Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki
Darul Uloom Deoband, India
Haji Imdadullah Muhaajir Makki was born in Nanauta, a town in the district of Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh, India on December 31, 1817. His name, "Imdadullah", means "Assistance of Allah". He was a Faruqi or a descendant of 'Umar Faruq. He had three brothers; Zulfiqar and Fida Husain were older than he was, while Bahadur Ali Shah was younger. He also had a younger sister, Bi Wazirun Nisa. When he was born, he was named "Imdad Husain". However, when the muhaddith Shah Muhammad Ishaq heard this name, he disliked it and advised that it be changed to "Imdadullah". He also attributed the names "Khuda Baksh" and "'Abdul Karim" to himself. At the age of three, he was sent to Sayyid Ahmad Shahid, who bestowed upon him the blessing of tabarruk.
When Imdadullah was seven years old, his mother, Bibi Haseeni, died. She left behind a will that stated: "Honour this will of mine; no one should touch my child". The will was strictly observed, and Imdadullah's education did not receive much attention. However, he yearned to memorize the Quran, and he did so without outside encouragement, completing the task at the age of twenty-three. At the age of nine, he accompanied Moulana Mamluk 'Ali to Delhi. There, he studied the syntax and grammar of Arabic, along with Persian. He then studied Mishkatul Masabih under Muhammad Qalandar Muhaddith Jalalabadi and 'Hisnul 'Hasin and Fiqh Al Akbar under Moulana Abdur Rahim Nanautvi. He also studied Rumi's poem Mathnawi-i Ma’nawi under Shah Abdur Razzaq. These studies were the only education that he received.
Religious work and travels
At the age of eighteen, his bay'at was accepted by Shaikh Moulana Nasiruddin Naqshbandi, from whom he learned the various adhkar of the Naqshbandi spiritual lineage. After only a few days with his teacher, he was given the mantle of khilafah.[clarification needed] Thereafter, he saw the Prophet Muhammad in a dream. It was on the basis of this dream that he sought for Mianji to accept his bay'at, which Mianji did. After only a few days, the mantle of khilafah was conferred on him once again. After the death of Mianji, Imadadullah became reclusive, developing a fear and detestation of people. He withdrew himself from the midst of people and wandered in the wilderness of Punjab. He would refrain from eating for up to eight days.
After wandering in the wilderness for six months, in 1260 AH, Imadadullah again saw Muhammad in a dream. In this dream, Muhammad said: "Come to us". Thus, he was overcome by a strong urge to travel to Medina. On December 7, 1845, he arrived at Bandares. From there, he departed for Arafaat. When he reached Mecca, he had much difficulty. For nine days, he had no food at all. He only lived on Zamzam water. He became extremely weak. On the tenth day, he requested help, but no one assisted him, until one person gave him 100 riyals. From that month on, every month of his life, he would receive 100 riyals. He was never again in need of money.
After the completion of his hajj, Imadadullah remained with Shah Ishaq Muhajir Makki and others, deriving spiritual benefit from them. Shah informed him that, after his pilgrimage to Medina, he should return to India. Sayyid Qudratullah Banarasi Makki sent several of his murids to accompany him to Medina. After visiting Muhammad's grave, he derived the faidh of Medina. While in Medina, he expressed his desire to remain there to Shah Ghulam Murtaza Jhanjhaanwi Madani, who advised him to be patient for a while. After a few days, he returned to Mecca, where he remained for a few days before returning to India.
After Imadadullah's return to India, people started to insist that he accept their bay'at, but he humbly refused. He only began accepting these petitions when he became convinced that it was God's will. Even as he went through the process of bay'at, his yearning to immigrate increased daily. Then, the Mutiny of 1857 occurred. In the aftermath of this upheaval, he bid farewell forever to India. He left via Punjab, visiting the graves of the saints in Hyderabad en route. Thereafter, he embarked from Karachi for Mecca. Imdadullah remained at the ribat of Seth Isma'il on Mount Safa for some time. He passed most of his time in solitude and muraaqabah (meditation) and did not associate much with the inhabitants of Mecca. However, during the hajj, he would remain in public, complying with the wishes of devotees from India to meet him.
Believing that the sunnah obligated him to marry, Imadadullah wed Bi Khadija on February 6, 1866. In 1294 AH, his attendants, after considerable insistence, purchased a house in Haarratul Bab for them.
In his epistle, Faisla Haft Masla: Haji Saahb wrote, "To regard the belief that the Holy Prophet Muhammad ﷺ actually honors the meeting of Mawlid by his presence, as Kufr or Shirk is exceeding the limits and is outrageous. This is possible both rationally and through recorded experiences. Actually it does happen on certain occasions. The doubt how the Prophet ﷺ could know about the Mawlid meeting and how he could be present at many places at one time is very weak and baseless doubt. These things are insignificant before the vast Divinely Wisdom and Spiritual Powers of the Holy Prophet ﷺ which are supported by right Traditions and proved by people of inspiration and revelations."
The open letter by Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki in favour of Mawlana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
Below is translation of a portion of a letter from Shaykh al-'Ulama' Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki to Shah Rafi' al-Din Deobandi 'Uthmani in which he emphasizes his love for Shaykh al-Sunnah Mawlana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (may Allah shower them with His mercy) and highlights his dim view of those who bear enmity towards him. The letter is also a manifestation of Haji Imdadullah’s high level of humility – a quality distinctly found in him and those affiliated to his tariqah:
"In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful. We praise Him and send blessings upon His honourable Messenger.
