23 April 1902|
|Died||8 February 1998
|Notable award(s)||Nobel Prize in Literature
Halldór Kiljan Laxness (Icelandic: [ˈhaltour ˈcʰɪljan ˈlaxsnɛs] ( ); born Halldór Guðjónsson; 23 April 1902 – 8 February 1998) was a twentieth-century Icelandic writer. Throughout his career Laxness wrote poetry, newspaper articles, plays, travelogues, short stories, and novels. Major influences on his writings include August Strindberg, Sigmund Freud, Sinclair Lewis, Upton Sinclair, Bertolt Brecht and Ernest Hemingway. He received the 1955 Nobel Prize in Literature; he is the only Icelandic Nobel laureate.
Laxness was born under the name Halldór Guðjónsson (following the tradition of Icelandic patronymics) in Reykjavík in 1902, the son of Guðjón Helgason and Sigríður Halldórsdóttir. In 1905 his family moved from Reykjavík to Laxnes (near Mosfellsbær), a more rural area about 15 km northeast of the capital. He soon started to read books and write stories. At the age of 14 his first article was published in the newspaper Morgunblaðið under the name "H.G." His first book, the novel Barn náttúrunnar (Child of Nature), was published in 1919. At the time of its publication he had already begun his travels on the European continent.
In 1922, Laxness joined the Abbaye St. Maurice et St. Maur in Clervaux, Luxembourg. The monks followed the rules of Saint Benedict of Nursia. Laxness was baptized and confirmed in the Catholic Church early in 1923. Following his confirmation, he adopted the surname Laxness (in honor of the homestead where he had been raised) and added the name Kiljan (an Icelandic spelling of the Irish martyr Saint Killian).
Inside the walls of the abbey, he practiced self-study, read books, and studied French, Latin, theology and philosophy. While there, he composed the story Undir Helgahnjúk, published in 1924. Soon after his baptism, he became a member of a group which prayed for reversion of the Nordic countries back to Catholicism. Laxness wrote of his experiences in the book Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír: "The essential feature of Vefarinn mikli is the witches' brew of ideas presented in a stylistic furioso of style.". The novel, published in 1927, "... created a sensation in Iceland and was hailed by Kristjan Albertsson as the epoch-making book it really was. In the future Laxness was always in the vanguard of stylistic development..."
"Laxness's religious period did not last long; during a visit to America he became attracted to socialism.". Partly under the influence of Upton Sinclair, who he befriended in California, "... Laxness joined the socialist bandwagon... with a book (Alþydubókin, 1929) of brilliant burlesque and satirical essays... one of a long series in which he discussed his many travel impressions (Russia, Western Europe, South America), unburdened himself of socialistic satire and propaganda, and wrote of the literature and the arts, essays of prime importance to an understanding of his own art..." Laxness lived in the United States and attempted to write screenplays for Hollywood films between 1927 and 1929.
By the 1930s he "had become the apostle of the younger generation" and was attacking "viciously" the Christian spiritualism of Einar Hjörleifsson Kvaran, an influential writer who had also been considered for the Nobel Prize.
"... with Salka Valka (1931–32) began the great series of sociological novels, often coloured with socialist ideas, continuing almost without a break for nearly twenty years. This was probably the most brilliant period of his career, and it is the one which produced those of his works that have become most famous. But Laxness never attached himself permanently to a particular dogma."
Salka Valka was published in English in 1936, receiving a glowing review from the Evening Standard: "No beauty is allowed to exist as ornamentation in its own right in these pages; but the work is replete from cover to cover with the beauty of its perfection."
This was followed by Heimsljós (World Light, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940) described in the words of Magnus Magnusson as a book "... which has been consistently regarded by many critics as his most important work.".
He also traveled to the Soviet Union and wrote approvingly of the Soviet system and culture.
In 1946 Independent People was released as a book of the month club selection in the United States, selling over 450,000 copies.
In response to the establishment of a permanent US military base in Keflavík, he wrote the satire Atómstöðin (The Atom Station), an action which, in part, may have caused his blacklisting in the United States.
"The demoralization of the occupation period is described... nowhere as dramatically as in Halldor Kiljan Laxness' Atómstöðin (1948)... [where he portrays] postwar society in Reykjavík, completely torn from its moorings by the avalanche of foreign gold"
In 1955, Laxness was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland":
"His chief literary works belong to the genre... [of] narrative prose fiction. In the history of our literature Laxness is mentioned beside Snorri Sturluson and the author of the "Njals saga", and his place in world literature is among writers such as Cervantes, Zola, Tolstoy, and Hamsun... He is the most prolific and skillful essayist in Icelandic literature both old and new..."
