Haiphong

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Haiphong
Hải Phòng
Municipality
Provincial location in Vietnam
Provincial location in Vietnam
Coordinates: 20°51′N 106°41′E / 20.850°N 106.683°E / 20.850; 106.683
Country  Vietnam
Area
 • Total 1,507.57 km2 (582.08 sq mi)
Population (2012)
 • Total 1,904,100 (3rd in Vietnam)
Website www.haiphong.gov.vn

Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, About this sound listen) is the third largest city of Vietnam and northern Vietnam's most important seaport with its deep-water anchorage and large maritime facilities. The city's name means "coastal defense". Haiphong is also nicknamed "The City of the red flame trees" because of the many Delonix regia planted throughout the city.

History[edit]

Hai Phong City Map, 1920 English edition

Haiphong is the home of Lê Chân, one of the female generals under the command of the Trưng Sisters (Hai Bà Trưng) who rose against Chinese rule in the year 43 C.E. Centuries later under the Mạc Dynasty the area earned the appellation Hải tần Phòng thủ ("defensive coastal area") as it protected the eastern flank of Mac kings' home province. By the 19th century at the end of Nguyễn Emperor Tự Đức's reign, the Hang Kenh Communal House in what is now the city's Le Chan district was made the administrative seat of An Dương District, restoring its regional importance.[1] The area by then had developed into a sizable commercial port.

At the eve of the French conquest in 1881, a devastating typhoon ravaged the area, claiming up to 300,000 lives. Despite the damages, Hai Phong was developed by the French to serve as Indochina's main naval base over the ensuing decades.

Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, Vietnamese nationalists agitated for independence against the French return. French forces landed in Hai Phong and encountered resistance which killed three French troops. In retaliation the French ships, among them the cruiser Suffren shelled the city, setting it ablazed,[2] precipitating the First Indochina War.[3][4] French infantry forces under the command of Jean-Étienne Valluy entered the city, fighting house to house with the support of armored units and jet fighters.[5]

Haiphong

Vietnam War[edit]

Late in the Vietnam War, Haiphong was subjected to heavy bombing by US Navy and Air Force strike aircraft because it was North Vietnam's only major port. U.S. Admiral Thomas H. Moorer ordered the mining of Haiphong harbor on 8 May 1972, effectively sealing the port. Until it was lifted, the mining caused no casualty.[6] [7]Despite being targeted, the physical structure of the city was mostly unaffected by the war as the US had a self-imposed prohibition zone for the city. After the war, the city recovered its role as a significant industrial center.[1]

Demographics[edit]

Haiphong is the third most populous city in Vietnam, with a population of 1,884,685 for the metropolitan area (2009), encompassing an area of 1,507.57 km², giving a density of 1250 persons per km² of which 769,739 reside in the urban districts.[8] The gender distribution is half female (50.4%).[9]

Population growth

As of the 2009 census, Haiphong's average annual population growth rate was given as 4.0%. Haiphong's crude birth rate was recorded at 18.1 live births per 1000 persons vs the crude death rate of 7.6 per 1000 persons. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 77.1 years for women and 72.0 years for men, or 74.5 years overall. Infant mortality rate was measured at 11.8 infant deaths per 1000 live births, just over two points above the nation's average for urban areas. In the same census, the city's out-migration was 1.9% vs in-migration of 2.8% and, for a net migration rate of 0.9%.[9]

Geography[edit]

Haiphong is a coastal city located at the mouth of the Cấm River, in Vietnam's northeastern coastal area, 120 km east of Hanoi. The Bính Bridge crosses the Cam and connects the city with Thủy Nguyên District. It has a total natural area of 152,318.49ha (2001). It borders Quảng Ninh Province to the north, Hải Dương Province to the west, Thái Bình Province to the south, and the Gulf of Tonkin to the east. Bach Long Vi island, Cat Ba Island and the Long Châu islands, located in the Gulf, are also administered as part of the city.

