Hakka people

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"Hakka" redirects here. For the Maori chant and dance, see Haka. For other uses, see Hakka (disambiguation).
Hakka
客家 Hak-kâ
客家漢族[1]
Total population
estimated 80 million worldwide[2]
Regions with significant populations
China (Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi), Taiwan, Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore), Hong Kong, Macau, other East Asian countries, Australia, North America, Europe
Languages
Hakka Chinese + language(s) of their country of residence
Religion
Predominantly Chinese folk religions (which include Taoism, Confucianism, ancestral worship and others) and Mahayana Buddhism.
Related ethnic groups
Other Han Chinese
Hakka people
Chinese 客家
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese 客人

The Hakka (Hakka language: Hak-kâ; Chinese: 客家), sometimes Hakka Han,[1][3] are Han Chinese who speak Hakka Chinese and have links to the provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan and Fujian in China. Although the vast majority of the Hakka live in Guangdong, they have a separate identity that distinguishes them from the Cantonese people.

The Chinese characters for Hakka (客家) literally means "guest families".[4] The Hakka's ancestors were often said to have arrived from what is today's central China centuries ago and north China a thousand years ago. The Hakkas are thought to originate from the lands bordering the Yellow River, i.e. the modern northern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Henan, and Hubei.[5] In a series of migrations, the Hakkas moved, settled in their present locations in south China, and then often migrated overseas to various countries throughout the world.[6] The worldwide population of Hakkas is about 80 million, though the number of Hakka language speakers is fewer.[2] Hakka people have had a significant influence on the course of Chinese and world history: in particular, they have been a source of many revolutionary, government, and military leaders.[7]

Origins, migrations and group identification[edit]

Hakka distribution in mainland China and Taiwan

It is commonly held that the Hakka are a subgroup of the Han Chinese that originated in northern China.[8][9] To trace their origins, three accepted theories so far have been brought forth among anthropologists, linguists, and historians:[10] firstly, the Hakka are Han Chinese originating solely from the Central Plain in China containing today's Shanxi and Henan provinces;[10] secondly, the Hakka are Han Chinese from the Central Plain, with some inflow of those already in the south;[10] or thirdly, the majority of the Hakka are Han Chinese from the south, with portions coming from those in the north.[10] The latter two are the most likely and are together supported by multiple scientific studies.[9][10][11] Clyde Kiang stated that the Hakka's origins may also be linked with the Han's ancient neighbors, the Dongyi and Xiongnu people.[12] This is disputed, however, by many scholars and Kiang's theories are considered controversial.[13] Hakka-Chinese scientist and researcher Dr. Siu-Leung Lee states in the book by Chung Yoon-Ngan The Hakka Chinese: Their Origin, Folk Songs And Nursery Rhymes, which takes on the subject with a more mediatory approach, avoiding polarizing political and racial claims and insinuations, explains that the potential Hakka origins from the northern Han and Xiongnu, and that of the indigenous southern She (畬族) and Yue (越族) tribes, "are all correct, yet none alone explain the origin of the Hakka"; pointing out that the problem with "DNA typing" on limited numbers of people within population pools cannot correctly ascertain who are really the southern Chinese, because many southern Chinese are also from northern Asia; Hakka or non-Hakka.[14] It is known that the earliest major waves of Hakka migration began due to the attacks of the two afore-mentioned tribes during the Jin Dynasty (265–420).[15]

Since the Qin Dynasty (221–207 BC), the ancestors of the Hakka have migrated southwards several times because of social unrest, upheaval and invasions.[16] Subsequent migrations also occurred at the end of the Tang Dynasty in the 10th century and during the end of the Northern Song Dynasty in 1125, the last of which saw a massive flood of refugees fleeing southward when the Jurchens captured the northern Song capital of Bianliang in the Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song wars.. The precise movements of the Hakka people remain unclear during the 14th century when the Ming Dynasty overthrew the Yuan and subsequently fell to the Manchus who formed the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century. Hakka have suffered persecution and discrimination ever since they started migrating to southern parts of China.

During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722) in the Qing Dynasty, the coastal regions were evacuated by imperial edict for almost a decade, due to the dangers posed by the remnants of the Ming court who had fled to the island of Taiwan. When the threat was eliminated, the Kangxi Emperor issued an edict to re-populate the coastal regions. To aid the move, each family was given monetary incentives to begin their new lives; newcomers were registered as "Guest Households" (客戶, kèhù).

Punti[edit]

The existing Cantonese speaking inhabitants (Punti or 本地, indigenous or "original land") of these areas were protective of their own more fertile lands, and the newcomers were pushed to the outer fringes of fertile plains, despite having migrated legitimately, or they settled in more mountainous regions to eke out a living. Conflict between the two groups grew and it is thought that "Hakka" became a term of derision used by the Punti aimed at the newcomers. Eventually, the tension between the two groups (the Hakkas had by then been settled for several hundred years and could not be regarded as migrants in any sense) would lead to a series of 19th-century skirmishes in the Pearl River Delta known as the Punti–Hakka Clan Wars (土客械鬥). The problem was not that the two groups spoke a different tongue. In fact, the "locals" comprised different peoples speaking several mutually unintelligible tongues, as was typical of the Chinese countryside all over southern China, but they would regard each other as "locals" or Puntis, but exclude the Hakka from such designation.

The term "Punti" is not synonymous with "Cantonese", as a Cantonese in any other part of China, Beijing for example, would not be able to call himself a "Punti", as the Punti of that area would be the Beijing or Hebei people.

Over time, the newcomers adopted the term "Hakka" to refer to themselves, not least due to the migratory tendencies inherent in their own culture. However, because the term also covers Hakka language-speakers, (in the same way that Punti covered several people speaking different tongues) and because the Han Chinese registered as Guest Families who migrated may not have been Hakka language-speakers, and because of intermarriages among Hakka and Punti members (which showed that relation between the two were very good at times), identification as Hakka was largely a matter of self-selection. Through studies of both Cantonese and Hakka genealogies, some Hakka and Punti people with the same surnames claim the same ancestors, although their descendants strongly identify with one group to the exclusion of the other.

Other areas[edit]

The Hakka ancestors are but one of many groups that migrated to other parts of southern China, retaining cultural similarities yet picking up linguistic features of the areas where they settled. Outside of Guangdong, Hakka people live in the southern Chinese provinces, including south-western Fujian, southern Jiangxi, southern Hunan, Guangxi, southern Guizhou, south-eastern Sichuan, and on Hainan and Taiwan islands, where there are television news-broadcasts in the Hakka language. The Hakka dialects across these regions differ phonologically, but Meixian (Meizhou) Hakka is considered to be the prestige dialect by linguists.[17]

Identity[edit]

Although different in some social customs and culture (e.g. linguistic differences) from the surrounding population, they belong to the Han Chinese majority. Historical sources shown in census statistics relate only to the general population, irrespective of particular districts, provinces, or regions. These census counts were made during imperial times. They did not distinguish what language the population spoke. Therefore they do not directly document Hakka migrations. The study by Luo Xianglin, K'o-chia Yen-chiu Tao-Liu / An Introduction to the Study of the Hakkas (Hsin-Ning & Singapore, 1933) used genealogical sources of family clans from various southern counties.

According to the 2009 studies published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, Hakka genes are slightly tilted towards northern Han people compared with other southern Han people.[18] Nevertheless, the study has also shown a strong common genetic relationship between all Han Chinese with only a small difference of 0.32%.[18] Lingnan Hakka place names indicate a long history of the Hakka being culturally Han Chinese.[19][20]

Social and cultural influences[edit]

Hakka culture is an important part of Southern Chinese culture. Taiwan's Hakka Affairs Council declared February 20 "Hakka Day".[21]

Due to their agrarian lifestyle, Hakka have a unique architecture based on defense and communal living (see Hakka architecture), and a hearty savory cuisine based on an equal balance between texturised meat and vegetables, and fresh vegetables (see the Food section below).

When Hakka expanded into areas with pre-existing populations, there was often little agricultural land left for them to farm. As a result, many Hakka men turned towards careers in the military or in public service. Consequently, the Hakka culturally emphasized education.

Hakka people built several types of Tulou and fortified villages in the southwestern Fujian and adjacent areas of Jiangxi and Guangdong. A representative sample of Fujian Tulou (consisting of 10 buildings or building groups) in Fujian were inscribed in 2008 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[22]

Historically, Hakka women did not bind their feet when the practice was commonplace in China.[23]

Martial arts[edit]

The Hakka community is also a source for a variety of martial arts. Those systems in general are referred to as Hakka Kuen (Hakka Fist); Southern Praying Mantis, Bak Mei and Dragon Kung Fu are examples of styles practiced by Hakka.

Language[edit]

Main article: Hakka Chinese

Hakka Chinese is the native Chinese dialect of the Hakka people. In Taiwan, the Ministry of Education (Republic of China) named "Taiwanese Hakka Chinese" as one of the Languages of Taiwan.[24]

Media[edit]

In China, CNR's Easy radio (神州之声) has a Hakka Chinese radio break. In Taiwan there are seven Hakka Chinese radio channels.

