Halloween around the world
Halloween is a celebration observed on 31 October, primarily in regions of the Western world; the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significantly between geographical areas. Halloween is a time of celebration and superstition. It is thought to have originated with the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain, when people would light bonfires and wear costumes to ward off roaming ghosts.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Asia
- 3 Australia
- 4 Europe
- 5 North America and the Caribbean
- 6 Saint Helena
- 7 Contemporary references
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Halloween or Hallowe'en is derived from "All Hallows' Eve", the eve or vigil before the Western Christian feast of All Hallows (or All Saints) which is observed on 1 November. Halloween begins the triduum of Hallowmas.
Halloween in Hong Kong has two traditions. The first involves the event called "Yue Lan" (Festival of the Hungry Ghosts). Its emphasis is less on celebration, rather it is an opportunity to give gifts to spirits of the dead to provide comfort and ward them off.
The second and more commercialized event is celebrated by expatriate Americans or Canadians. Hong Kong Disneyland and Ocean Park (Halloween Bash) host annual Halloween shows. Lan Kwai Fong bars will be decked out with Halloween decorations to lure ex-pats and locals interest in Halloween.
Traditional "door-to-door" trick or treating is not commonly practiced in Hong Kong due to the vast majority of Hong Kong residents living in high-rise apartment blocks. The only instances of street-level trick or treating to be found in Hong Kong occur in ultra-exclusive gated housing communities such as The Beverly Hills populated by Hong Kong's super-rich. For the general public, there are events at Tsim Sha Tsui's Avenue of the Stars that try to mimic the celebration.
Mainland China has been less influenced by Anglo traditions than Hong Kong and Halloween is generally considered "foreign." As Halloween has become more popular globally it has also become more popular in China, however, particularly amongst children attending private or international schools with many foreign teachers.
A similar custom that is celebrated is Yu Lan, when it is customary to pay homage to deceased ancestors, who are believed to visit the living on Ghost Day.
Halloween arrived only recently in Japan, mainly in the context of American pop culture. Western-style Halloween decorations such as jack-o'-lanterns can be seen in many locations, and places such as Tokyo Disneyland and Universal Studios Japan put on special Halloween events. The wearing of elaborate costumes at night is recently very popular in areas such as Amerikamura in Osaka and Kobe where, in October 2012, about 1700 people dressed in costumes take part in the Halloween Festival.
Trick-or treating is gradually replacing the tradition of Pangangaluluwà, a local version of the old English custom of souling. Some provinces in the Philippines still celebrates "Pangangaluluwa" by forming a group that will go house to house and offer a song in exchange for money or food. But like other traditions, this tradition is starting to fade. The custom had Filipino children singing carols about the souls in Purgatory and asking for abúloy (alms for the deceased) to pay for Masses for the dead. Along with the requested alms, householders sometimes gave the children súman (rice cake). During the night various small items, such as items of clothing, plants, etc., would "mysteriously" disappear, only to be discovered the next morning in the yard, or in the middle of the street. In older times, it was believed that during Halloween, spirits of loved ones visit and manifest their visit by taking an item.
The prevalence of Western media helped spread the celebration of Halloween, particularly the custom of dressing in costume and trick-or-treating, beginning in the 1960s. Its popularity has steadily risen over the decades. Seasonal decorations and costumes are now widely available, while horror-themed marketing, films, and television programmes are commonplace. Many people return to home provinces to visit and tend the graves of loved ones.
Singapore Chinese celebrates "Zhong Yuan Jie / Yu Lan Jie" (Hungry Ghosts Festival, some sort of Chinese Halloween) during lunar seventh month. It is believed that the gates of hell are opened and the spirits come back to visit their families. Throughout the month, there will be Chinese Opera and live music performances on a temporary setup stage and outdoor banquet dinner near the stage in various districts of Singapore. These performances and banquets are funded by residents of the individual district.
