general fear of the future, that it's being jeopardised, that it's difficult to do very much about, because things have been set in motion that seem unstoppable"; "frustration and powerlessness and anger, and the huge gap between the people that put themselves in control and the people that allegedly voted for them"; and "the conflict between being incredibly angry and being so tired you just want to give up."
Title and subtitles
Radiohead struggled to find a title for the album. The band considered naming it The Gloaming (meaning "twilight" or "dusk"), but this was rejected for being too "poetic" and "doomy", and so became the album's subtitle. Other titles considered included Little Man Being Erased, The Boney King of Nowhere and Snakes and Ladders, which became the subtitles for the songs "Go To Sleep", "There There" and "Sit Down. Stand Up" respectively. The concept of giving the album and each of its songs a subtitle came from Victorian playbills showcasing moralistic songs played in music halls.
The phrase "hail to the thief" was used by anti-George W. Bush protesters during the controversy surrounding the 2000 US presidential election as a play on "Hail to the Chief", the American presidential anthem. Yorke described hearing the phrase for the first time as a "formative moment". It was chosen as the album title to "state the bleeding obvious ... that the most powerful country on earth is run by somebody who stole an election", and also as a response to "the rise of doublethink and general intolerance and madness, and feeling very much like individuals were totally out of control of the situation that somehow it was a manifestation of something not really human." Yorke worried the title might be misconstrued as referring solely to the US election controversy, but his bandmates felt it "conjured up all the nonsense and absurdity and jubilation of the times."
Hail to the Thief's artwork was created by Stanley Donwood, whom has created the artwork for every Radiohead album since The Bends. The cover art, titled "Pacific Coast", is a road map of Hollywood with words and phrases taken from Los Angeles's roadside advertising, such as "God", "TV" and "oil", in place of buildings. Donwood said: "Advertising is designed to be seductive and attractive and, in a lot of ways, it's very beautiful. But there's something unsettling about being continually sold something. I liked taking the elements of roadside advertising out of context because it removes the imperative and just goes to the essence of it – the pure heart of advertising." Other words in the artwork were provided by Yorke, taken from discussion surrounding the War on Terror.
Comparing it to the more subdued palettes of his prior Radiohead artworks, Donwood described the cover's bright, "pleasing" colours as "ominous because all these colours that I've used are derived from the petrol-chemical industry ... None of it is natural. It essentially comes from black sludge. We've created this incredibly vibrant society, but we're going to have to deal with the consequences sooner or later." Essayist Amy Britton interpreted the artwork as an allusion to the Bush administration's "road map for peace" plan for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Joseph Tate, likening the art to the paintings of French artist Jean Dubuffet, found it depicted a "homogenized and heavily regimented" portrayal of "capitalism's glaring visual presence: an oppressive sameness of style and color that mirrors globalization's reduction of difference." Other artworks included with the album refer to cities including New York, London, Grozny, and Baghdad. Early editions contained a fold-out road map of the cover.
Hail to the Thief features less digital manipulation and more conventional rock instrumentation than Radiohead's previous two albums, making prominent use of live drums, guitar and piano. Yorke's voice, which was heavily manipulated on Kid A and Amnesiac, returned to the front of the music undisguised. Several tracks, such as "2 + 2 = 5", "Sit Down Stand Up" and "There There", utilise the "Pixies-like" quiet-to-loud building of tension Radiohead had employed on previous albums.
Though Yorke described Hail to the Thief as "very acoustic", he denied that it was a "guitar record". The album retains the use of electronic elements such as synthesisers, drum machines and sampling, and Jonny Greenwood and Yorke are both credited with playing "laptop" on the album; some tracks, such as "Backdrifts", "The Gloaming" and "Myxomatosis", are predominantly electronic in composition. Spin reviewer Will Hermes found that Hail to the Thief "seesaws between the chill of sequencers and the warmth of fingers on strings and keys."
Despite its dark themes, Radiohead saw Hail to the Thief as a "sparkly, shiny pop record. Clear and pretty." O'Brien felt the album captured a new "swaggering" sound, saying "there's space and sunshine and energy in the songs." At nearly an hour long, it is Radiohead's longest album.
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Hail to the Thief's opening track, single "2 + 2 = 5 (The Lukewarm)", is a rock song that builds to a loud climax. Its title references the slogan "two plus two equals five" from George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four; the song's subtitle was taken from Dante's Inferno. The second track, "Sit Down. Stand Up (Snakes and Ladders)", an electronic song, was influenced by the jazz musician Charles Mingus. The third track, "Sail to the Moon (Brush the Cobwebs Out of the Sky)", is a lullaby-like piano ballad with shifting time signatures alluding to the Biblical story of Noah's Ark, and was written "in five minutes" for Yorke's infant son Noah.