The city is located in a convenient position for transportation to domestic provinces, and international networks via road network, railway, sea routes, inland waterway and air.

NASA image of Haiphong

Climate[edit]

Haiphong features a humid subtropical climate, with hot, humid summers and warm, dry winters. The city is noticeably wetter from April through October. In fact about roughly 90% of the city's annual precipitation (which is approximately 1600 mm of rainfall) typically falls during these months. There is a noticeable difference in temperatures between the city's winters and summers. Haiphong's coolest months, January and February, sees average high temperatures reach 20 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures at around 14 degrees Celsius. Its warmest months, June and July, sees average high temperatures hover around 33 degrees Celsius and average low temperatures at around 26 degrees Celsius. Sea temperatures range from a low of 21 °C (70 °F) in February to a high of 30 °C (86 °F) during the months of July and August.[10]

Climate data for Hai Phong
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31
(88)
34
(93)
35
(95)
36
(97)
41
(106)
38
(100)
38
(100)
39
(102)
37
(99)
36
(97)
33
(91)
30
(86)
41
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 20
(68)
20
(68)
23
(73)
28
(82)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
25
(77)
22
(72)
27.3
(81.2)
Average low °C (°F) 13
(55)
15
(59)
18
(64)
21
(70)
24
(75)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(75)
22
(72)
18
(64)
15
(59)
20.7
(69.2)
Record low °C (°F) 6
(43)
7
(45)
8
(46)
10
(50)
16
(61)
20
(68)
21
(70)
20
(68)
16
(61)
15
(59)
8
(46)
6
(43)
6
(43)
Rainfall mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
30
(1.18)
42
(1.65)
91
(3.58)
170
(6.69)
242
(9.53)
260
(10.24)
305
(12.01)
209
(8.23)
121
(4.76)
57
(2.24)
24
(0.94)
1,577
(62.07)
Avg. rainy days 10 11 14 13 14 15 15 16 14 11 8 6 147
 % humidity 78 86 90 91 87 86 86 88 87 80 83 79 85.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93 56 93 120 186 210 217 186 180 186 150 124 1,801
Source #1: World Climate Guide.[10]
Source #2: Weatherbase (record highs and lows and humidity).[11]
Average Sea Temperature [10]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average temperature °C (°F) 22 °C (72 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 22 °C (72 °F) 24 °C (75 °F) 27 °C (81 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 30 °C (86 °F) 29 °C (84 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 26 °C (79 °F)

Government[edit]

Economy[edit]

Haiphong is northern Vietnam's second largest industrial centre.[12] Its GDP accounted for 11.8 of the Red River Delta in 2007, second only to Hanoi. It is a significant producer of rice and has the Red River Delta's fourth largest fishing sector. Its industrial sector is the second largest in the region (10.6% of regional industrial GDP) and slightly ahead of Vĩnh Phúc Province (2007). Haiphong is northern Vietnam's major port city. As a result, it has a large service sector and is important for the region's trade, with export of US$1.26bn and imports of US$1.55bn in 2007.[13][14]

Agriculture, forestry and fishery[edit]

Despite its status as a city, around one third of Hai Phong's area or 52,300 ha (as of 2007) are used for agriculture. Rice is the most important crop, taking up around 80% of the agricultural land with an output of 463,100 tons in 2007.[13] Other agricultural products include maize, sugar and peanuts.[13]

Haiphong has a relatively large fishing sector with an output of 79,705 tons (2007). Gross output has almost doubled between 2000 and 2007, mostly due to fast growth in aquaculture, which made up 60% of gross output in 2007. Despite its coastal location, sea fish contribute relatively little to the sector (around one fourth). Nam Định Province and Thái Bình Province have much larger fishing sectors and even the inland Hải Dương Province has a larger gross output from fishing than Haiphong.[13]

As of 2007, 315,500 were employed in agriculture and fishery, a significant decrease from 396,300 in 2000. However, these sectors still account for almost a third of total employment in Haiphong, a larger share than industry.[13] However, gross output in both agriculture and fishery have been growing significantly between 2000 and 2007.

