Halifax (UK Parliament constituency)

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Halifax
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Halifax in West Yorkshire.
Outline map
Location of West Yorkshire within England.
County 1832–1974: West Riding of Yorkshire
1974–present: West Yorkshire
Electorate 69,126 (December 2010)[1]
Major settlements Halifax, Sowerby Bridge
Current constituency
Created 1832
Member of Parliament Linda Riordan (Labour Co-op)
Number of members 1832–1918: Two
1918–present: One
Created from Yorkshire
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency Yorkshire and the Humber

Halifax is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Linda Riordan of the Labour Party and Co-operative Party.[n 2]

Boundaries[edit]

This constituency covers the large town of Halifax in West Yorkshire and includes the smaller town of Sowerby Bridge which adjoins Halifax but until 1974 was a separate Urban District.

History[edit]

The parliamentary borough was granted in the Great Reform Act 1832 and returned from that year until 1918 two members. A county borough recognized the density of the developed area in 1888 which provided most functions for inhabitants, retaining the West Yorkshire ceremonial county. The municipal or county borough was under a mayor, 5 aldermen and 45 councillors and had an area of 13,967 acres (56.52 km2).[2]

At the time of the Norman Conquest, Halifax formed part of the extensive manor of Wakefield, which belonged to the king, but in the 13th century was in the hands of John Earl de Warrenne aka. Earl of Surrey (1231-1304).[n 3] The prosperity of the town began with the first woollen products workshop established here in 1414, when there are said to have been only thirteen houses, which before the end of the 16th century had increased to 520.[2] Camden, about the end of the 17th century, wrote that the people are very industrious, so that though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on, they have so flourished ... by the clothing trade that they are very rich and have gained a reputation for it above their neighbours. The manufacturing standards and trade were improved by the arrival of certain merchants and clothworkers driven from the Spanish Netherlands by the persecution of the Duke of Alva.

Halifax was a borough by prescription[n 4] rather than a medieval parliamentary borough, its privileges[n 5] growing up with the increased prosperity brought by the cloth trade, but it was not incorporated until 1848. From 1832 until 1918 the town's property-qualifying residents paying scot and lot returned two members to parliament.[n 6]

Constituency profile[edit]

The town in the Pennines is relatively affluent, not afflicted by the high levels of unemployment, underemployment and crime seen in a few wards of the Yorkshire and Humber region but most constituents have modest incomes and there is some social housing dependency in certain wards.[3] Since 1987 the MP has been in the Labour Party, before that date for four years it was held by a Conservative MP, but generally since the Second World War it has been a Labour seat.

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1832–1918[edit]

Election 1st Member[4] 1st Party 2nd Member[4] 2nd Party
1832 Rawdon Briggs Liberal Sir Charles Wood Liberal
1835 James Archibald Stuart-Wortley Conservative
1837 Edward Davis Protheroe Liberal
1847 Henry Edwards Conservative
1852 Sir Francis Crossley Liberal
1859 Sir James Stansfeld Liberal
1865 Edward Akroyd Liberal
1874 John Crossley Liberal
1877 by-election John Dyson Hutchinson Liberal
1882 by-election Thomas Shaw Liberal
1893 by-election William Rawson Shaw Liberal
1895 Alfred Arnold Conservative
1897 by-election Alfred Billson Liberal
1900 Sir Savile Crossley Liberal Unionist John Henry Whitley Liberal
1906 James Parker Labour

MPs since 1918[edit]

Representation reduced to one member, 1918

Election Member[4] Party
1918 John Henry Whitley Liberal
1921 Speaker
1928 by-election Arthur Longbottom Labour
1931 Gilbert Gledhill Conservative
1945 Dryden Brook Labour
1955 Maurice Macmillan Conservative
1964 Shirley Summerskill Labour
1983 Roy Galley Conservative
1987 Alice Mahon Labour
2005 Linda Riordan Labour Co-operative

Elections[edit]

1910s1920s1930s1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s2000s2010s

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2010: Halifax[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Co-op Linda Riordan 16,278 37.4 -4.4
Conservative Philip Allott 14,806 34.0 +0.8
Liberal Democrat Elisabeth Wilson 8,335 19.1 +1.2
BNP Tom Bates 2,760 6.3 -0.3
Independent Voice for Halifax Diane Park 722 1.7 n/a
UKIP Jay Sangha 654 1.5 n/a
Majority 1,472 3.4 -5.4
Turnout 43,555 61.9 +0.9
Labour hold Swing -2.6