The fourth track, "Backdrifts (Honeymoon is Over)", is an electronic song about "the slide backwards that's happening everywhere you look." The fifth track, single "Go to Sleep (Little Man being Erased)", begins with an acoustic guitar riff Colin Greenwood described as "1960s English sort of folk". The sixth track, "Where I End and You Begin (The Sky is Falling In)", is a rock song with "walls" of ondes Martenot and rhythm section influenced by 1980s band New Order. Yorke described the seventh track, "We Suck Young Blood (Your Time is Up)", as a "slave ship tune" with a "freeform jazz nightmare" break, and is "not to be taken seriously." With ill-timed, "zombie-like" handclaps, the song satirises Hollywood culture and its "constant desire to stay young and fleece people, suck their energy."
The eighth track, "The Gloaming (Softly Open our Mouths in the Cold)", is an electronic song with "mechanical rhythms" Jonny Greenwood built from tape loops. Greenwood described it as "very old school electronica: no computers, just analogue synths, tape machines, and sellotape." Yorke felt the song was "the most explicit protest song on the record ... I feel really strongly that it's about the rise of fascism, and the rise of intolerance and bigotry and fear, and all the things that keep a population down."
The ninth track and lead single, "There There (The Boney King of Nowhere)", is a guitar-led rock song with layered percussion building to a loud climax. It was influenced by krautrock band Can, Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Pixies. Radiohead struggled to record a version of the song that satisfied them, and feared it may be "lost"; after re-recording it in their Oxfordshire studio, Yorke was so relieved to have captured the song he wept, saying: "I just thought it was the best thing we'd ever done."
Radiohead had attempted to record an electronic version of the tenth track, "I Will (No Man's Land)", in the Kid A and Amnesiac sessions, but abandoned it as "dodgy Kraftwerk"; components of this recording were used to create "Like Spinning Plates" on Amnesiac. For Hail to the Thief, the band sought to "get to the core of what's good about the song" and "not get sidetracked by production details or new sounds or whatever," settling on a stripped-back arrangement with layered vocal harmonies. Yorke described it as "the angriest song I've ever written", with lyrics inspired by news footage of a bomb shelter containing children and families being destroyed in the first Gulf War.
The eleventh track, "A Punchup at a Wedding (No No No No No No No No)", is a funk-influenced song that expresses the helplessness Yorke felt in the face of chaotic world events: "Like a punchup at a wedding, nobody knows what's going on, it's just a riot." For the twelfth track, "Myxomatosis (Judge, Jury & Executioner)", Radiohead sought to recreate the "frightening" detuned keyboard sounds of 1970s and 80s new wave bands such as Tubeway Army.
Jonny Greenwood described the thirteenth track, "Scatterbrain (As Dead as Leaves)", as "very simple and sort of quite pretty, but there's something about the music for me, the chords for me, where it never quite resolves." The NME described the album's fourteenth and final track, "A Wolf at the Door (It Girl. Rag Doll.)", as "a pretty song, with a sinister monologue over the top of it"; Greenwood likeneded its lyrics to a Grimms' fairy tale. Yorke described the song's placement at the end of the album as "sort of like waking you up at the end ... it's all been a nightmare and you need to go and get a glass of water now."
Promotion and release
According to Alexis Petridis of The Guardian, Hail to the Thief's marketing campaign was "by [Radiohead] standards ... a promotinal blitzkreig". In April 2003, posters appeared in Los Angeles and London promoting Hail to the Thief in the style of a talent search, with slogans taken from the lyrics of "We Suck Young Blood": "Hungry? Sick? Begging for a break? Sweet? Fresh? Would you do anything? We suck young blood. We want sweet meats." The posters included a phone number spelling the phoneword "to-thief", which connected the caller to an automated voice welcoming them to the "Hail to the Thief customer care hotline". In May, aeroplanes flew over the 2003 Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in California trailing Hail to the Thief banners.