In the presentation address for the Nobel prize E. Wesen stated:
"He is an excellent painter of Icelandic scenery and settings. Yet this is not what he has conceived of as his chief mission. 'Compassion is the source of the highest poetry. Compassion with Asta Sollilja on earth,' he says in one of his best books... And a social passion underlies everything Halldór Laxness has written. His personal championship of contemporary social and political questions is always very strong, sometimes so strong that it threatens to hamper the artistic side of his work. His safeguard then is the astringent humour which enables him to see even people he dislikes in a redeeming light, and which also permits him to gaze far down into the labyrinths of the human soul."
In his acceptance speech for the Nobel prize he spoke of:
"... the moral principles she [his grandmother] instilled in me: never to harm a living creature; throughout my life, to place the poor, the humble, the meek of this world above all others; never to forget those who were slighted or neglected or who had suffered injustice, because it was they who, above all others, deserved our love and respect..."
Laxness grew increasingly disenchanted with the Soviets after their military action in Hungary in 1956.
In 1957 Halldór and his wife (Auður Sveinsdóttir) went on a world tour, stopping in: New York City, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Madison, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Peking, Bombay, Cairo and Rome.
Major works in this decade were Gerpla (The Happy Warriors, 1952), Brekkukotsannáll (The Fish Can Sing, 1957), and Paradísarheimt (Paradise Reclaimed, 1960).
In the sixties Laxness was very active in the Icelandic theatre, writing and producing plays of which The Pigeon Banquet (Dúfnaveislan, 1966) was the most successful.
He published the "visionary novel" Kristnihald undir Jökli (Under the Glacier / Christianity at the Glacier) in 1968.
Laxness was awarded the Sonning Prize in 1969.
Laxness continued to write through the 1970s and 1980s while living in Gljúfrasteinn, an estate located outside of Reykjavík. His wife, Auður Sveinsdóttir, assumed the duties of personal secretary and business manager. As he grew older he began to suffer from Alzheimer's disease and eventually moved into a nursing home where he died at the age of 95. He was married twice, and had four children. His house in Gljúfrasteinn is now a museum operated by the Icelandic government.
His daughter Guðný Halldórsdóttir is an award-winning filmmaker. Her first work, a popular magical-realist film adaptation of Kristnihald undir jōkli (Under the Glacier) screened at film festivals and repertory cinemas around the world for many years. In 1999 she directed an adaptation of the Laxness story The Honour of the House, which was submitted for Academy Award consideration for best foreign film.
His grandson is a hip-hop artist known in Iceland as Dóri DNA.
Interest in Laxness increased in the 21st century in English-speaking countries with the re-publishing of several novels and the publication of Iceland's Bell (2003) and The Great Weaver from Kashmir (2008) in new translations by Philip Roughton.
Works by Laxness
- 1919: Barn náttúrunnar (Child of Nature)
- 1924: Undir Helgahnúk (Under the Holy Mountain)
- 1927: Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír (The Great Weaver from Kashmir)
- 1931: Salka Valka (Part I) – Þú vínviður hreini
- 1932: Salka Valka (Part II) – Fuglinn í fjörunni
- 1934: Sjálfstætt fólk (Part I, Independent People) – Landnámsmaður Íslands (Icelandic Pioneers)
- 1935: Sjálfstætt fólk (Part II) – Erfiðir tímar (Hard Times)
- 1937: Heimsljós (Part I, World Light) – Ljós heimsins (later named Kraftbirtíngarhljómur guðdómsins)