Hakka TV was the first Hakka Chinese TV channel in the world. Meizhou TV-2 was the first Hakka Chinese TV channel in China.

Religion[edit]

Typical traditional hillside tombs. Hukeng Town, Yongding County, Fujian

The religious practices of Hakka people are almost identical to those of other Han Chinese. Ancestor veneration is the primary form of religious expression.[25]

Food[edit]

Main article: Hakka cuisine

The Hakka people have a marked cuisine and style of Chinese cooking which is little known outside the Hakka home. It concentrates on the texture of food – the hallmark of Hakka cuisine. Whereas preserved meats feature in Hakka delicacy, stewed, braised, roast meats – 'texturized' contributions to the Hakka palate – have a central place in their repertoire. In fact, the raw materials for Hakka food are no different from raw materials for any other type of regional Chinese cuisine: what you cook depends on what is available in the market. Hakka cuisine may be described as outwardly simple but tasty. The skill in Hakka cuisine lies in the ability to cook meat thoroughly without hardening it, and to naturally bring out the proteinous flavour (umami taste) of meat.

The Hakka who settled in the harbour and port areas of Hong Kong placed great emphasis on seafood cuisine. Hakka cuisine in Hong Kong is less dominated by expensive meats; instead, emphasis is placed on an abundance of vegetables. Pragmatic and simple, Hakka cuisine is garnished lightly with sparse or little flavouring. Modern Hakka cooking in Hong Kong favours offal, an example being Deep-Fried Intestines (炸大腸 or Zha Da Chang). Others include tofu with preservatives, along with their signature dish Salt Baked Chicken (鹽焗雞 or Ham Guk Gai). Another specialty is the Poon Choi (盆菜).[26] While it may be difficult to prove these were the actual diets of the old Hakka community, it is at present a commonly accepted view. The above dishes and their variations are in fact found and consumed throughout China including Guangdong, and are not particularly unique or confined to the Hakka Chinese population.

China[edit]

Meizhou Prefecture (in yellow) in Guangdong Province, where Xingning and Meixian are located

Guangdong[edit]

Hakka who live in Guangdong comprise about 60% of the total Hakka population. Worldwide, over 95% of the overseas-descended Hakka came from this Guangdong region, usually from Meizhou and Heyuan: Hakka there live mostly in the northeast part of the province, particularly in the so-called Xing-Mei (Xingning-Meixian) area. Jiangxi contains the second largest Hakka community. Unlike their kin in Fujian, Hakka in the Xingning and Meixian area developed a non-fortress-like unique architectural style, most notably the weilongwu (Chinese: 圍龍屋, wéilóngwū or Hakka: Wui Lung Wuk) and sijiaolou (Chinese: 四角樓, sìjǐaolóu or Hakka: Si Kok Liu).

Fujian[edit]

Tradition states that the early Hakka ancestors traveling from north China entered Fujian first, then by way of the Ting River they traveled to Guangdong and other parts of China, as well as overseas. Thus, the Tingjiang River is also regarded as the Hakka Mother River.

The Hakka who settled in the mountainous region of south-western Fujian province developed a unique form of architecture known as tu lou (土樓), literally meaning earthen structures. The tu lou are round or square and were designed as a combined large fortress and multi-apartment building complex. The structures typically had only one entrance-way, with no windows at ground level. Each floor served a different function: the first floor contained a well and livestock, the second food storage, and the third and higher floors living spaces. Tu-lou were built to withstand attack from bandits and marauders.

Jiangxi[edit]

Nearly all of southern Jiangxi province is Hakka, especially in Ganzhou. In the Song Dynasty, a large number of Han Chinese migrated to the delta area as the Court moved southward because invasion of northern minority. They lived in Jiangxi and intermixed with the She and Yao minorities. Ganzhou was the place that the Hakka have settled before migrating to western Fujian and eastern Guangdong. During the early Qing Dynasty, a massive depopulation in Gannan due to the ravage of pestilence and war. However, while western Fujian and eastern Guangdong suffered population explosion at that time. Some edicts were issued to block the coastal areas, ordering coastal residents to move to the inland. The population pressure and the sharp contradiction of the land redistribution drove a few residents to leave. Some of them moved back to Gannan, integrating with other Hakka people who lived there already for generations. Thus, the modern Gannan Hakka community was finally formed.[27]

Sichuan[edit]

The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662-1722), after a tour of the land, decided the province of Sichuan had to be repopulated after the devastation caused by Zhang Xianzhong. Seeing the Hakka were living in poverty in the coastal regions in Guangdong province, the emperor encouraged the Hakka in the south to emigrate to Sichuan province. He offered financial assistance to those willing to resettle in Sichuan: eight ounces of silver per man and four ounces per woman or child.

Henan[edit]

As with those in Sichuan, many Hakka emigrated to Xinyang prefecture (in southern Henan province), where Li Zicheng carried out a massacre in Guangzhou (now in Huangchuan) on Jan. 17th, 1636.[28]

Preservation[edit]

In the latter half of the 20th century, a stronger emphasis has been placed on Hakka preservation through folk art and customs. A Hakka language dictionary has also been completed auspiciously in 1997 by Dr. C.F. Lau [ISBN Reference: ISBN 962-201-750-9], a devoted contributor to the preservation of the Hakka language in Hong Kong.

Hakka worldwide[edit]

The Hakka have emigrated to many regions worldwide, notably Suriname, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, East Timor and Burma.

Hakka people also emigrated to Australia, Brunei, Canada, the United States, and to many countries in Europe, including Great Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Hakka people also are found in South Africa and Mauritius, on the islands of the Caribbean (Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago), and in Central and South America, particularly in Panama and Brazil. Most expatriate Hakka in Great Britain have ties to Hong Kong; many emigrated when Hong Kong still was a British colony during a period coinciding with the Cultural Revolution of China and economic depression in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong[edit]

During the late Ming and Qing Dynasties, Hong Kong was in the imperial district of Xin-An (now Shenzhen) County.[29] The 1819 gazetteer lists 570 Punti and 270 Hakka contemporary settlements in the whole district.[30] However, the area covered by Xin-An county is greater than what was to become the British imperial enclave of Hong Kong by 1899. Although there had been settlers originating from the mainland proper even before the Tang Dynasty, historical records of those people are non-extant, only evidence of settlement from archaeological sources can be found.[31] The New Territories lowland areas had been settled originally by several clan lineages in Kam Tin, Sheung Shui, Fanling, Yuen Long, Lin Ma Hang and Tai Po, and hence termed the Punti before the arrival of the Hakka, and fishing families of the Tanka and Hoklo groups to the area.[32] Since the prime farming land had already been farmed, the Hakka land dwellers settled in the less accessible and more hilly areas. Hakka settlements can be found widely distributed around the Punti areas, but in smaller communities. Many are found on coastal areas in inlets and bays surrounded by hills.

Hakka dialect speaking communities are thought to have arrived in the Hong Kong area after the rescinding of the coastal evacuation order in 1688,[33] such as the Hakka speaking Lee clan lineage of Wo Hang, one of whose ancestors is recorded as arriving in the area in 1688.

As the strong Punti lineages dominated most of the north western New Territories, Hakka communities began to organise local alliances of lineage communities such as the Sha Tau Kok Alliance of Ten or Shap Yeuk as Patrick Hase writes.[34] Hakka villages from Wo Hang to the west and Yantian to the east of Sha Tau Kok came to use it as a local market town and it became the center of Hakka dominance. Further, the Shap Yeuk's land reclamation project transforming marshland to arable farmland with the creation of dykes and levees to prevent storm flooding during the early 19th century shows an example of how local cooperation and the growing affluence of the landed lineages in the Alliance of Ten provided the strong cultural, socioeconomic Hakka influence on the area.

Farming and cultivation has been the traditional occupations of Hakka families from imperial times up until the 1970s. Farming was mostly done by Hakka women while their menfolk sought labouring jobs in the towns and cities. Many men entered indentured labour abroad as was common from the end of the 19th century to Second World War. Post war, males took the opportunity to seek work in Britain and other countries later to send for their families to join them once they sent enough money back to cover travel costs.

As post war education became available to all children in Hong Kong, a new educated class of Hakka became more mobile in their careers. Many moved to the government planned new towns which sprung up from the 1960s. The rural Hakka population began to decline as people moved abroad, and away to work in the urban areas. By the end of the 1970s, agriculture was firmly in the decline in Hakka villages.[35] Today, there are still Hakka villages around Hong Kong, but being remote, many of their inhabitants have moved to the post war new towns like Sheung Shui, Tai Po, Sha Tin and further afield.

Due to the influence of Cantonese, there are few Hakka people who speak Hakka Chinese for daily conversations in Hong Kong.