Yorke asked Bagpuss creator Oliver Postgate to create a music video for lead single "There There", but Postgate, who was retired, declined. Instead, a stop-motion animation video was created by Chris Hopewell. The video debuted on the Times Square Jumbotron in New York on 20 May 2003, and received hourly play that day on MTV2. In June, Radiohead relaunched their official site, featuring digital animations on the themes of mass-media culture and 24-hour cities. In the same month, Radiohead launched radiohead.tv, where short films, music videos and live webcasts from the studio were broadcast at scheduled times. Visitors late for broadcasts were shown a test card with "1970s-style" intermission music. Yorke said Radiohead had planned to broadcast on television or even their own television channel, but this was cancelled due to "something about money, cutbacks, too weird, might scare the children, staff layoffs, shareholders." The material was released on the 2004 DVD The Most Gigantic Lying Mouth of All Time.
Hail to the Thief was released on 9 June 2003. The CD was printed with copy protection in some regions; the Belgian consumer group Test-Achats received complaints that the album could not be played on some CD players. A collection of Hail to the Thief B-sides, remixes and live performances, COM LAG (2plus2isfive), was released in April 2004.
In early April 2003, ten weeks before release, an unmixed version of Hail to the Thief containing unfinished tracks was leaked online by an unknown person. Jonny Greenwood wrote on Radiohead's official forum: "We're kind of pissed off about it, to be honest ... Work we've not finished, being released in this sloppy way, ten weeks before the real version is even available ... It's not [downloaders] I'm pissed off about, it's just the situation I guess. It's stolen work, fer fuck's sake." [sic] Colin Greenwood said the leak was "like being photographed with one sock on when you get out of bed in the morning," but expressed dismay at the cease-and-desist orders sent by label EMI to radio stations and fan sites playing the leaked tracks, saying: "Don't record companies usually pay thousands of dollars to get stations to play their records? Now they're paying money to stations not to play them."
EMI decided against moving the album's release date earlier to combat the leak. EMI's vice president of new media Ted Mico said: "The leak did allow us to be in the press continually for the last 10 weeks. We're confident people will buy this record." The leak partly influenced Radiohead's decision to self-release their next album, In Rainbows (2007), via a pay-what-you-want model, terming it "their leak date".
Hail to the Thief peaked at number one in the United Kingdom and stayed on the chart for fourteen weeks. In the United States, the album entered at number three in the Billboard 200, selling 300,000 copies in its first week, more than any other Radiohead album. As of 2008, it had sold over a million copies in the US. The album is certified platinum in the UK, Canada, and the US, and gold in Australia and France.
|Drowned in Sound|||
Hail to the Thief received acclaim from critics; it has a score of 85 out of 100 on review aggregate site Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim". Neil McCormick, writing for the Daily Telegraph, called Hail to the Thief "Radiohead firing on all cylinders, a major work by major artists at the height of their powers." AllMusic, awarding the album four stars out of five, found that "Radiohead have entered a second decade of record-making with a surplus of momentum." Chris Ott of Pitchfork Media wrote that Radiohead had "largely succeeded in their efforts to shape pop music into as boundless and possible a medium as it should be", awarding the album 9.3 out of 10 and naming it "best new music". Writing for New York, Ethan Brown said that "Hail to the Thief isn't a protest album, and that's why it works so well. As with great Radiohead records past, such as Kid A, the music – restlessly, freakishly inventive – pushes politics far into the background."
Awarding it seven out of ten, the NME 's James Oldham saw Hail to the Thief as "a good rather than great record" and wrote that "the impact of the best moments is dulled by the inclusion of some indifferent electronic compositions." Awarding the album three stars out of five, Alexis Petridis of The Guardian wrote that while "you could never describe Hail to the Thief as a bad record", it was "neither startlingly different and fresh nor packed with the sort of anthemic songs that once made them the world's biggest band." In a review of the 2009 reissue, Pitchfork writer Joe Tangari wrote that "Hail to the Thief isn't Radiohead's best album, but it doesn't need to be, either ... there can be life for a band after its landmark statement [Kid A], and that life sounds pretty damn good," awarding it 8.6 out of 10 and naming it "best new reissue". In 2010, Rolling Stone ranked Hail to the Thief the 89th best album of the 2000s, writing "the dazzling overabundance of ideas makes Hail to the Thief a triumph."
Hail to the Thief was the fifth consecutive Radiohead album to be nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album. Producer Nigel Godrich and engineer Darrell Thorp won the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Engineered Non-Classical Album for their work.
