Halaf culture

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The geographic location of the Chalcolithic Halaf culture in relation to the contemporaneous Hassuna culture.

The Halaf culture is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 and 5500 BCE[citation needed]. The period is a continuous development out of the earlier Pottery Neolithic and is located primarily in south-eastern Turkey, Syria, and northern Iraq, although Halaf-influenced material is found throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

While the period is named after the site of Tell Halaf in north Syria, excavated by Max von Oppenheim between 1911 and 1927, the earliest Halaf period material was excavated by John Garstang in 1908 at the site of Sakce Gözü, then in Syria but now part of Turkey.[1] Small amounts of Halaf material were also excavated in 1913 by Leonard Woolley at Carchemish, on the Turkish/Syrian border.[2] However, the most important site for the Halaf tradition was the site of Tell Arpachiyah, now located in the suburbs of Mosul, Iraq.[3]

The Halaf period was succeeded by the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period (~5500 - 5200 cal. BCE) and then by the Ubaid period (~5200 - 4000 cal. BCE).

Economy[edit]

Dryland farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat, two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats.

Architecture[edit]

Although no Halaf settlement has been extensively excavated some buildings have been excavated: the tholoi of Tell Arpachiyah, circular domed structures approached through long rectangular anterooms. Only a few of these structures were ever excavated. They were constructed of mud-brick sometimes on stone foundations and may have been for ritual use (one contained a large number of female figurines). Other circular buildings were probably just houses.

Halaf pottery[edit]

Halafian ware

The best known, most characteristic pottery of Tell Halaf, called Halaf ware, produced by specialist potters, can be painted, sometimes using more than two colors (called polychrome) with geometric and animal motifs. Other types of Halaf pottery are known, including unpainted, cooking ware and ware with burnished surfaces. There are many theories about why the distinctive pottery style developed. The theory is that the pottery came about due to regional copying and that it was exchanged as a prestige item between local elites is now disputed. The polychrome painted Halaf pottery has been proposed to be a "trade pottery"—pottery produced for export—however, the predominance of locally produced painted pottery in all areas of Halaf sites including potters settlement questions that theory.

Tel Halaf terracotta fertility figurine, 5000-4000 BC. Walters Museum

Halaf pottery has been found in other parts of northern Mesopotamia, such as at Nineveh and Tepe Gawra, Chagar Bazar and at many sites in Anatolia (Turkey) suggesting that it was widely used in the region. In addition, the Halaf communities made female figurines of partially baked clay and stone and stamp seals of stone, (see also Impression seal). The seals are thought to mark the development of concepts of personal property, as similar seals were used for this purpose in later times. The Halaf people used tools made of stone and clay. Copper was also known, but was not used for tools.

The Sabi Abyad excavations[edit]

Excavations since 1986 by archaeologist Peter Akkermans at Tell Sabi Abyad (the Mound of the White Boy) have produced new insights and perspectives about the rise of Halaf culture. Some early transitional wares were identified.

The identification of these transitional wares over an apparently large area suggests a widespread sharing of cultural traits and a considerable degree of interregional communication and interaction, prior to the full onset of the Halaf around 5100/5000 BC. The Sabi Abyad sequence has already made it clear that the prevailing view that the North Mesopotamian plain is the heartland of Halaf society and that Halaf subsequently spread from northern Iraq into the surrounding regions (including Syria) in the early fifth millennium can no longer be maintained.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. "A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition" in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 780
  2. ^ Castro Gessner, G. 2011. "A Brief Overview of the Halaf Tradition" in Steadman, S and McMahon, G (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Ancient anatolia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 781
  3. ^ Campbell, S. 2000. "The Burnt House at Arpachiyah: A Reexamination" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research no. 318. pp. 1
  4. ^ Peter Akkermans (2000), Old and New Perspectives on the Origins of the Halaf Culture

External links[edit]