India[edit]

There used to be sizable Hakka communities at Tangra in Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, and Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay. However, starting from the 1960s, when the Indo-China war broke out, there has been a steady migration to other countries, which accelerated in the succeeding decades. The majority moved to Canada, while others went to the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Austria and Sweden. The predominant Hakka dialect of these communities is Meixian.

It should be noted that during the time he held office in Calcutta until the late 2000s, Yap Kon Chung, an ambassador for The Republic of China (Taiwan), protected and helped the Chinese residents in India. Specifically, during the Indo-Chinese war of 1962, oppression of Sino-Indian residents was escalated. Mr. Yap then made appeals to Prime Minister Nehru to bridge a bond between the Indian and Chinese people. During his office, he was also a principal at a highly regarded school as well as a political facilitator who helped many families migrate to other countries such as Canada, the United States and parts of Europe until he himself migrated to Toronto, Canada to join his family.

Indonesia[edit]

Migration of Hakka people to Indonesia happened in several waves. The first wave landed in Riau Islands such as in Bangka Island and Belitung as tin miners in the 18th century. The second group of colonies were established along the Kapuas River in Borneo in the 19th century, predecessor to early Singapore residents. In the early 20th century, new arrivals joined their compatriots as traders, merchants and labourers in major cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, etc.

In Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, Hakka people are sometimes known as Khek, from the Hokkien (Minnan) pronunciation kheh of 客 (Hakka: hak). However, the use of the word 'Khek' is limited mainly to areas where the local Chinese population is mainly of Hokkien origin. In places where other Chinese subgroups predominate, the term 'Hakka' is still the more commonly used.

Bangka[edit]

Hakka also live in Indonesia's largest tin producer islands of Bangka Belitung province. They are the second majority ethnic group after Malay. The Hakka population in the province is also the second largest in Indonesia after West Kalimantan's and one of the highest percentages of Chinese living in Indonesia.

The first group of Hakka in Bangka and Belitung reached the islands in the 18th century from Guangdong. Many of them worked as tin mining labourers. Since then, they have remained on the island along with the native Malay. Their situation was much different from those of Chinese and native populations of other regions, where legal cultural conflicts were prevalent since the 1960s until 1999, by which Indonesian Chinese had finally regained their cultural freedoms. Here they lived together peacefully and still practiced their customs and cultural festivals, while in other regions they were strictly banned by government legislation prior to 1999.[36] Hakka on the island of Bangka spoke Hopo dialect mixed with Malay, especially in younger generations. Hakka spoken in Belinyu area in Bangka is considered to be standard.

West Borneo[edit]

Hakka people in Pontianak live alongside with Teochew speaking Chinese. While the Teochews are dominant in the centre of Pontianak, the Hakka are more dominant in small towns along the Kapuas River in the regencies of Sanggau, Sekadau and Sintang. Their Hakka dialect is originally Hopo which influenced by Teochew dialect and also has vocabulary from the local Malay and Dayak tribes.

The Hakka in this region are descendants of gold prospectors who migrated from China in the late 19th century.

The Hakka in Singkawang and the surrounding regencies of Sambas, Bengkayang, Ketapang and Landak speak a different standard of Hakka dialect to the Hakkas along the Kapuas River. Originally West Borneo has diverse Hakka origin but during the 19th century, a large people came from Jiexi so more Hakkas in the region speak Hopo mixed with Wuhua and Huilai accents that eventually formed the dialect of Singkawang Hakka.[37]

Jakarta[edit]

Hakka people in Jakarta mainly have Meizhou origin who came in the 19th century. Secondary migration of the Hakkas from other provinces like Bangka Belitung and West Borneo came later.

East Timor[edit]

There was already a relatively large and vibrant Hakka community in East Timor before the 1975 Indonesian invasion. According to an estimate by the local Chinese Timorese association, the Hakka population of Portuguese Timor in 1975 was estimated to be around 25,000 (including a small minority of other Chinese ethnicities from Macau, which like East Timor was a Portuguese colony). According to a book source, an estimated 700 Hakka were killed within the first week of invasion in Dili alone. No clear numbers had been recorded since many Hakka had already escaped to neighbouring Australia. The recent re-establishment of Hakka associations in the country registered approximately 2,400 Hakka remaining, organised into some 400 families, including part-Timorese ones.

The Timorese Hakka diaspora can currently be found in Darwin, and is spread-out in major cities such as Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne in Australia; in Portugal; Macau SAR and smaller numbers in other parts of the world. They often are highly educated, and many continue their education in either Taiwan or the People's Republic of China, while a majority of the younger generation prefer to study in Australia. The Australian government took some years to assess their claims to be genuine refugees and not illegal immigrants, as partially related to the political situation in East Timor at the time. As Asian countries were neither willing to accept them as residents nor grant them political asylum to the Timorese in general, they were forced to live as stateless persons for some time. Despite this condition, many Hakka had become successful, establishing restaurant chains, shops, supermarkets, and import operations in Australia. Since the independence of East Timor in 2000, some Hakka families had returned and invested in businesses in the newborn nation.

Malaysia[edit]

Hakka form the second largest subgroup of the ethnic Chinese population of Malaysia. During this time, Chung Keng Quee, "Captain China" of Perak and Penang was founder of Taiping, leader of the Hai San, a millionaire philanthropist, an innovator in the mining of tin and was respected by both Chinese and European communities in the early colonial settlement. A well known Hakka man was Yap Ah Loy, a Kapitan Cina in Kuala Lumpur from 1868 to 1885, where he brought significant economic contributions, founded Kuala Lumpur and also was an influential figure among the ethnic Chinese. There are also less significant numbers of Hakka people in the East Malaysian state of Sarawak, particularly in the town of Miri where there is a notable population of Hakka people who speak the "Ho Poh" variant of Hakka. In the district of Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan, Hakka people make up more than 90% of the Chinese subgroup and the dialect itself acts as a lingua franca there. This has contributed greatly to the fact that the place is commonly known among Hakka Chinese as "Hakka Village".

The greatest concentration of Hakkas in northern peninsular Malaysia is in Ipoh, Perak and in Kuala Lumpur and its satellite cities in Selangor; however, even in areas of Hakka majority amongst the Chinese in these areas, Cantonese tends to be used as a lingua franca when conducting business or eating out whereas the Hakka language is generally only spoken locally or at home. Concentrations of Hakka people in Ipoh and surrounding areas are particularly high.

Sabah[edit]

In the Bornean state of Sabah, most of the ethnic Chinese are of Hakka descent. According to the 1991 census, there were 113000 Hakkas in the state. This constituted 57% of the total ethnic Chinese population in Sabah. The second largest Chinese subgroup were the Cantonese with only 28000 persons.[38] This shows that Sabah is one of very few regions in the world where Hakkas clearly outnumber other Chinese subgroups. Most of the Hakkas in Sabah speak with the Huiyang accent (Hakka: Fuiyong, 惠陽). Hakka is the lingua franca among the Chinese in Sabah to such an extent that Chinese of other subgroups who migrate to Sabah from other states in Malaysia and elsewhere usually learn the Hakka dialect, with varying degrees of fluency.

In 1882 the North Borneo Chartered Company opted to bring in Hakka labourers from Longchuan County, Guangdong. The first batch of 96 Hakkas brought to Sabah landed in Kudat on April 4, 1883 under the leadership of Luo Tai Feng (Hakka: Lo Tai Fung). In the following decades Hakka immigrants settled throughout the state, with their main population centres in Kota Kinabalu (then known as Jesselton), Sandakan (mainly ex-Taiping revolutionists), Tawau and Kudat. The British felt the development of North Borneo was too slow and in 1920 they decided to encourage Hakka immigration into Sabah.[38] In 1901, the total Chinese population in Sabah was 13897; by 1911, it had risen 100% to 27801.[39] Hakka immigration began to taper off during World War 2 and declined to a negligible level in the late 1940s.

Jamaica[edit]

Most Chinese Jamaicans are Hakka; they have a long history in Jamaica. Between 1845 and 1884, nearly 5000 Hakka arrived in Jamaica in three major voyages. Most came to Jamaica under contract as indentured servants. The terms of the contracts made free return-passage available for any Hakka who wanted to return to China. Most of them did.[40] In 1854, 205 Chinese workers who had been working on the Panama canal arrived in Jamaica. They had demanded re-settlement due to the threat of yellow fever in Panama. Many were ill upon arrival in Jamaica and were immediately hospitalized in Kingston. Fewer than 50 of these immigrants survived - the rest died of yellow fever.

Chin Pa-kung (a.k.a. Jackson Chin), opened a wholesale business in Kingston where the Desnoes and Geddes building now stands. Chang Si-Pah and Lyn Sam opened groceries nearby. These gentlemen provided guidance for other Chinese immigrants to Jamaica.[41]

During the 1960s and 1970s substantial migration of Hakka Jamaican Chinese to the USA and Canada occurred.