In recent years, Halloween celebration is becoming more and more popular in Singapore, with influences from the west and probably the fun element of Halloween. In 2011, netizens are raging because Wildlife Reserves Singapore decided to cancel its Halloween event. In 2012, there are over 19 major Halloween celebration events around Singapore. In 2013, Universal Studios Singapore Halloween Horror Nights is coming back for the third time. Sentosa Spooktacular is back for the fifth time since 2009. Museum of Horrors is back for the fourth time.
Halloween is growing in momentum in Australia, in spite of seasonal differences and the transition from spring to summer. Criticisms stem largely from the fact that Halloween has little relevance to Australian culture. It is also considered, by some Australians, to be an unwanted American influence; as although Halloween does have Celtic/European origins, its increasing popularity in Australia is largely as a result of American pop-culture influence. Supporters of the event claim that the critics fail to see that the event is not entirely American, but rather Celtic and is no different to embracing other cultural traditions such as Saint Patrick's Day (an Irish tradition).
Halloween customs have spread since the 1990s in continental Europe, starting in France, and the holiday has become increasingly popular in Belgium, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, and Austria since the early 1990s. From early October, stores are full of merchandise related to the popular Halloween themes. Students and little children dress up on Halloween for parties and small parades.
In some countries, after 2007–08 Halloween's popularity decreased significantly and many stores cancelled special operations. The main reasons being lack of cultural anchorage in the general population, conflicting schedules with other events (Saint Nicholas Day in Netherlands, Tousaint or All Saints' Day in France) and an obvious mercantile approach.
Halloween is more successful and partially ousting some older customs like the Rübengeistern (turnip ghosts), Martinisingen and others. The University of Graz undertook a research project about Halloween led by Editha Hörandner. According to her, the often heard claims of Celtic or pagan origin is used as a sort of "quality brand" (Gütesiegel) for the authenticity of the tradition.
Hörander sees those claims as the result of a strong and widespread passion for continuity and fictitious Celtic roots. However, the practical rites of present-day Halloween in middle Europe are, according to Hörnander, neither (neo)pagan nor -Celtic. The actual origin of present-day Halloween as a quick reimport from the USA became, in recent decades, a topic of much greater importance in modern folklore research.
Breton people observe Kalan Goañv on 31 October.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, vignesh Halloween was not celebrated until recently. For the past few years, it has been popular among younger generations. Halloween is a work day in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since wearing masks has become highly popular among children and teenagers, e.g. in many Bosnian schools, both elementary as well as high schools (gymnasiums and vocational), students will usually wear costumes and masks on Halloween. There it is called Noć vještica (English translation: Night of Witches).
Halloween was not generally observed in Germany prior to the 1990s, in part due to the opposition of the Lutheran Church. It has been increasing in popularity, however, with a fifth of Germans now telling pollsters they celebrate Halloween. Halloween has been associated with the influence of U.S. culture, and "Trick or Treating" (in German,"Süßes oder Saures") has been occurring in some areas such as the Dahlem neighborhood in Berlin, which was part of the American zone during the Cold War. Complaints of vandalism associated with Halloween "Tricks" have increasing, particular from many elderly Germans unfamiliar with "Trick or Treating."
Halloween is a widely celebrated cultural event in Ireland. It is known in Irish as Oíche Shamhna (Irish pronunciation: [ˈiːhə haunˠə] ee-hah how-nah), literally "Samhain Night". In Irish, Samhain is the name for the month of November. The medieval Irish festival of Samhain marked the end of the harvest, heralding shorter days and the "darker half" of the year. It is linked to the dead revisiting the mortal world, large communal bonfires and associated lore.
On Halloween night, adults and children dress up as creatures from the underworld (e.g., ghosts, ghouls, zombies, witches, and goblins), light bonfires, and enjoy spectacular fireworks displays – in particular, the city of Derry is home to the largest organized Halloween celebration on the island, in the form of a street carnival and fireworks display.