Band opinions in retrospect
Members of Radiohead have admitted regrets about Hail to the Thief. In a 2006 interview with Spin, Yorke said: "I'd maybe change the playlist. I think we had a meltdown when we put it together ... as Nigel says, I wish I had another go at it. We wanted to do things quickly, and I think the songs suffered." In 2008, O'Brien told Mojo: "We should have pruned it down to 10 songs, then it would have been a really good record. I think we lost people on a couple of tracks and it broke the spell of the record." In the same interview, Colin Greenwood said: "I didn't want three or four songs on there, because I thought some of the ideas we were trying out weren't completely finished ... For me, Hail to the Thief was more of a holding process, really."
In April 2012, O'Brien told La Semana De Frente: "On OK Computer, we were in a very dark place, it was like being in a tunnel, in which we stayed all through OK Computer, Kid A, Amnesiac... on Hail to the Thief, we thought we were out, but we weren't." In 2013, Godrich told the NME: "I think there's some great moments on there - but too many songs. I think that's kind of agreed amongst the camp these days but at the time it was just what happened ... As a whole I think it's charming because of the lack of editing. But personally it's probably my least favourite of all the albums ... It didn't really have its own direction. It was almost like a homogeny of previous work. Maybe that's its strength."
In 2007, Radiohead left EMI, parent company of Parlophone, after failed contract negotiations. EMI retained the copyright to Radiohead's back catalogue. After a period of being out of print on vinyl, EMI reissued a double-LP of Hail to the Thief on 19 August 2008, along with albums Kid A, Amnesiac and OK Computer as part of the "From the Capitol Vaults" series. On 31 August 2009, Hail to the Thief was reissued on CD in a 2-CD "Collector's Edition" and a 2-CD 1-DVD "Special Collector's Edition". The first CD contains the original studio album; the second CD collects B-sides from Hail to the Thief singles and live performances previously compiled on the COM LAG (2plus2isfive) EP (2004); the DVD contains music videos and a live television performance. Radiohead had no input into the reissue and the music was not remastered.
All songs written and composed by Radiohead.
|1.||"2 + 2 = 5" (The Lukewarm)||3:19|
|2.||"Sit Down. Stand Up" (Snakes & Ladders)||4:19|
|3.||"Sail to the Moon" (Brush the Cobwebs Out of the Sky)||4:18|
|4.||"Backdrifts" (Honeymoon Is Over)||5:22|
|5.||"Go to Sleep" (Little Man Being Erased)||3:21|
|6.||"Where I End and You Begin" (The Sky Is Falling In)||4:29|
|7.||"We Suck Young Blood" (Your Time Is Up)||4:56|
|8.||"The Gloaming" (Softly Open Our Mouths in the Cold)||3:32|
|9.||"There There" (The Boney King of Nowhere)||5:25|
|10.||"I Will" (No Man's Land)||1:59|
|11.||"A Punchup at a Wedding" (No no no no no no no no)||4:57|
|12.||"Myxomatosis" (Judge, Jury & Executioner)||3:52|
|13.||"Scatterbrain" (As Dead as Leaves)||3:21|
|14.||"A Wolf at the Door" (It Girl. Rag Doll)||3:21|
|Collector's Edition disc 2|
|2.||"Where Bluebirds Fly"||4:31|
|3.||"I Am Citizen Insane"||3:33|
|4.||"Fog (Again)" (Live)||2:18|
|6.||"I Am a Wicked Child"||3:06|
|7.||"Remyxomatosis" (Cristian Vogel RMX)||5:10|
|8.||"There There" (First Demo)||7:45|
|9.||"Skttrbrain" (Four Tet Remix)||4:25|
|10.||"I Will (Los Angeles Version)" ([nb 2])||2:23|
|11.||"Sail to the Moon" (BBC Radio 1's Jo Whiley's Live Lounge – 28 May 2003)||4:11|
|12.||"2 + 2 = 5" (Live at Earl's Court)||3:35|
|13.||"Go to Sleep" (Zane Lowe – 08/12/03)||3:32|
|Collector's Edition DVD|
|2.||"Go to Sleep"|
|3.||"2 + 2 = 5"|
|4.||"Sit Down. Stand Up"|
|5.||"2 + 2 = 5" (Live at Belfort Festival)|
|6.||"There There" (Later With Jools Holland – 27 May 2003)|
|7.||"Go to Sleep" (Later With Jools Holland – 27 May 2003)|
|8.||"2 + 2 = 5" (Later With Jools Holland – 27 May 2003)|
|9.||"Where I End And You Begin" (Later With Jools Holland – 27 May 2003)|
Adapted from the Hail to the Thief liner notes.
Charts and certifications
|"Go to Sleep"||32||12||2|
|"2 + 2 = 5"||17||15||—|
"—" denotes releases that did not chart.
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