Mauritius[edit]

The vast majority of Mauritian Chinese are Hakkas. Most of the Mauritian Hakkas emigrated to Mauritius in the mid-1940s came from the Guangdong province, especially from the Meizhou or Meixian region.

As of 2008, the total population of Sino-Mauritian, consisting of Hakka and Cantonese, is around 35,000.

Réunion[edit]

Main article: Chinois (Réunion)

Many Chinese people in Réunion are of Hakka origin.[42] They either came to Réunion as indentured workers or as voluntary migrants.[42] Today, most do not speak the Hakka language.[42]

Taiwan[edit]

In Taiwan, Hakka people comprise about 15 to 20% of the population and are descended largely from Guangdong immigrants: they form the second-largest ethnic group on the island.

Taiwan's Hakka population concentrates in Hsinchu City and Hsinchu County, Miaoli County, and around Chungli in Taoyuan County, and Meinong District in Kaohsiung City, and in Pingtung County, with smaller presences in Hualian and Taitung County. In recent decades,[when?] many Hakka have moved to the largest metropolitan areas, including Taipei and Taichung.

Approximately half of the population of Hakka in Taiwan also speaks Taiwanese Hokkien, and it is highly likely[original research?] that many Taiwanese-speaking households descend from Hakka families.

Thailand[edit]

There are no records as to when Hakka descendants arrived in Thailand. In 1901, Mr. Yu Cipeng, a Hakka member of The League Society of China came to visit Thailand and found that the establishment of many varied organizations among the Hakka was not good for unity. So, he tried to bring the two parties together and persuaded them to dissolve the associations in order to set up a new united one. In 1909 "The Hakka Society of Siam" was established, and Chao Phraya Yommarat, then Interior Minister, was invited to preside over the opening ceremony for the establishment of the society's nameplate, located in front of the Chinese shrine "Lee Tee Biao". Mr. Yang Liqing was its first President.[43]

United States[edit]

Hakka from all over the world have also migrated to the USA. One group is the New England Hakka Association, which reminds its members to not forget their roots. One example is this blog by Ying Han Brach: "Searching for My Hakka Roots".[44] Another is the Hakka Association of New York, which aims to promote Hakka culture across the five boroughs of New York City.[45] In the mid 1970s the Hakka Benevolent Association in San Francisco was founded by Mr. Tu Chung. The association has strong ties with the San Francisco community and offers scholarships to their young members.

Statistics[edit]

The population of the Hakka people was estimated to be some 30 million Hakka worldwide in the early 1990s.[46]

At a 1994 seminar of the World Hakka Association held in Meixian, statistics showed that there were 6,562,429 Hakkas living abroad.[47] The countries that were represented included Malaysia, with the largest number of Hakka numbering 125,000. The second was Thailand, which had a Hakka population of 55,000. The rest were America (28,400), Singapore (20,000), Peru (20,000), Britain (15,200), Vietnam (15,000), Jamaica (10,000), Canada (8,000), Burma (5,500), Australia (4,300), Mauritius (3,500), France (3,000), India (2,500), South Africa (2,500), and Korea (2,000)[47]

In 2000 the worldwide population of Hakka was estimated at 36,059,500 and in 2010 it was estimated at 40,745,200.[citation needed]

Another estimate is that approximately 36 million Hakka people are scattered throughout the world. More than 31 million inhabit over 200 cities and counties spread throughout seven provinces of China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Fujian, Hong Kong, Hunan. An additional two million Hakka live in Taiwan, 1.4 million in Malaysia and 170,000 in Singapore.[48]

World Hakka Congress[edit]

No Year City Country
1 1971 Hong Kong Hong Kong
2 1973 Taipei Taiwan
3 1976 Taipei Taiwan
4 1978 San Francisco USA
5 1980 Tokyo Japan
6 1982 Bangkok Thailand
7 1984 Taipei Taiwan
8 1986 Mauritius Mauritius
9 1988 San Francisco USA
10 1990 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia
11 1992 Kaoshiung Taiwan
12 1994 Meixian, Guangdong China
13 1996 Singapore Singapore
14 1998 Miaoli Taiwan
15 1999 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
16 2000 Longyan, Fujian China
17 2001 Jakarta Indonesia
18 2003 Zhengzhou, Henan China
19 2004 Ganzhou, Jiangxi China
20 2005 Chengdu, Sichuan China
21 2006 Taipei Taiwan
22 2008 Xi'an, Shaanxi China
23 2010 Heyuan, Guangdong China
24 2011 Beihai, Guangxi China

Prominent Hakkas[edit]

The Hakkas have had a significant influence, disproportionate to their smaller total numbers, on the course of Chinese and overseas Chinese history, particularly as a source of revolutionary, political and military leaders.[23]

Hakkas started and formed the backbone of the Taiping Rebellion,[49] the largest uprising in the modern history of China. The uprising, also known as Jintian Uprising, originated at the Hakka village of Jintian in Guiping, Guangxi. It was led by the failed Qing scholar, Hong Xiuquan, who was influenced by Protestant missionaries. Hong's charisma tapped into a consciousness of national dissent which identified with his personal interpretations of the Christian message. His following, who were initially Hakka peasants from Guangxi, grew across the southern provinces. The hugely disciplined Taiping army, which included women in their ranks, captured stoutly defended towns and cities from the Qing defenders. In 1851, less than a year after the uprising, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was established. It had, at one stage, occupied one-third of China, and almost toppled the Qing Dynasty. The kingdom lasted for thirteen years from 1851 to 1864.

Hakkas continued to play prominent roles during the revolutionary and republican years of the Kuomintang. When Sun Yat-sen was small, together with other children in his village, he used to listen to an old Taiping soldier telling them stories about the heroics of the Taipings.[50] This influenced Sun and he proclaimed that he shall be the second Hong Qiuquan. 34 of the 72 martyrs of Huang Hua Gang (黄花岗) and 3 of the 4 martyrs of Hong Hua Gang (红花岗) are Hakkas. During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, many of the leaders on both sides were Hakkas.

In Guangdong, China's most prosperous province, the "Hakka Clique" (客家帮) has consistently dominated the provincial government of the People's Republic of China. Hakka governors include Ye Jianying, Ding Sheng, Ye Xuanping and Huang Huahua.[51]

Sun Yat-sen, Deng Xiaoping and Lee Kuan Yew were among four Chinese named as "the 20th Century's 20 Most Influential Asians" by Time magazine in 1999.[52]

Note: The Hakka pronunciation of each name listed below is included unless the vernacular name is itself based on Hakka pronunciation. However, as this is a work in progress, some vernacular names are still without their Hakka pronunciations. This will be rectified as soon as possible.

Revolutionary, political and military leaders[edit]

China - Taiping Heavenly Kingdom[53][edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Hong Xiuquan Fung Siew Chen 洪秀全 1812-1864 Huaxian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Heavenly King; Leader, Taiping Rebellion
Feng Yunshan Fung Yun San 馮雲山/冯云山 1815-1852 Huaxian, Guangdong Longchuan, Guangdong South King
Yang Xiuqing Yong Siew Tshin 楊秀清/杨秀清 1821-1856 Guiping, Guangxi Meixian, Guangdong East King
Shi Dakai Sak Tat Hoi 石達開/石达开 1831-1863 Guixian, Guangxi Heping, Guangdong Wing King
Li Xiucheng Lee Siew Sin 李秀成 1823-1864 Tengxian, Guangxi Tengxian, Guangxi Loyal King
Chen Yucheng Chin Nyuk Sin 陳玉成/陈玉成 1837-1862 Tengxian, Guangxi Wengyuan, Guangdong Heroic King
Hong Rengan Fung Yin Kon 洪仁玕 1822-1864 Huaxian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Premier and Shield King; First person in China to advocate modern-style government and opening-up reforms

China - Qing Dynasty[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Feng Zicai Fung Tse Choi 馮子才/冯子才 1818-1903 Qinzhou, Guangxi Bobai, Guangxi Commanding general, Sino-French War, 1884–1885
Liu Yongfu Liew Yun Fook 劉永福/刘永福 1837-1917 Qinzhou, Guangxi Bobai, Guangxi Founder and commander, Black Flag Army; President, Republic of Formosa, 1895
Qiu Fengjia Hiew Fung Kap 楊秀清/杨秀清 1864-1912 Miaoli, Taiwan Jiaoling, Guangdong Leader, Taiwanese resistance forces, Japanese invasion of Taiwan, 1895; Feng Chia University in Taiwan is named in honour of him