Houses are frequently adorned with orange pumpkins, or traditional turnip carved into scary faces; lights or candles are sometimes placed inside the carvings, resulting in an eerie effect. The traditional Halloween cake in Ireland is the barmbrack, which is a fruit bread. The Halloween Brack traditionally contained various objects baked into the bread and was used as a fortune-telling game. In the barmbrack were a pea, a stick, a piece of cloth, a small coin (originally a silver sixpence), and a ring. Each item, when received in the slice, was supposed to carry a meaning to the person concerned: the pea, the person would not marry that year; the stick, "to beat one's wife with", would have an unhappy marriage or continually be in disputes; the cloth or rag, would have bad luck or be poor; the coin, would enjoy good fortune or be rich; and the ring, would be married within the year.
Games are often played, such as bobbing for apples, in which apples, peanuts, and other nuts and fruit and some small coins are placed in a basin of water. The apples and nuts float, but the coins, which sink, are harder to catch. Everyone takes turns catching as many items possible using only their mouths. In some households, the coins are embedded in the fruit for the children to "earn" as they catch each apple. Another common game involves the hands-free eating of an apple hung on a string attached to the ceiling. Games of divination are also played at Halloween, but are becoming less popular. Lunchtime (the midday meal, sometimes called "dinner" in Ireland), on Halloween is called Colcannon.
Halloween is today associated with anti-social behaviour with 31 October being the busiest day of the year for the Emergency Services. Bangers and fireworks are illegal in the Republic of Ireland; however, they are commonly smuggled in from Northern Ireland where they are legal. Bonfires are frequently built around Halloween. Trick-or-treating is popular amongst children on 31 October and Halloween parties and events are commonplace.
Halloween in Romania is celebrated around the myth of "Dracula" on 31 October. The spirit of Dracula is believed to live there because the town was the site of many witch trials; these are recreated today by actors on the night of Halloween. The most successful Halloween Party in Transylvania is taken place in Sighisoara, the citadel where Vlad the Impaler (aka Dracula) was born. The prestigious Fodor's travel guide placed Halloween in Transylvania in a list of Top Ten Must-Do-Adventures. However, regarding the fact that Dracula is a fictional character created by Bram Stoker, this should not be considered a tradition in Romania. See "Day of the Dead".During this tradition people light up candles in the cemetery, on the shrines of their close relatives and loved ones who have passed away.
In Sardinia island exists a tradition comparable to Halloween known as Su mortu mortu, Su Candeleri, Su Peti Cocone, Su Prugadoriu or Is Panixeddas, according the different villages where it's celebrated. It consists in wandering the streets and knock doors asking for cookies. In the Goceano subregion the pagan feast is celebrated 30 November, when children use to carve long pumpkins into grotesque faces enlighted by candles and brought along the streets or exposed at windows during the night, while children go through the streets asking for money, candies and cookies.
In the town of Gadoni 2 November torches, constituted by sheafs of asphodel stems 2–4 m (7–13 ft) long, are brought through the streets of the town by the young people at the dusk. The meaning of this ritual is that one of accompany the wandering souls and the spirits far from the town. Out of the windows are put sas Concas de Mortu (Head of the deads), carved pumpkins that look like skulls, with inside a candle.
Halloween in Slovakia is celebrated mostly amongst youths and in cities. However, All Saint's Day (Slovak: Sviatok všetkých svätých) and All Souls' Day (Slovak: Dušičky) are traditionally more recognized, especially in rural areas.
In Switzerland, Halloween, after first becoming popular in 1999 is on the wane. Switzerland already has a "festival overload" and even though Swiss people like to dress up for any occasion, they do prefer a traditional element.[clarification needed]
There are certain customs associated with All Saints' Day (All Hallows Day) and All Souls' Day. In the past, on All Souls' Eve families would stay up late, and little "soul cakes" were eaten. At the stroke of midnight, there was solemn silence among households, which had candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes and a glass of wine on the table to refresh them. The tradition of giving soul cakes that originated in Great Britain and Ireland was known as souling, often seen as the origin of modern trick or treating in North America, and souling continued in parts of England as late as the 1930s, with children going from door to door singing songs and saying prayers for the dead in return for cakes or money.