- 1938: Heimsljós (Part II, The Palace of the Summerland) – Höll sumarlandsins
- 1939: Heimsljós (Part III, The Poet's House) – Hús skáldsins
- 1940: Heimsljós (Part IV, The Beauty of the Sky) – Fegurð himinsins
- 1943: Íslandsklukkan (Part I, Iceland's Bell) – Íslandsklukkan
- 1944: Íslandsklukkan (Part II, The Bright Maiden) – Hið ljósa man
- 1946: Íslandsklukkan (Part III, Fire in Copenhagen) – Eldur í Kaupinhafn
- 1948: Atómstöðin (The Atom Station)
- 1952: Gerpla (The Happy Warriors)
- 1957: Brekkukotsannáll (The Fish Can Sing)
- 1960: Paradísarheimt (Paradise Reclaimed)
- 1968: Kristnihald undir Jökli (Under the Glacier / Christianity at the Glacier)
- 1970: Innansveitarkronika (A Parish Chronicle)
- 1972: Guðsgjafaþula (A Narration of God's Gifts)
- 1923: Nokkrar sögur
- 1933: Fótatak manna
- 1935: Þórður gamli halti
- 1942: Sjö töframenn
- 1954: Þættir (collection)
- 1964: Sjöstafakverið
- 1987: Sagan af brauðinu dýra
- 1992: Jón í Brauðhúsum
- 1996: Fugl á garðstaurnum og fleiri smásögur
- 1999: Úngfrúin góða og Húsið
- 2000: Smásögur
- 2001: Kórvilla á Vestfjörðum og fleiri sögur
- 1934: Straumrof
- 1950: Snæfríður Íslandssól (from the novel Íslandsklukkan)
- 1954: Silfurtúnglið
- 1961: Strompleikurinn
- 1962: Prjónastofan Sólin
- 1966: Dúfnaveislan
- 1970: Úa (from the novel Kristnihald undir Jökli)
- 1972: Norðanstúlkan (from the novel Atómstöðin)
- 1925: Únglíngurinn í skóginum
- 1930: Kvæðakver
Travelogues and Essays
- 1925: Kaþólsk viðhorf (Catholic View)
- 1929: Alþýðubókin (The Book of the People)
- 1933: Í Austurvegi (In the Baltic)
- 1938: Gerska æfintýrið (The Russian Adventure)
- 1952: Heiman eg fór
- 1975: Í túninu heima, part I
- 1976: Úngur eg var, part II
- 1978: Sjömeistarasagan, part III
- 1980: Grikklandsárið, part IV
- 1987: Dagar hjá múnkum
- Halldór Guðmundsson, The Islander: a Biography of Halldór Laxness. McLehose Press/Quercus, London, translated by Philip Roughton, 2008, pp. 49, 117, 149, 238, 294
- Guðmundsson, p. 33
- Guðmundsson, p. 34
- Hallberg, Peter, Halldór Laxness. Twayne Publishers, New York, translated by Rory McTurk, 1971, pp.35, 38
- Einarsson, Stefán A History of Icelandic Literature, New York: Johns Hopkins for the American Scandinavian Foundation, 1957, p. 291 OCLC 264046441
- Halldór Laxness biography. nobelprize.org
- Einarsson, pp. 292, 316–17
- Einarsson, p. 317
- Einarsson, pp. 263–4
- Sveinn Hoskuldsson, "Scandinavica", 1972 supplement, pp. 1–2
- Guðmundsson, p.229
- Jane Smiley, Independent People, Vintage International, 1997, cover
- Magnus Magnusson, World Light, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1969, p. viii
- Guðmundsson, p.182
- Guðmundsson, p.279
- Chay Lemoine (2007-02-09) HALLDÓR LAXNESS AND THE CIA.
- Chay Lemoine (2010-11-18). The View from Here, No. 8. icenews.is
- Einarsson, p. 330
- Guðmundsson, p. 340
- Guðmundsson, p. 351
- Presentation address for the Nobel prize by E. Wesen, 1955
- acceptance speech for the Nobel prize, 1955
- Guðmundsson, p. 375
- Guðmundsson, pp. 380–384
- Modern Nordic Plays, Iceland, p. 23, Sigurður Magnússon (ed.), Twayne: New York, 1973
- Susan Sontag, p.xv, introduction to Under the Glacier, Vintage International: New York, 2005
- About Gljúfrasteinn – EN – Gljúfrasteinn. Gljufrasteinn.is. Retrieved on 2012-07-29
- Under the Glacier (1989) . imdb.com
- The Honour of the House (1999). imdb.com
- Halldór Laxness. NNDB. com
- The man who brought Iceland in from the cold – Los Angeles Times. Latimes.com (2008-11-23). Retrieved on 2012-07-29
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Halldór Laxness|
- The Halldór Laxness Museum website 
- Nobel Prize website 
- Petri Liukkonen's biography 
- Dennis Haarsager's biography 
- Laxness in Translation (English translations reviewed)