China - Republic of China[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Sun Yat-sen[54] Soon Tsung San 孫中山/孙中山 1886-1925 Xiangshan, Guangdong Zijin, Guangdong Founding father of modern China
Charlie Soong[55] Soong Ka Su 宋嘉樹/宋嘉树 1863-1918 Wenchang, Hainan Wenchang, Hainan Key financier in the early days of Kuomintang; Father of the Soong Sisters, who along with their husbands, were the most influential figures of China in the 20th century
Soong Ai-ling Soong Oi Lin 宋藹齡/宋蔼龄 1890-1973 Shanghai Wenchang, Hainan Eldest of the Soong Sisters; Wife of H H Kung, the richest man in China during that period
Soong Ching-ling Soong Khin Lin 宋慶齡/宋庆龄 1893-1981 Kunshan, Jiangsu Wenchang, Hainan Second of the Soong Sisters; Wife of Sun Yat-sen; Honorary President of the People's Republic of China, 1981
Soong May-ling Soong Mui Lin 宋美齡/宋美龄 1898-2003 Shanghai Wenchang, Hainan Youngest of the Soong Sisters; Wife of Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Republic of China after Sun Yat-sen passed away
T. V. Soong Soong Tse Vun 宋子文 1894-1971 Shanghai Wenchang, Hainan Son of Charlie Soong; Premier of the Republic of China, 1930, 1945–1947
Liao Zhongkai 廖仲愷 1877-1925 San Francisco, USA Huiyang, Guangdong Leader and financier, Kuomintang; Was one of the three most powerful figures in Kuomintang when Sun Yat-sen passed away
Sun Ke 孫科/孙科 1891-1973 Xiangshan, Guangdong Zijin, Guangdong Premier of the Republic of China, 1931–1932, 1948–1949
Chen Jitang 陳濟棠/陈济棠 1890-1954 Fangcheng, Guangxi Bobai, Guangxi Nationalist China four-star general; Known as the "Southern Heavenly King" (南天王) as he wielded absolute control of the Kuomintang party, government and army of Guangdong, 1929-1936
Xue Yue[56] 薛岳 1896-1998 Lechang, Guangdong Rucheng, Hunan Nationalist China four-star general; Most outstanding general during the Second Sino-Japanese War; Nicknamed "Patton of Asia"
Zhang Fakui 張發奎/张发奎 1896-1980 Shixing, Guangdong Shixing, Guangdong Commander-in-Chief, National Revolutionary Army ground forces, 1949; Commander-in-Chief, 4th War Zone, Second Sino-Japanese War, 1939-1944
Xie Jinyuan 謝晉元/谢晋元 1905-1941 Jiaoling, Guangdong Jiaoling, Guangdong Commander, Defence of Sihang Warehouse; Heroism of the defenders of the warehouse which lifted flagging Chinese morale was made into movies in 1938 and 1976 named "Eight Hundred Heroes" (八百壯士)

China - People’s Republic of China[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Deng Xiaoping[57] Thien Siau Phin 鄧小平/邓小平 1904-1997 Guang’an, Sichuan Ji'an, Jiangxi Paramount leader of the People's Republic of China, 1978-early 1990s
Zhu De[58][59] 朱德 1886-1976 Yilong, Sichuan Shaoguan, Guangdong Marshal; Founder and commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army
Ye Jianying Yap Kiam Yin 葉劍英/叶剑英 1897-1986 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Marshal; Highly respected communist leader; President, People's Republic of China, 1978–1983; First Governor of Guangdong, 1949–1953
Hu Yaobang[60] Fu Yau Bong 胡耀邦 1915-1989 Liuyang, Hunan Ji'an, Jiangxi General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, 1980–1987; The memorial service for Hu's death in 1989 sparked off a pro-democracy movement which led to the Tiananmen Square Incident
Liao Chengzhi Liau Sin Chee 廖承志 1908-1983 Tokyo, Japan Huiyang, Guangdong Well-respected politician; Died a week before he was expected to be elected Vice-President, People's Republic of China
Ye Ting 葉挺/叶挺 1896-1946 Huiyang, Guangdong Huiyang, Guangdong Commander-In-Chief, New Fourth Army, one of the two main Chinese communist forces during the Second Sino-Japanese War
Yang Chengwu Yong Sin Woo 楊成武/杨成武 1904-2004 Changting, Fujian Changting, Fujian Vice-Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, 1983–1988; Deputy Chief of General Staff, People's Liberation Army, 1954-1965 and 1974-1980
Ye Xuanping Yap Sen Phin 葉選平/叶选平 1924- Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Vice-Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, 1991–2003; Governor of Guangdong, 1985–1991
Xie Fei Chia Fui 謝非/谢非 1932-1999 Lufeng, Guangdong Lufeng, Guangdong Vice-Chairman, National People's Congress, 1998–1999
Huang Huahua Wong Fah Fah 黃華華/黄华华 1946- Xingning, Guangdong Xingning, Guangdong Governor of Guangdong, 2003-2011
Ding Seng 丁盛 1913-1999 Yudu, Jiangxi Yudu, Jiangxi Governor of Guangdong, 1972-1974

Taiwan - Republic of China[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Lee Teng-hui[61] 李登辉 1923- New Taipei, Taiwan Yongding, Fujian President of the Republic of China, 1988–2000; First freely elected President in Chinese history
Annette Lu Hsiu-lien[62] 呂秀蓮/吕秀莲 1944- Taoyuan, Taiwan Nanjing, Fujian Vice-President, Republic of China, 2000–2008
Wu Po-hsiung Ng Pak Hiung 吳伯雄/吴伯雄 1939- Taoyuan, Taiwan Yongding, Fujian Chairman, Kuomintang, 2007-2009; Mayor, Taipei, 1988–1990
Hsu Hsin-liang Hee Sin Leong 許信良/许信良 1941- Taoyuan, Taiwan Raoping, Guangdong Co-founder and Chairman, Democratic Progressive Party, 1991–1994, 1996–1998
Yu Shyi-kun[63] 游錫堃/游锡堃 1948- Yilan, Taiwan Zhao'an, Fujian Premier of the Republic of China, 2002-2005; Chairman, Democratic Progressive Party, 2006-2007
Tsai Ing-wen Chai Yin Vun 蔡英文 1939- Pingtung, Taiwan Zhangzhou, Fujian Vice-Premier, Republic of China, 2006–2007; First female Chairperson, Democratic Progressive Party, 2008-2012, 2014-
Hsu Ching-chung 徐慶鐘/徐庆钟 1907-1996 Taipei, Taiwan Jiaoling, Guangdong Vice-Premier, Republic of China, 1972-1981
Chiu Chuang-huan 邱創煥/邱创焕 1925- Changhua, Taiwan Raoping, Guangdong Vice-Premier, Republic of China, 1981-1984
Yeh Chu-lan Yap Kiuk Lan 葉菊蘭/叶菊兰 1949- Miaoli, Taiwan Zhangzhou, Fujian Vice-Premier, Republic of China, 2004–2005; Acting Mayor, Kaohsiung, 2005–2006

Hong Kong[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Martin Lee Chu-ming 李柱銘/李柱铭 1938- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Founding Chairman, Democratic Party, 1994–2002; Father of democracy of Hong Kong
Lee Wing Tat 李永達/李永达 1955- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Chairman, Democratic Party, 2004–2006
Tam Yiu Chung Tham Yau Tsung 譚耀宗/谭耀宗 1949- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Chairman, Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong, the largest pro-Beijing political party in Hong Kong, 2007-
Lau Wong-fat[64] 劉皇發/刘皇发 1936- Hong Kong Huiyang, Guangdong Chairman, Heung Yee Kuk, 1980-; Billionaire land-owner and political heavyweight in pro-Beijing political camp; Known as the "Land Emperor of the New Territories" (新界土皇帝)

Singapore[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Lee Kuan Yew Lee Kong Yau 李光耀 1923- Singapore Dabu, Guangdong Founding father of modern Singapore; Prime Minister of Singapore, 1959-1990
Lee Hsien Loong Lee Hen Loong 李顯龍/李显龙 1952- Singapore Dabu, Guangdong Prime Minister of Singapore, 2004-
Yong Nyuk Lin 楊玉麟/杨玉麟 1918- Negri Sembilan, Malaysia Meixian, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1959-1976
Hon Sui Sen Hon Sui Sang 韓瑞生/韩瑞生 1916- Penang, Malaysia Jiexi, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1970–1983
Howe Yoon Chong 侯永昌 1923-2007 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1979–1984
Richard Hu Tsu Tau 胡賜道/胡赐道 1926- Singapore Yongding, Fujian Cabinet Minister, 1985–2001
Elizabeth Choy Yong Su-Moi 蔡楊素梅/蔡杨素梅 1910-2006 Sabah, Malaysia War heroine; First and only woman on the Legislative Council of Singapore, 1951-1955