Bobbing for apples is a well-established association with Halloween. In the game, attempts are made (using only one's mouth) to catch an apple placed in a water-filled barrel.
Other traditions include making toffee apples and apple tarts. Apple tarts may be baked with a coin hidden inside, and nuts of all types are traditional Halloween fare.
There has been concern about the potential for antisocial behaviour, particularly among older teenagers, on Halloween. Cases of houses being "egg-bombed" or having lit fireworks posted through the letterbox (especially when the occupants do not give money or gifts) have been reported, and the BBC reported that for Halloween 2006, police forces stepped up patrols to respond to such mischief.
Isle of Man
Scotland, having a shared Celtic culture with Ireland, refers to the medieval festival of Samhain in Scottish Gaelic as Oidhche Shamhna, the "Summer's night". During the fire festival, souls of the dead wander the Earth and are free to return to the mortal world until dawn. Traditionally, bonfires and lanterns (samhnag in Scottish Gaelic) would be lit to ward off the phantoms and evil spirits that emerge at midnight.
The name Halloween is first attested in the 16th century as a Scottish shortening of the fuller All-Hallows-Even, that is, the night before All Hallows Day. All observances of Halloween made an application to the agency of evil spirits, and Dumfries poet John Mayne's 1780 poem made note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!", as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts). Eminent Scottish poet Rabbie Burns was influenced by Maynes composition, and portrayed some of the customs in his poem Halloween (1785). According to Burns, Halloween is "thought to be a night when witches, devils, and other mischief-making beings are all abroad on their baneful midnight errands".
Traditional customs and lore include divination practices, ways of trying to predict the future. By the 18th century, most of the customs were methods for young people to search for their future husbands or wives. A traditional Scottish form of divining one's future spouse is to carve an apple in one long strip, then toss the peel over one's shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name.
Children who ventured out carried a candle-lit lantern (samhnag) carved with a devilish face to frighten away faeries (sídhe, or sìth, in modern Gaelic) or evil spirits. Such Halloween lanterns were made from a turnip, or "neep" in Lowland Scots. In modern times, pumpkins are used, as in North American traditions, possibly because it is easier to carve a face into a pumpkin than into a turnip.
If children approached the door of a house, they were given offerings of food (Halloween being a harvest festival), which served to ward off the potential spirits that may lurk among them. The children's practice of "guising" (derived from "disguising"), going from door to door in supernatural-themed costumes for food or coins, is a traditional Halloween custom in Scotland and Ireland. Among the earliest record of Guising at Halloween in Scotland is in 1895, where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit and money.
A traditional Halloween game includes apple "dooking", or "dunking" or (i.e., retrieving one from a bucket of water using only one's mouth), and attempting to eat, while blindfolded, a treacle/jam-coated scone hanging on a piece of string. In some places, apple-dunking has been replaced (because of fears of contracting saliva-borne illnesses in the water) by standing over the bowl holding a fork in one's mouth and releasing it in an attempt to skewer an apple using only gravity.
In many urban areas, principally South Wales, Welsh children Trick or Treat, as per the American custom. Halloween parties and events are common place.
North America and the Caribbean
In the Caribbean Halloween is celebrated by parties on the night of Halloween. Although it is not listed as a calender event in most Caribbean countries it is still celebrated.