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Co-op Linda Riordan 16,579 41.8 −7.2
Conservative Kris Hopkins 13,162 33.2 −0.6
Liberal Democrat Michael Taylor 7,100 17.9 +3.3
BNP Geoff Wallace 2,627 6.6 N/A
National Front Thomas Holmes 191 0.5 N/A
Majority 3,417 8.6
Turnout 39,659 61.1 +3.3
Labour Co-op hold Swing −3.3
General Election 2001: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Alice Mahon 19,800 49.0 −5.3
Conservative James Walsh 13,671 33.8 +1.7
Liberal Democrat John Durkin 5,878 14.6 +2.6
UKIP Helen Martinek 1,041 2.6 +1.0
Majority 6,129 15.2
Turnout 40,390 57.8 −12.7
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Alice Mahon 27,465 54.3
Conservative Robert Light 16,253 32.1
Liberal Democrat Edgar Waller 6,059 12.0
Independent Constance Whittaker 779 1.5
Majority 11,212 22.2
Turnout 50,556 70.5
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1992: Halifax[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Alice Mahon 25,115 43.5 +0.1
Conservative TR Martin 24,637 42.7 +1.4
Liberal Democrat Ian R. Howell 7,364 12.7 −2.6
Independent Nationalist Ron Pearson 649 1.1 +1.1
Majority 478 0.8 −1.3
Turnout 57,765 78.7 +1.0
Labour hold Swing −0.6

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Alice Mahon 24,741 43.38
Conservative Roy Galley 23,529 41.26
Social Democrat Laurence Cockcroft 8,758 15.36
Majority 1,212 2.13
Turnout 77.70
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1983: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Roy Galley 22,321 40.85
Labour Shirley Summerskill 20,452 37.43
Social Democrat F. Cockroft 11,868 21.72
Majority 1,869 3.42
Turnout 75.11
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Shirley Summerskill 21,416 43.79
Conservative J. Ford 20,182 41.27
Liberal A. Clegg 6,853 14.01
National Front B. Wadsworth 455 0.93
Majority 1,234 2.52
Turnout 76.69
Labour hold Swing
General Election October 1974: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Shirley Summerskill 20,976 44.27
Conservative S.R. Lyons 16,798 35.45
Liberal A. Clegg 8,693 18.35
Powellite R.S. Pearson 919 1.94
Majority 4,178 8.82
Turnout 74.55
Labour hold Swing
General Election February 1974: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Shirley Summerskill 20,970 40.93
Conservative S.R. Lyons 17,967 35.07
Liberal A. Clegg 12,300 24.01
Majority 3,003 5.86
Turnout 81.27
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1970: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Shirley Summerskill 24,026 49.33
Conservative G.A. Turner 23,828 48.93
Ind. Labour Party A. Graham 847 1.74
Majority 198 0.41
Turnout 73.51
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Shirley Summerskill 25,391 50.28
Conservative G.A. Turner 19,689 38.99
Liberal D.A. Carlin 5,423 10.74
Majority 5,702 11.29
Turnout 80.48
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1964: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Shirley Summerskill 23,143 43.76
Conservative Maurice Macmillan 22,085 41.75
Liberal J. Crossley 7,664 14.49
Majority 1,058 2.00
Turnout 82.06
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Maurice Macmillan 29,212 52.25
Labour Peter Shore 26,697 47.75
Majority 2,515 4.50
Turnout 83.26
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1955: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Maurice Macmillan 28,306 51.39
Labour Dryden Brook 26,771 48.61
Majority 1,535 2.79
Turnout 80.15
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1951: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Dryden Brook 30,433 50.63
Conservative C.H. Lucas 29,670 49.37
Majority 763 1.27
Turnout 84.25
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1950: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Dryden Brook 28,800 47.70
Conservative C.H. Lucas 20,456 33.88
Liberal A. Pickles 9,573 15.85
Liberal National R.H. Blackburn 1,551 2.57
Majority 8,344 13.82
Turnout 85.09
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Dryden Brook 25,605 46.5 +7.0
Conservative Gilbert Gledhill 14,824 26.9 -17.5
Liberal Arnold Gelder 14,631 26.6 +10.5
Majority 10,781 19.6 +14.7
Turnout 55,060 77.4 +0.5
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +11.3

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Gilbert Gledhill 24,103 44.4 −21.3
Labour Arthur Longbottom 21,471 39.5 +9.8
Liberal Ashley Mitchell 8,736 16.1 N/A
Majority 2,632 4.9 −31.1
Turnout 54,310 76.9 −3.6
Conservative hold Swing −15.6
General Election 1931: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Gilbert Gledhill 36,731 65.7 +36.0
Labour Arthur Longbottom 16,601 29.7 −12.5
Independent Liberal Frank Sykes[7] 2,578 4.6 N/A
Majority 20,130 36.0 +23.5
Turnout 80.5 −0.8
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +24.2