Malaysia[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Yap Ah Loy 葉亞來/叶亚来 1837-1885 Huizhou, Guangdong Huizhou, Guangdong Founder, Kuala Lumpur, capital of Malaysia
Chung Keng Quee Chang Kin Gui 鄭景貴/郑景贵 1827-1901 Zengcheng, Guangdong Zengcheng, Guangdong Founder, Taiping, Perak; Kapitan Cina, Penang and Perak
Yap Kwan Seng [65] 葉觀盛/叶观盛 1846-1902 Chixi, Guangdong Chixi, Guangdong Last Kapitan Cina, Kuala Lumpur, 1889-1902. A major road, Jalan Yap Kwan Seng, in Kuala Lumpur is named after him
Chung Thye Phin 鄭大平/郑大平 1879-1935 Perak, Malaysia Zengcheng, Guangdong Last Kapitan Cina, Perak and British Malaya
Philip Lee Tau Sang 李道生 -1959 Highly respected and leading Chinese politician who was greatly favoured by the British colonial rulers in North Borneo (now Sabah) in the 1950s; A road in Tanjung Aru, Jalan Lee Thau Sang, is named after him
Lau Pak Khuan Liew Pak Khiun 劉伯群/刘伯群 1894-1971 Zengcheng, Guangdong Zengcheng, Guangdong First Chinese to be conferred the "Datuk Seri" title; Led the unsuccessful bid for Chinese equal citizenship-rights and official language status during the drafting of the Malaysian Constitution
Ong Yoke Lin 翁毓麟 1917-2010 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Huizhou, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1955-1973; First Chinese President, Malaysian Senate, 1973-1980; Mooted the idea to form the Alliance, the predecessor of Barisan Nasional, the ruling coalition party of Malaysia since independence, 1952
Wong Pow Nee 王保尼 1911-2002 Penang, Malaysia Xingning, Guangdong First Chief Minister of Penang, 1957–1969
Peter Lo Sui Yin 羅思仁/罗思仁 1923- Sabah, Malaysia Longchuan, Guangdong Chief Minister of Sabah, 1965–67; Cabinet Minister, 1963-1965
Yong Teck Lee 楊德利/杨德利 1958- Sabah, Malaysia Longchuan, Guangdong Chief Minister of Sabah, 1996–1998; Founder and President, Sabah Progressive Party, 1994-
Paul Leong Khee Seong 梁棋祥 1939- Perak, Malaysia Meixian, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1978-1986
Stephen Yong Kuet Tze 楊國斯/杨国斯 1921-2001 Sarawak, Malaysia Dabu, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 1982-1990; Co-founder, Sarawak United Peoples' Party, Sarawak’s first political party, 1959 (President, 1983-1990); Yong is best remembered for giving the Chinese in Sarawak a political voice
Peter Chin Fah Kui 陳華貴/陈华贵 1945- Sarawak, Malaysia Bao'an, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2004-2013; President, Sarawak United Peoples' Party, 2011-
Chor Chee Heung 曹智雄 1955- Kedah, Malaysia Dabu, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2010-2013
Liow Tiong Lai Liau Tsung Loi 廖中莱 1961 Malacca, Malaysia Dabu, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2008-2013, 2014-; President, Malaysian Chinese Association, 2013-
Wee Ka Siong 魏家祥 1968- Malacca, Malaysia Lufeng, Guangdong Cabinet Minister, 2014-
Teresa Kok Suh Sim Kok Su Sim 郭素沁 1964- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Huizhou, Guangdong Member of Parliament, 1999-; Won by the highest majority among more than 200 constituency seats in the 2008 and 2013 Malaysian general elections; In the 2013 election, Kok won more than 85% of the total votes cast, a record in Malaysian history

Indonesia[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Low Lan Pak 羅芳伯/罗芳伯 1738-1778 Meixian, Guangdong Meixian, Guangdong Founder and President, Hakka Republic of Lanfang in West Kalimantan, 1777–1884
Mari Pangestu 馮慧蘭/冯慧兰 1956- Jakarta, Indonesia First female Chinese Cabinet Minister
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama 鍾萬學/钟万学 1966- Belitung, Indonesia Meixian, Guangdong Governor, Jakarta, 2014-2017
Christiandy Sanjaya 1964- Singkawang, Indonesia Deputy Governor, West Kalimantan, 2008-2013: First elected Chinese deputy governor
Hasan Karman Wong Sau Fan 黄少凡 1962- Singkawang, Indonesia Meixian, Guangdong Mayor, Singkawang, West Kalimantan, 2007-2012; First Chinese mayor
Teddy Jusuf 熊德怡 1966- West Java, Indonesia Meixian, Guangdong First and only Chinese to attain the rank of Brigadier General, Tentara Nasional Indonesia, Indonesia armed forces

Thailand[edit]

Name Hakka Name Chinese Name Year Born Ancestry Description
Thaksin Shinawatra[66][67] Hiew Tat Sin 丘達新/丘达新 1949- Chiang Mai, Thailand Fengshun, Guangdong Only Prime Minister of Thailand to be re-elected in Thailand history, 2001–2006; Founder, Thai Rak Thai party, 1998; Parties linked to Thaksin had won all the five general elections in Thailand since 2001
Yingluck Shinawatra 丘英樂/丘英乐 1967- Chiang Mai, Thailand Fengshun, Guangdong First female Prime Minister of Thailand, 2011-2014
Supachai Panitchpakdi 1946- Bangkok, Thailand Deputy Prime Minister, 1992-1995, 1997-2001; First and only Asian Director-General, World Trade Organization, 2002–2005
Sudarat Keyuraphan 1961- Bangkok, Thailand Cabinet Minister, 2002–2006
Chaiyasit Shinawatra 1945- Chiang Mai, Thailand Fengshun, Guangdong Commander-in-Chief, Royal Thai Army, 2003-2004
  • Timor-Leste
    • Pedro Lay (born in East Timor): Cabinet Minister, Timor-Leste, 2007-; One of two Chinese Cabinet ministers when Timor-Lester obtained independence in 2007
    • Gil Alves (born in East Timor), Cabinet Minister, Timor-LEste, 2007-; One of two Chinese Cabinet ministers when Timor-Lester obtained independence in 2007
  • Mauritius
    • Sir Moilin Jean Ah-Chuen 朱梅麟 (1909-1991; Meixian, Guangdong; born in Mauritius; Hakka pronunciation: Chu Moi Lin): First Chinese member, Legislative Council, 1949; First Chinese minister, Minister of Local Government, 1967–1976; Second Hakka after Sun Yat-sen to have his portrait printed on the bills of a country's currency[68]
    • Noel Lee Cheong Lem 李國華/李国华 (1951-; Meixian, Guangdong; born in Mauritius; Hakka pronunciation: Lee Ket Fah): Minister of Tourism, 1993–1995
    • Joseph Tsang Mang Kin 曾繁興/曾繁兴 (1938-; Meixian, Guangdong; born in Mauritius): Minister of Art and Culture, 1995–2000
    • Emmanuel Jean Leung Shing 陳念汀/陈念汀 (1944-; Meixian, Guangdong; born in Mauritius): Minister of Justice and Human Rights, 2000–2005
    • Sylvio Tang Wah Hing 鄧學升/邓学升 (Meixian, Guangdong; born in Mauritius; Hakka pronunciation: Thien Hock Sin): Minister of Youth and Sports, 2005–2008, Minister For Consumer Protection And Citizens' Charter, 2008-2010
    • Michael Yeung Sik Yuen: Minister of Tourism and Leisure
  • Trinidad and Tobago
    • Sir Solomon Hochoy 何才 (1905-1983; born in Jamaica): first and only non-white, non-British Governor (1960–1962) and Governor General (1962–1972) of Trinidad and Tobago

Government officials[edit]

  • China
    • He Ruzhang 何如璋 (1838-1891; Dabu, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Ho Yee Chong): China's first ambassador to Japan, Qing Dynasty, 1877–1882
    • Xiao Yang 肖扬 (1938-; Heyuan, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Siau Yong): President, Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China, 1998–2008
    • Zhang Dingcheng 張鼎丞/张鼎丞 (1898-1981; Yongding, Fujian): Procurator-General, Supreme People's Procuratorate, 1954–1975
    • Liu Fuzhi 劉復之/刘复之 (1917-; Meixian, Guangdong): Procurator-General, Supreme People's Procuratorate, 1988–1993
    • Zhang Jiuhuan 張九桓/张九桓[71][72] (1947-; Bobai, Guangxi): Ambassador of China to Nepal (1995–1998), Singapore (2000–2004), Thailand (2004-); Youngest-ever ambassador, People's Republic of China
  • Taiwan
    • Perng Fai-nan 彭淮南 (1939-; born in Taiwan): Governor, Central Bank of Taiwan, 1988-; Best Central Banker in the world, 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007, Global Finance
  • Singapore
    • Yong Pung How 楊邦孝/杨邦孝 (1926-; Dabu, Guangdong; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Yong Bong Hau): Chief Justice, Singapore, 1990–2006

Entrepreneurs and corporate figures[edit]