Industry[edit]

Industry is a key sector in Haiphong including food processing, light industries and heavy industries. Major products include fish sauce, beer, cigarettes, textiles, paper, plastic pipes, cement, iron, pharmaceuticals, electric fans, motorbikes, steel pipes and ships and out-sourcing software implementation.[13] Most of these industries have been growing significantly between 2000 and 2007, with the exceptions of the cigarette and pharmaceutical industries. Shipbuilding, steel pipes, plastic pipes and textiles are among the industries with the most rapid growth.[13]

Several large industrial projects with foreign participation are currently being prepared. The country's fourth Vietnam Singapore Industrial Park is under construction in Haiphong. It has an investment capital of US$1bn and is projected to have a population of 150,000 by 2020.[15] Another billion dollar project was announced by the Japanese tire producer Bridgestone in December 2011.[16] Haiphong will also be the location of Vietnam's first specialised industrial park exclusively for Japanese investors.[17]

There are also growing industries supplying products used by existing industries in the city. PetroVietnam set up a joint-venture PVTex with textile manufacturer Vinatex to build Vietnam's first polyester fiber plant in Haiphong. The factory will use by-products from oil-refining and reduce reliance on imported materials.[18]

270,600 people were employed in Haiphong's industry. 112,600 industrial jobs were created between 2000 and 2007.[13]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transport[edit]

Hai Phong Port on the Cấm River

Land routes[edit]

Haiphong is located at the junction of two National Highways: Route 5, leading west to Hanoi, and Route 10, leading south to Nam Định and onward to connect with National Route 1A at Ninh Bình. Highway 356 passes west–east from the Route 5/10 junction through Haiphong's city center all the way to the coast. A connecting road from route 5 to route 18 links Haiphong with Quảng Ninh Province.

Within the city there are several long-distance bus depots: Tam Bac, Niem Nghia, Cau Rao.

Sea links[edit]

Hai Phong port is one of the largest ports in Vietnam and Southeast Asia as a whole. The Port of Haiphong on the Cấm River is divided into three main docks: Hoang Dieu (Central terminal) located near the city's center, Chua Ve, and Dinh Vu both farther downstream to the east.[19] Several ferry terminals connect Haiphong with the neighboring Cát Hải and Cát Bà Islands; Ben Binh Ferry terminal is located near the city center while Dinh Vu Ferry is located on a spit of land on the coast. The government had approved the plans to build an international port in Lach Huyen – 15 kilometers from the current port. Once completed this will be one of the deepest port in Vietnam with draft of 14m, capable of receiving ships up to 100.000 DWT.

Rail links[edit]

Hai Phong Railway Station built in 1902 is the eastern terminus of the Hanoi–Haiphong railway line, also known as the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway. Built at by the French during their occupation, the railway once connected Haiphong to the city of Kunming in China's Yunnan province, although service along the Chinese portion of the line is currently suspended. Rail travel from Haiphong with connections to the rest of the Vietnamese railway network is via Hanoi.

Air travel[edit]

The main airport serving Haiphong is Cat Bi International Airport with three flights daily to Ho Chi Minh city. In April, 2011 Vietnam Airlines launched routes to Da Nang with 5 flights a week. An international airport for Haiphong, situated in Tien Lang district, is in the planning stages; if realized it would become the largest airport in northern Vietnam.

Health[edit]

Information technology[edit]

Haiphong now deploy every information of the authority on the city's portal :http://haiphong.gov.vn. Haiphong also is one of the most famous place of outsourcing software projects from foreign countries (the 3 others being Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang and Hanoi). Some companies and corporations of outsourcing: An Biên soft, P.I.T Việt, Vigoor, Hapecom,... This is consider as the special priority of authorities when providing this high-tech field much of welfare for information technology company and corporation (not only software but also hardware) when working here. As plan, the major orientation for Haiphong in the future is concentrating on information technology and the other is portal services. It is believed that in this city will be the outstanding place for computer science.