Canada and United States
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
Halloween is largely celebrated in the same manner in English-speaking Canada and the United States. In the United States, where lingering Puritan tradition restricted the observance of many holidays, Halloween did not become a holiday until the 19th century. American almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th centuries do not include Halloween in their lists of holidays. The transatlantic migration of nearly two million Irish following the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1849) finally brought the holiday to the United States. Scottish emigration, primarily to Canada before 1870 and to the United States thereafter, brought the Scottish version of the holiday to each country. The earliest known reference to ritual begging on Halloween in English speaking North America occurs in 1911, when a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario reported that it was normal for the smaller children to go street "guising" on Halloween between 6 and 7 p.m., visiting shops and neighbors to be rewarded with nuts and candies for their rhymes and songs.
American librarian and author Ruth Edna Kelley wrote the first book length history of the holiday in the U.S; The Book of Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter Hallowe'en in America; "All Hallowe'en customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries. The taste in Hallowe'en festivities now is to study old traditions, and hold a Scotch party, using Robert Burns's poem Halloween as a guide; or to go a-souling as the English used. In short, no custom that was once honored at Hallowe'en is out of fashion now". The main event for children and teenagers of modern Halloween in the United States and Canada is trick-or-treating, in which children, teenagers, (sometimes) young adults, and parents (accompanying their children) disguise themselves in costumes and go door to door in their neighborhoods, ringing each doorbell and yelling "Trick or treat!" to solicit a gift of candy or similar items.
Irish-American and Scottish-American societies held dinners and balls that celebrated their heritages, with perhaps a recitation of Robert Burns' poem Halloween or a telling of Irish legends, much as Columbus Day celebrations were more about Italian-American heritage than Columbus per se. Home parties centred on children's activities, such as apple bobbing, and various divination games often concerning future romance. Not surprisingly, pranks and mischief were common as well.
At the turn of the 20th century, Halloween had turned into a night of vandalism, with destruction of property and cruelty to animals and people. Around 1912, the Boy Scouts, Boys Clubs, and other neighborhood organizations came together to encourage a safe celebration that would end the destruction that had become so common on this night. School posters during this time called for a "Sane Halloween". Children began to go door to door, receiving treats, rather than playing tricks on their neighbors. This helped to reduce the mischief, and by the 1930s, "beggar's nights" had become very popular. Trick-or-treating became widespread by the end of the 1930s.
The commercialization of Halloween in the United States did not start until the 20th century, beginning perhaps with Halloween postcards (featuring hundreds of designs), which were most popular between 1905 and 1915. Dennison Manufacturing Company (which published its first Halloween catalog in 1909) and the Beistle Company were pioneers in commercially made Halloween decorations, particularly die-cut paper items. German manufacturers specialised in Halloween figurines that were exported to the United States in the period between the two World Wars.
Mass-produced Halloween costumes did not appear in stores until the 1930s, and trick-or-treating did not become a fixture of the holiday until the 1950s. In the 1990s, many manufacturers began producing a larger variety of Halloween yard decorations; before this, the majority of decorations were homemade. Some of the most popular yard decorations are jack-o'-lanterns, scarecrows, witches, orange string lights, inflatable decorations such as spiders, pumpkins, mummies and vampires, and animatronic window and door decorations. Other popular decorations are foam tombstones and gargoyles.
Halloween is now the United States' second most popular holiday (after Christmas) for decorating; the sale of candy and costumes is also extremely common during the holiday, which is marketed to children and adults alike. The National Confectioners Association (NCA) reported in 2005 that 80 percent of American adults planned to give out candy to trick-or-treaters. The NCA reported in 2005 that 93 percent of children planned to go trick-or-treating. According to the National Retail Federation, the most popular Halloween costume themes for adults are, in order: witch, pirate, vampire, cat, and clown. Each year, popular costumes are dictated by various current events and pop culture icons. On many college campuses, Halloween is a major celebration, with the Friday and Saturday nearest 31 October hosting many costume parties.