  • Taiwan
    • Tsai Wan-lin 蔡萬霖: Founder, Lin Yuan Group, a large banking and insurance group in Taiwan
    • Tsai Wan-tsai 蔡萬才 of Fubon Group
    • Tsai Hong-tu 蔡宏圖: Taiwanese entrepreneur and banker; Son of Tsai Wan-lin
  • Singapore
    • Aw Boon Haw 胡文虎 (1882-1954; Yongding, Fujian; born in Burma) and Aw Boon Par 胡文豹 (1888-1944; Yongding, Fujian; born in Burma), Philanthropists of Haw-Par Villa and Tiger Balm fame
    • Chan Liang Choy: Founder and Chairman, Chan Brothers Travel
  • Malaysia
    • Cheong Fatt Tze 張弼士/张弼士 (1840-1916; Dabu, Guangdong): Powerful industralist in South-east Asia who contributed to the interests of Overseas Chinese during China's Qing Dynasty and Republican era; Appointed the Chinese Consul (based in Penang and later Singapore) in 1890
    • Yong Koon 楊坤/杨坤: Founder, Royal Selangor, Malaysia
    • Tan Sri Jeffrey Cheah 謝富年/谢富年 (Dongguan, Guangdong; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Chia Foo Ngen): Founder and Chairman of The Sunway Group of Companies
    • Lee Loy Seng: Founder, Kuala Lumpur Kepong (KLK)
  • Indonesia
    • Ciputra (1931-): Philanthropist; Founder, Ciputra Development; 23rd richest Indonesian, Forbes
    • Prajogo Pangestu (Phang Jun Phen) 彭雲鵬/彭云鹏 (1944-; born in Indonesia; Hakka pronunciation: Pang Yun Pen): Timber tycoon
    • Tjong A Fie, (1860-1921): Influential figure and Philanthropist who built a large plantation business in Sumatra
    • Murdaya Poo (Meixian, born in Indonesia): Chairman, Berca Group
    • Djoko Susanto (Kwok Kwie Fo) 郭贵和 (1950-;Born in jakarta) Founder and owner of retail business Alfa Mart
    • Soetjipto Nagaria (born in Jakarta,Indonesia): Founder of Summarecon Property Group
    • Sofjan Wanandi: Owner, Gemala Group
  • United Kingdom
    • Woon Wing Yip 葉煥榮/叶焕荣 (1940-; Dongguan, China; born in China; Hakka pronunciation: Yap Fon Yin): Founder, The Wing Yip Supermarkets, United Kingdom; First Chinese tycoon in United Kingdom
    • Alan Yau 丘德威 (1962-; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Hiew Tet Wui): Founder, Wagamama restaurant chain, Hakkasan and Yauatcha, United Kingdom
  • Canada
    • Michael Lee-Chin (born in Jamaica): Born to mix race black parents of Jamaican-Chinese Hakka ancestry, Chairman and CEO, AIC Limited, one of Canada's largest mutual fund companies

Literary figures, artists, academics and scientists[edit]

  • China
    • Huang Zunxian 黃遵憲/黄遵宪 (1848-1905; Meixian, Guangdong), Poet, writer and diplomat
    • Lo Hsiang-lin 羅香林/罗香林 (1906-1978, Xingning, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Lo Heong Lim), Scholar on Hakka culture and language
    • Li Guohao 李國豪/李国豪 (1913-2005; Meixian, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Lee Ket Hau), One of the top bridge experts in the world
    • Han Suyin 韓素音/韩素音 (1917-2012; Xinyang, Henan), Famous novelist and author of books on modern China
  • Taiwan
    • Chung Li-ho 鐘理和/钟理和 (1915-1960; Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Tsung Lee Foh), Famous Taiwanese novelist, stayed in Manchuria before WWII ends
    • Teng Yu-hsien 鄧雨賢/邓雨贤 (1906-1944; born in Qionglin, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Thien Yee Hen), Taiwanese composer
    • Lin Haiyin 林海音 (1918-2001; ancestral Jiaoling, Guangdong; family came from Toufen, Miaoli, Taiwan; born in Japan; Hakka pronunciation: Lim Hoi Yim), Taiwanese novelist whose memoirs, 城南旧事 (My Memories of Old Beijing), was made into a movie of the same name
  • Malaysia
    • Yong Mun Sen (Yong Yen Lang) 楊曼生/杨曼生 (1896-1962; Dabu, Guangdong; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Yong Man Sang); Pioneer artist and the father of Malaysian painting
    • Chung Chen Sun 鍾正山/钟正山 (1935-; born in Melacca Malaysia; ), Regional renowned artist and art educator. Founder of Malaysia Institute of Arts, Malaysia
  • United Kingdom
    • Jimmy Choo 周仰杰 (1961-; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Chiu Yong Ket), Renowned designer of shoes and handbags, United Kingdom
  • United States
    • Ivan Taslimson 林遵憲 (Meixian, Guangdong), architect, scientist, US tech tycoon
    • Shing-Tung Yau 丘成桐 (1949-; Jiaoling, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Hiew Sin Tung), Chinese-American mathematician

Actors, musicians and entertainers[edit]