From the needy servant Imdadullah Chishti, in the service of all my friends:
This needy servant has recently received some letters from India, in which was written that some people harbour ill-thoughts concerning Molwi Rashid Ahmad [Gangohi], [and they wish to know] what they should make of him. Therefore, let it be announced and published on behalf of this needy servant that Molwi Rashid Ahmad is an Allah-fearing man of learning and an upright scholar. He is an example of the pious predecessors. His personality is the sublime combination of the exoteric (shari’ah) and esoteric sciences (tariqah).
His days and nights remain occupied in seeking the pleasure of Allah and his Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). He is preoccupied with the teaching of hadith. After Molwi Muhammad Ishaq that kind of dissemination of the religious sciences has uniquely continued with Mawlana in the entire sub-continent.
Many complex problems are solved at the hands of Mawlana. Every year, about 50 people complete their hadith studies, acquiring ijazah from him. He is engaged in following the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and is absorbed in the love of Allah and his Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace). He speaks only the truth. He is the manifestation of the verse:
And [they] are not afraid of the reproach of any critic. (Qur'an 5:54)
His complete reliance is solely on Allah. He shuns bid’ah (innovation) completely; propagating the Sunnah is his occupation. His forte is converting those with corrupt beliefs into those with sound beliefs. His company serves as alchemy and is the greatest elixir for Muslims. One is reminded of Allah by sitting with him and this is the sign of the men of Allah. He is pious, abstains from the world and is desirous of the Hereafter. He has attained perfection in tasawwuf and suluk. The rich and poor are equal in his eyes, and he treats each the same; he is free from avarice.
Whatever this needy servant has written as praise for him in Diya’ al-Qulub is the truth, and my good opinion and love for him is now far more in comparison to what it was previously. This needy servant considers Mawlana the means of his salvation. I say openly that whosoever speaks ill of Mawlana pains my heart. I have two arms: one is the late Molwi [[Muhammad Qasim [Nanautwi]]] and other is Molwi Rashid Ahmad. People have also begun to cast the evil eye on the only one who now remains.
My ‘aqidah (belief) and Mawlana’s ‘aqidah is one and the same. I also consider innovation to be wrong. Whosoever opposes Mawlana in religious matters, opposes me, and opposes Allah and His Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Those ignorant people who claim that Shari’ah and tariqah are separate entities do so due to their lack of understanding. Tariqah without Shari’ah is unacceptable to Allah, as clarity of the heart can also be achieved by non-believers. The heart is like a mirror. A rusty mirror can be cleared with urine as well as with rose water. However, the difference between both is one of purity and impurity. Adherence to the Sunnah is the yardstick for recognising a friend (wali) of Allah. One who adheres to the Sunnah is a wali of Allah, whilst the innovator acts in vain. Even Dajjal will display many unnatural feats. Allah says,
Say (O Prophet): “If you really love Allah, then follow me.” (Qur'an 3:31)
The one who is not a follower of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and gives custom to innovative practices cannot be a friend of Allah.
The people of knowledge who love this needy servant, it is only so because of adherence to the Sunnah.
Anyone’s opposition does not harm Mawlana. In fact, as the poet says,
He is the one at loss who does not venerate Mir
Mawlana is a person from whom scholars should benefit and whose company they should consider a tremendous good. It is my desire that no one says nor writes to me any words of disrespect concerning Mawlana. I am deeply pained by such matters. It is strange that you inflict pain upon my beloved and then consider yourself my friend. This can never be! Mawlana is firmly a Hanafi by madhhab, Sufi in conduct and a pious, perfect wali. His company should be treasured.
[Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki al-Faruqi al-Thanawi]
25th Dhu ‘l-Qa’dah 1310 AH"''
Reproduced in Al-Shihab al-Thaqib ‘ala al-Mustariq al-Kadhib, p. 291 (Lahore: Dar al-Kitab, May 2004 ed.) 
Imadadullah was of frail physical stature because of mujaahadaat, riyaadhaat, and lack of food and sleep. In his last years, his body deteriorated to such an extent that, towards his death, it became difficult for him to even turn onto his side. He died at the time of Fajr Adhan on Wednesday, October 18, 1899 at the age of eighty-one. He is buried in Jannatul Ma'laa in Mecca. He left behind a stick, two sets of winter clothes, and two sets of summer clothes. In his lifetime he received the bay'at of approximately 500 ulama.
The following are the most renowned of his works:
- 'Hashiya Mathnavi Moulana Rumi: This is an annotation in Persian on the Mathnawi-i Ma’nawi by Rumi. During Imadadullah's lifetime, only two parts could be printed. The remainder was printed after his death.
- Ghiza-e-Ruh (The Nourishment of the Soul): Imadadullah wrote this book in 1264 AH. Mianji Nur Muhammad is also discussed. It consists of 1600 verses of poetry.
- Ikleelul Quran (Tafseer Quran in Arabi). First Published in Bahraich
- Jihad-e-Akbar (The Greater Jihad): He composed this book in 1268 AH. It is a poetic work in Persian that he translated it into Urdu. It consists of 17 pages with 679 verses.
- Mathnavi Tuhfatul Ushshaq (Mathnavi – A Gift for Lovers): This consists of 1324 poetic verses and was compiled in 1281 AH.
- Risala Dard Ghamnak (The Treatise of Painful Sorrow): It consists of 5 pages with 175 verses.
- Irshad-e-Murshid (The Directive of the Murshid): This book deals with wadha'if, muraaqabaat, aurad, and shajaraat of the four silsilas. It was written in 1293 AH.
- Zia ul Quloob (Glitter of the Hearts): This book is in Persian. He wrote this kitab in Makkah in 1282 AH on the request of Hafiz Muhammad Yusuf, the son of Hafiz Muhammad Zamin.
- Faisla Haft Masla ( A book on seven controversial issues)