Education[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Du Hang Pagoda 
Du Hang Pagoda Architecture 
The City's Opera House 
A Buddhist temple in Hai Phong. 
Haiphong Cathedral (2007) 
Haiphong City International Exhibition Center 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Haiphong's Culture. HaiphongTourism.gov.vn
  2. ^ Vietnam by Spencer C. Tucker, page 47. "On 23 November DebeS delivered an ultimatum to the Vietnamese at Haiphong, ordering them to withdraw from the French section of the city, the Chinese quarter, and the port. He gave them only two hours to reply. When the time was up the French subjected the Vietnamese positions to air, land, and sea bombardment, the bulk of the firepower coming from the three- and eight-inch guns of the French Navy Cruiser Suffren. Only military targets were destroyed and not the Vietnamese quarter as some have claimed. Estimates of the number killed in the shelling and ensuing panic vary widely. Casualties up to 20,000 have been cited. French Admiral Batter later said that no more than 6,000 Vietnamese had died, but in 1981 Vu Quoc Uy, then chairman of the Haiphong municipal committee, told Stanley Karnow that the figure was only 500 to 1,000 dead. Others have put the figure as low as 200".
  3. ^ (French) Maurice Vaïsse, L'Armée française dans la guerre d'Indochine (1946–1954) : Adaptation ou inadaptation, 2000, p. 276
  4. ^ Plon, Le General de Gaulle et l'Indochine 1940–1946, page 210. "In connection with the naval bombardment, let us note that only the ships of small tonnage could go up the river of Haiphong. On November 23, two colonial sloops supported for the first time the French troops with their artillery to a limited effect: the Chevreuil with its double turret, with its two pairs of 100mm, Savorgnan de Brazza with its four turrets each of one 138mm. No battleship was present. On November 27 on that the evening, the cruiser Suffren was in the Bay d' Along, its tidal water prohibiting it access of the Cua Cam. It transported troops in reinforcement..."
  5. ^ Phillippe Devillers, Histoire du Viêt-Nam de 1940 à 1952. Editions du Seuil, Paris. Third edition,1952, pp. 331–340
  6. ^ Interview with Thomas H. Moorer, 1981 "We took about twenty-six aircraft off of one aircraft carrier, and they were airborne about an hour and a half, and we mined Hai Phong Harbor, and not one ship entered or left ah, that Harbor until we, ourselves, removed the mines. No one person was hurt, or in any way...", http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/vietnam-59ce8c-interview-with-thomas-h-moorer-1981
  7. ^ Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Vietnam Past and Present: The North (History and culture of Hanoi and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q.
  8. ^ Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (May 27, 2010). "Background Note: Vietnam". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  9. ^ a b The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing census: Major findings. General Statistics Office of Vietnam.
  10. ^ a b c Haiphong Climate Guide, Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  11. ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Haiphong, Weatherbase. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  12. ^ Atlat Dia li Viet Nam (Geographical Atlas of Vietnam). NXB Giao Duc, Hanoi: 2010
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h General Statistics Office (2009): Socio-economic Statistical Data of 63 Provinces and Cities, Vietnam. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
  14. ^ calculations based on General Statistics Office (2009): Socio-economical Statistical Data of 63 Provinces and Cities. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
  15. ^ "VSIP starts work on integrated township in Haiphong". The Saigon Times. 2010-01-15. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  16. ^ "Japan's Bridgestone to build tire plant in Haiphong". The Saigon Times. 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  17. ^ "Lốp xe Bridgestone sẽ được sản xuất tại Việt Nam". The Saigon Times. 2011-12-20. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  18. ^ "PVTex to operate first polyester fiber project early 2011". The Saigon Times. 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  19. ^ Haiphong Port: Maps

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 20°51′N 106°41′E / 20.850°N 106.683°E / 20.850; 106.683