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929

Electorate 69,301

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Arthur Longbottom 22,776 42.2 −0.6
Conservative Gilbert Gledhill 16,713 29.7 +3.3
Liberal George Elliot Dodds 15,823 28.1 −2.8
Majority 7,063 12.5 +0.5
Turnout 55,312 81.3 +2.6
Labour hold Swing
Halifax by-election, 1928
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Arthur Longbottom 17,536 42.8
Liberal Harry Barnes 12,585 30.8
Conservative F. S. Crossley 10,804 26.4
Majority 4,951 12.0
Turnout 40,925 78.7 +24.3
Labour gain from Liberal Swing
General Election 1924: Halifax
John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed
General Election 1923: Halifax
John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed
General Election 1922: Halifax
John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

John Henry Whitley
General Election 1918: Halifax

Electorate

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John Henry Whitley 22,136 84.6 N/A
Socialist Labour Party Arthur McManus 4,046 15.4 N/A
Majority 18,100 69.2 N/A
Turnout 16,172 53.4
Liberal hold Swing
General Election December 1910 : Halifax[8]

Electorate 15,528

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John Henry Whitley 8,778 33.4
Labour James Parker 8,511
Conservative John Herbert Lacy Baldwin 4,602
Conservative James Francis Wallace Galbraith 4,420
Majority
Turnout 87.0
Liberal hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
General Election January 1910 : Halifax[9]

Electorate 15,528

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John Henry Whitley 9,504
Labour James Parker 9,093
Conservative James Francis W Galbraith 4,754
Majority
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Crossley, Whitley and Parker
General Election 1906 : Halifax[10]

Electorate 15,316

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John Henry Whitley 9,354
Labour James Parker 8,937
Liberal Unionist Sir Savile Brinton Crossley 5,041
Majority
Turnout
Liberal hold Swing
Labour gain from Liberal Unionist Swing
James Parker
General Election 1900 : Halifax[11]

Electorate 14,879

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Unionist Sir Savile Brinton Crossley 5,931 29.6
Liberal John Henry Whitley 5,543
Liberal Alfred Billson 5,325
Ind. Labour Party James Parker 3,276
Majority
Turnout 86.7
Liberal Unionist hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  3. ^ See Sandal Castle and Wakefield Castle
  4. ^ Legally, the doctrine of prescription (law), as opposed to "by grant", means obtained by long use
  5. ^ Among the curious customs of Halifax was the Gibbet Law, which was probably established by a prescriptive right to protect the wool trade, and gave the inhabitants the power of executing any one taken within their liberty, who, when tried by a jury of sixteen of the frith-burgesses, was found guilty of the theft of any goods of the value of more than 13d. The executions took place on market days on a hill outside the town, the gibbet somewhat resembling a guillotine. The first execution recorded under this law took place in 1541, and the right was exercised in Halifax longer than in any other town, the last execution taking place in 1650. In 1635 the king granted the inhabitants of Halifax licence to found a workhouse in a large house given to them for that purpose by Nathaniel Waterhouse, and incorporated them under the name of the master and governors. Nathaniel Waterhouse was appointed the first master, his successors being elected every year by the twelve governors from among themselves.
  6. ^ In 1607 David Waterhouse, lord of the manor of Halifax, obtained a grant of two markets there every week on Friday and Saturday and two fairs every year, each lasting three days, one beginning on 24 June, the other on 11 November. Later these fairs and markets were confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of the manor. The market rights were sold to the Markets Company in 1810 and purchased from them by the corporation in 1853.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Samuel Lewis (publisher) (1848). "Halifax". A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  3. ^ 2001 Census
  4. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "H" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
  5. ^ http://www.calderdale.gov.uk/council/democracy/election-information/halifax-constituency/halifax.html
  6. ^ "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  7. ^ At the 1931 general election, the local Liberal Association chose not to field a candaidate against the National Government; Sykes stood as an "Independent Liberal" candidate
  8. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  9. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  10. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  11. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)

Sources[edit]

  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Victoria County History, Yorkshire
  • T. Wright, The Antiquities of the Town of Halifax (Leeds, 1738)
  • John Watson, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax (London, 1775)
  • John Crabtree, A Concise History of the Parish and Vicarage of Halifax (Halifax and London, 1836).
  • Craig, F. W. S. (1983) [1969]. British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3rd edition ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. 
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Penrith and Cockermouth
Constituency represented by the Speaker
1921–1928
Succeeded by
Daventry

Coordinates: 53°43′N 1°53′W / 53.717°N 1.883°W / 53.717; -1.883