  • Hong Kong
    • Chor Yuen 楚原 (1934-; Meixian, Guangdong; born in China; Hakka pronunciation: Chu Ngian), Hong Kong film director
    • Leslie Cheung 張國榮/张国荣[74] (1956-2003; Meixian, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Zhong Guet Rhin), Famous singer/actor
    • Chow Yun-fat 周潤發/周润发[75][76] (1955-; Bao'an, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Zhiu Rhun Fat), One of the most famous actors in Asia; Lead actor in several Hollywood movies
    • Leon Lai 黎明 (1966-; Meixian, Guangdong; born in China; Hakka pronunciation: Le Min), Singer/actor
    • Alex Man 萬梓良/万梓良 (1957-; Bao'an, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Van Zih Liong), Actor; Best Actor, Golden Horse Awards, 1988
    • Cherie Chung 鍾楚紅/钟楚紅 (1960-; Boluo, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Zhung Chu Fung), Actress
    • Jordan Chan 陳小春/陈小春[77](1967-, Huiyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Chin Siau Chun), Actor/singer
    • Eric Tsang 曾志偉/曾志伟 (1953-; Wuhua, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Zen Zhi Vui), Actor/comedian
    • Frances Yip 葉麗儀/叶丽仪 (1947-; Huiyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Rhap Li Ngi), Singer/entertainer
    • Deanie Ip 葉德嫻/叶德娴 (1947-; Huiyang, Guangdong; born in Dapengcheng; Hakka pronunciation: Rhap Det Han), Singer/actress
    • Teresa Cheung Tak Lan 張德蘭/张德兰 (Dabu, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Zhong Det Lan), Popular Hong Kong singer in the 1970s-1980s
    • Chan Wai-Man 陳惠敏/陈惠敏[78] (1946-; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Chin Fui Mian); Actor who is well known for triad chief roles
    • Shing Fui-On 成奎安 (1955-2009; Xingning, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Shin Kui On ), Actor who is well known for bad guy roles
    • Angeline Leung 梁韵蕊 (Meixian, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Liong Rhun Lui ), Winner, Miss Hong Kong pageant, 1982
    • Shallin Tse 謝寧/谢宁 (1963-; Meixian, Guangdong; born in China; Hakka pronunciation: Cia Nen), Winner, Miss Hong Kong pageant, 1985
    • Shirley Yeung 楊思琦/杨思琦 (1978-; Meixian, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Rhong Sih Ki), Winner, Miss Hong Kong pageant, 2001
    • Fiona Yuen 袁彩雲 (1976-; born in Germany; Hakka pronunciation: Rhen Cai Rhun), Second runner-up, Miss Hong Kong pageant, 1996
    • Kate Tsui 徐子珊 (1979-; Huizhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Ci Zih San), Winner, Miss Hong Kong pageant, 2004
    • Shermon Tang 鄧上文/邓上文 (1983-; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Ten Shong Vun), Miss Photogenic, Miss Hong Kong pageant, 2005
  • Taiwan
    • Hou Hsiao-Hsien 侯孝賢/侯孝贤 (1947-; Meixian, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Heu Hau Hian), Award-winning film director and a leading figure of Taiwan's New Wave cinema movement
    • Edward Yang 楊德昌/杨德昌 (1947-2007; Meixian, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Rhong Det Chong), Film director; Best Director, Cannes Film Festival, 2000
    • Lo Ta-yu 羅大佑/罗大佑 (1954-; ancestral Meixian, Guangdong; born in Miaoli, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Lo Tai Rhiu), Influential singer-songwriter who revolutionized Chinese pop and rock music in the 1980s
    • Hebe Tien 田馥甄 (1983-; Xinfeng, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Tian Fuk Zhin), Member of S.H.E, Taiwanese female pop group
    • Ella Chen 陳嘉樺 (1981-; Linluo, Pingtung, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Chin Ga Fa), Member of S.H.E, Taiwanese female pop group
    • Joe Zhang Shu Wei 張書偉 (1980-; Miaoli, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Zhong Su Vui), Members of ENERGY, Male pop group
    • Joe Chen 陳喬恩/陈乔恩 (1979-; Hsinchu, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Chin Kiau En), Leading actress of Taiwan idol dramas, co-leader of 7 Flowers, Taiwanese female pop group
    • Shino Lin 林曉培/林晓培 (Pingtung, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Lim Hiao Pui), Singer
    • Julia Peng 彭佳慧 (1972-; ancestral Meixian, Guangdong; born in Pingtung, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Pang Ga Fui), Singer
    • Alec Su 蘇有朋/苏有朋[79] (1973-, Taipei, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Su Rhiu Pen), Actor/singer
    • Bowie Tsang 曾寶儀/曾宝仪 (1973-; ancestral Wuhua, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Zen Bo Ngi), Compere/singer/actress
    • Chen Chien-Chou 陳建洲/陈建洲 (Blackie 黑人) (1977-; ancestral Meixian, Guangdong; born in Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Hakka pronunciation: Chin Kian Zhiu), Compere; Former national basketball player, Chinese Taipei national basketball team
  • China
    • Huang Wanqiu 黄婉秋 (1943-; Meixian, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Vong Van Ciu), Actor, Lead actress of the classic movie, "Third Sister Liu" (刘三姐)
    • Li Ai 李艾 (Meixian, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Li Ngioi), Supermodel and one of China's most recognizable media personalities; Host, "China's Next Top Model"
  • Singapore
    • Fann Wong 范文芳 (1971-; born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Fam Vun Fong), Actress/singer/model
    • Adrian Pang 彭耀順/彭耀顺 (1966-; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Pang Rheu Shun), Actor; Best Actor for Comedy Performance, Asian Television Awards, 2002
    • Xie Shaoguang 謝韶光/谢韶光 (1960-; born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Cia Sheu Guong), Actor; Best Actor, Asian Television Awards, 1998; Five-time winner of Singapore's best television actor award
    • Felicia Chin 陳靚瑄/陈靓瑄 (1984-; born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Chin Ciang Sian), Actress; Female winner, Star Search, 2003; Member of the Singapore national softball team at the age of 15
    • Wong Lilin 黃麗玲/黄丽玲 (born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Vong Li Len), Actress
    • Michelle Chong 莊米雪/庄米雪 (1977-; born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Zong Mi Siat), Actress/compere/film director
    • Maggie Teng 鄧妙華/邓妙华 (born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Ten Miao Fa), Singer; First Singaporean to break into Taiwan pop music industry in the 1980s
    • Lee Wei Song 李偉菘/李伟菘 (1966-; born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Li Vui Siung) and Lee Shih Shiong 李偲菘 (1966-; born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Li Sih Siung), Well-known songwriters
    • Ho Yeow Sun 何耀珊 (born in Singapore; Hakka pronunciation: Ho Rheu San), Singer; First and only Asian singer to top the US Billboard Dance Chart and the UK MusicWeek Chart; Performed the Olympic Hymn, which was sung in Mandarin for the first time, accompanied by a choir of Overseas Chinese from 16 different nationalities for 2008 Beijing Olympics
    • Yew Hong Chow 遊宏釗/游宏钊, Classical musician and harmonica virtuso
  • Malaysia
    • Eric Moo 巫啟賢/巫启贤 (1963-; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Muu Ki Hien), Award winning singer/composer/producer
    • Michael Wong 王光良 (1970-; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Vong Guong Liong) and Victor Wong 黄品冠 (1972-; Jieyang, Guangdong; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Vong Pin Guan), Singer-songwriters of "Guang Liang Pin Guan" 光良品冠 / "Wu Yin Liang Pin" 无印良品 fame
    • Penny Tai ; 戴佩妮 (1978-; Haifeng, Guangdong; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Dai Pui Nee), Singer-songwriter; Best Female Mandarin Singer, Golden Melody Awards, 2014
    • Z-Chen 張智成/张智成 (1973-; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Zhong Zhi Shin), Singer; Known as "The Little Prince of R&B"
    • Gary Chaw 曹格 (1979-; born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Co Get), Singer; Winner, Best Male Mandarin Singer, Golden Melody Awards, 2008
    • Wong Sze Zen (born in Malaysia), Miss Malaysia/World, 2003
    • Lim Pey Yeng 林佩盈 (born in Malaysia; Hakka pronunciation: Lim Pui Rhin), First Runner Up, Miss Astro Chinese International Pegeant 2000, Famous TV / Event Host
  • Indonesia

Sportspersons[edit]

  • China
    • Lu Qin 呂欽/吕钦 (1962-; Huiyang, Guangdong), xiangqi grandmaster; Winner, World Xiangqi Individual Championships, 1990, 1995, 1997, 2001 and 2005
    • Ye Qiaobo 葉喬波/叶乔波 (1964-; Hexian, Guangxi; Hakka pronunciation: Yap Kiau Poh), Winner, World Sprint Speed Skating Championships, 1992, 1993
    • Xie Yuxin 謝育新/谢育新 (1968-; Xingning, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Chia Yuk Sin), National footballer, 1987–1996; First Chinese to play professional football overseas, 1987; Was the youngest footballer and youngest scorer, China national football team
    • Sun Caiyun 孫彩雲/孙彩云 (1973-; Shenzhen, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Soon Choi Yun), World record-holder, Pole Vault, 1992–1995
    • Yang Jinghui 楊景輝/杨景辉 (1983-; Guangzhou, Guangdong; Hakka pronunciation: Yong Kin Fui), Gold medalist, Diving, 2004 Athens Olympics
    • Chen Hong 陳宏/陈宏 (1979-; Changting, Fujian; Hakka pronunciation: Chin Fen), Number 1 badminton player on the world ranking list from 2002 to 2003.
    • Lin Dan 林丹 (1983-; Longyan, Fujian; Hakka pronunciation: Lim Dan), Gold medalist, Badminton, 2008 Beijing Olympics, 2012 London Olympics; Winner, World Badminton Championships, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013
    • Zhang Xiangxiang 張湘祥/张湘祥 (1983-; Longyan, Fujian; Hakka pronunciation: Chong Seong Seong), Gold medalist, Weightlifting, 2008 Beijing Olympics
    • He Wenna 何雯娜 (1989-; Longyan, Fujian; Hakka pronunciation: Ho Vun Na), Gold medalist, Gymnastics (Trampoline), 2008 Beijing Olympics
    • Yang Yilin: Gold medalist, Gymnastics (Women's Team), 2008 Beijing Olympics
    • Fu Haifeng: Gold medalist, Badminton (Men's Doubles), 2012 London Olympics
  • Taiwan
  • Hong Kong
    • Lee Wai Tong 李惠堂 (1905-1979; ;Wuhua, Guangdong, born in Hong Kong; Hakka pronunciation: Lee Fui Tong), One of the greatest Asian footballer
  • Indonesia
    • Susi Susanti 王蓮香 (1971; born in West Java, Indonesia; only female badminton player to hold the Olympic, World Championship, and All-England singles titles simultaneously

Others[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "Hakka", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, accessed 31 March 2011.
  3. ^ Guangdong Hakka culture Newsgd.com.2009-August-24.Retrieved on 2010-March 6
  4. ^ LaCroix, Frederick E. (2009). The sky rained heroes: A journey from war to remembrance. Austin: Synergy Books. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-9821601-3-8. 
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  8. ^ Constable, Nichole. Guest People: Hakka Identity in China and Abroad. University of Washington Press, 2005, p. 9
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  19. ^ Original from the University of Michigan Digitized Jul 23, 2011Herold Jacob Wiens (1967). Han Chinese expansion in South China (reprint ed.). Shoe String Press. p. 270. Retrieved March 1, 2012. "taste which alone are sufficient to demonstrate that the ancestors of the Hakka had long been in the ranks of the Han-Chinese civilization. In the Hakka region more than elsewhere in Ling-nan are such excellent old names as Fu-yung-chang (Hibiscus Range), Chin-p'ing Shan (Brocade-screen Mountains), Sung-yuan-ch'i (Pine-springs" 
  20. ^ Herold Jacob Wiens (1954). China's march toward the tropics: a discussion of the southward penetration of China's culture, peoples, and political control in relation to the non-Han-Chinese peoples of south China and in the perspective of historical and cultural geography. Shoe String Press. p. 270. Retrieved March 1, 2012. "taste which alone are sufficient to demonstrate that the ancestors of the Hakka had long been in the ranks of the Han-Chinese civilization. In the Hakka region more than elsewhere in Ling-nan are such excellent old names as Fu-yung-chang (Hibiscus Range), Chin-p'ing Shan (Brocade-screen Mountains), Sung-yuan-ch'i (Pine-springs)" 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Erbaugh, Mary S. "The secret history of the Hakkas: The Chinese revolution as a Hakka enterprise," China Quarterly (1992) Issue 132, pp 937–68
  • Leong, Sow-Theng; Wright, Tim. Migration & Ethnicity in Chinese History: Hakkas, Pengmin & Their Neighbors (1997), 234pp

External links[edit]