Trick-or-treating may often end by early evening, but the nightlife thrives in many urban areas. Halloween costume parties provide an opportunity for adults to gather and socialize; some even wielding Halloweens' costume party power for charity benefits. Urban bars are frequented by people wearing Halloween masks and risqué costumes. Many bars and restaurants hold costume contests to attract customers to their establishments. Haunted houses are also popular in some areas. Fireworks displays are also held at Disneyland (as of 2009) and at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom during an event at that park called Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party, in which the fireworks are titled HalloWishes.
Those living in the country may hold Halloween parties, often with bonfires, with the celebrants passing between them. The parties usually involve traditional games (like snipe hunting, bobbing for apples, or searching for candy in a similar manner to Easter egg hunting), haunted hayrides (often accompanied by scary stories, and costumed people hiding in the dark to jump out and scare the riders), and treats (usually a bag of candy and/or homemade treats). Scary movies may also be viewed. Normally, the children are picked up by their parents at predetermined times. However, it is not uncommon for such parties to include sleepovers.
Madison, Wisconsin, home of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, hosts one of the more infamous annual Halloween celebrations. Due to the large influx of out-of-towners crowding the State Street area, riots have broken out in recent years, resulting in the use of mounted police and tear gas to disperse the crowds. Likewise, Chapel Hill, NC, site of the University of North Carolina, has a notorious downtown street party which in 2007 drew a crowd estimated at 80,000 on downtown Franklin Street, in a town with a population of just 54,000. In 2008, in an effort to curb the influx of out-of-towners, mayor Kevin Foy emplaced measures to make commuting downtown more difficult on Halloween.
Anoka, Minnesota, the self-proclaimed "Halloween Capital of the World", celebrates the holiday with a large civic parade and several other city-wide events. Salem, Massachusetts, also has laid claim to the "Halloween Capital" title, while trying to dissociate itself from its history of persecuting witchcraft. At the same time, however, the city does see a great deal of tourism surrounding the Salem witch trials, especially around Halloween. In the 1990s, the city added an official "Haunted Happenings" celebration to the October tourist season. Nearby Keene, New Hampshire, hosts the annual Pumpkin Fest each October which previously held the record for having the greatest number of lit jack-o'-lanterns at once. (Boston, Massachusetts holds the record as of October 2006).
New York City hosts the United States' largest Halloween celebration, known as The Village Halloween Parade. Started by Greenwich Village mask maker Ralph Lee in 1973, the evening parade now attracts over two million spectators and participants, as well as roughly four million television viewers annually. Barbara Ehrenreich, in her book on collective joy mentions this as an example of how Halloween is transitioning from a children's holiday to an adult holiday and compares it to Mardi Gras.
Rutland, Vermont has hosted the annual Rutland Halloween Parade since 1960. Tom Fagan, a local comic book fan, is credited with having a hand in the parade's early development and superhero theme. In the early 1970s, the Rutland Halloween Parade achieved a degree of fame when it was used as the setting of superhero comic books, including Batman #237, Justice League of America #103, Amazing Adventures #16 and The Mighty Thor #207.
Wilmington, North Carolina had Front Street (down town) barricaded off to allow crowds of costumed Halloween spectators and visitors to mingle in 2010. One member of the crowd started chanting "USA", and the Wilmington Police Department swiftly pepper-sprayed the unsuspecting crowd. Lt Ed Pigford of Wilmington PD is quoted as saying "we're trying to avoid injury by trying to split these crowds up as quickly as we can". With pepper spray.
In Saint Helena, Halloween is actively celebrated, largely along the American model, with ghosts, skeletons, devils, vampires, witches and the like. Imitation pumpkins are used instead of real pumpkins because the pumpkin harvesting season in Saint Helena's hemisphere is not near Halloween. Trick-or-treating is widespread. Party venues provide entertainment for adults.
The search engine Google has been making interactive google doodles for Halloween every year. Their 2013 Halloween doodle depicted a witch brewing a concoction in a cauldron while reading a book of spells. Their 2012 Halloween doodle depicted a series of dark haunted houses.
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