List of psychoactive plants

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Salvia divinorum, a dissociative hallucinogenic sage

A list of plants that are used as hallucinogens. Some of them have been used for thousands of years for religious purposes. The plants are listed according to the substances they contain.

THC[edit]

Cannabis plant
Main article: Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychoactive plant that is often used recreationally. Cannabis is also unique in that it contains a psychoactive substance, THC, which contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, tryptamine, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a dissociative drug. Cannabis plants tend to vary, with different strains producing dynamic balances of psychoactive cannabinoids (THC, CBD, etc.) that cause different strains to produce markedly different effects, popular strains often being hybrids of both Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Some universities and research firms currently study the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many jurisdictions have laws regulating (or outright prohibiting) the sale and use of medical cannabis to treat pain, insomnia, and stimulate appetite.

Tryptamines[edit]

DMT Molecule in 2D
DMT Molecule in 3D

Many of the psychedelic plants contain dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It cannot simply be eaten as it is not orally active without an MAOI and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be smokable.

Acanthaceae[edit]

Species, Alkaloid content, where given, refers to dried material

Aceraceae[edit]

  • Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple Tree) was found to contain the indole alkaloid gramine (not active and extremely toxic) 0.05% in the leaves, so it is possible that other members of this plant family contain active compounds.[2]

Aizoaceae[edit]

Apocynaceae[edit]

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)[edit]

1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[44] 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2-methyl-beta-carboline, Plant,[44] 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Bark,[44] 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine, Bark,[44] Bufotenin, plant,[44] beans,[43] Bufotenin N-oxide, Fruit,[44] beans,[43] N,N-Dimethyltryptamine-oxide, Fruit[44][47]

Caesalpinioideae subfamily[edit]

Malpighiaceae[edit]

Myristicaceae[edit]

Ochnaceae[edit]

Ochnaceae[edit]

Poaceae (Gramineae)[edit]

Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep.[68]

Polygonaceae[edit]

Punicaceae[edit]

  • Punica granatum "DMT in root cortex;"[63] The dried stem and root bark of the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.[72]

Rubiaceae[edit]

Rutaceae[76][77][edit]

Urticaceae[edit]

Phenethylamines[edit]

Species, Alkaloid Content (Fresh) - Alkaloid Content (Dried)

Beta-carbolines[edit]

Harmaline, a Beta-carboline

Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own.

Apocynaceae[edit]

Bignoniaceae[edit]

Calycanthaceae[edit]

Chenopodiaceae[edit]

Combretaceae[edit]

Cyperaceae[edit]

Elaeagnaceae[edit]

Gramineae[edit]

Lauraceae[edit]

Leguminosae[edit]

Loganiaceae[edit]

Malpighiaceae[edit]

Myristicaceae[edit]

Ochnaceae[edit]

Palmae[edit]

Papaveraceae[edit]

Passifloraceae[edit]

Polygonaceae[edit]

Rubiaceae[edit]

Rutaceae[edit]

Sapotaceae[edit]

Simaroubaceae[edit]

Solanaceae[edit]

Symplocaceae[edit]

Tiliaceae[edit]

Zygophyllaceae[edit]

Plants containing other psychoactive substances[edit]

Acoraceae:

Salvinorin A structure.svg
Salvinorin A
Salvia divinorum - Herba de Maria.jpg

Salvia divinorum

Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[97]
S-Cathinone.svg
Cathinone
Catha edulis.jpg

Catha edulis

Khat
Blank.jpg
Unknown
Foeniculum vulgare.JPG

Foeniculum vulgare

Unknown
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Unknown
Blank.JPG

Justicia pectoralis

Unknown
Pukateine.png
Pukateine
Old Rimu in Kaitoke Park.jpg

Laurelia novae-zelandiae

Pukateine
Beta-thujone.svg
Thujone
ArtemisiaVulgaris.jpg

Artemisia vulgaris

Thujone
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Damianin
Tunera diffusa 2.jpg

Turnera diffusa

Damianin
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unknown
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Comparison 4400px.jpg

Magnolia virginiana

The leaves or bark have been placed in cupped hands over the nose and inhaled as a mild hallucinogen
Bulbocapnine skeletal.svg
Bulbocapnine
Corydalis ambigua.jpg

Corydalis solida, Corydalis cava

Bulbocapnine, Nantenine, Tetrahydropalmatine
Kavalactone General Structure.PNG
Kavalactones
Starr 040318-0058 Piper methysticum.jpg

Piper methysticum

Kavalactones
Lagochilin.png
Lagochilin
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Lagochilus inebrians

Lagochilin is thought to be responsible for the sedative, hypotensive and hemostatic effects of this plant.
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Unknown
Tagetes lemmonii flower.jpg

Tagetes lucida

Anethole, Chavicol, Coumarin, Estragole, Isorhamnetin, Methyleugenol, Quercitin
Blank.jpg
Lactucarium
Lactuca virosa - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-213.jpg

Lactuca virosa

Lactucarium
Glaucine.png
Glaucine
Glaucium flavum03.jpg

Glaucium flavum

Glaucine
Blank.jpg
Muscarinic
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Galbulimima belgraveana

Galbulimima belgraveana is rich in alkaloids and twenty-eight alkaloids have been isolated. Himbacine, himbeline, himandravine, himgravine, himbosine, himandridine, himandrine, G.B. 1, G. B. 2, G. B. 3, G. B. 4, G. B. 5, G. B. 6, G. B. 7, G. B. 8, G. B. 9, G. B. 10, G. B. 11, G. B. 12, himgaline, himbadine, G. B. 13, himgrine, G. B. 14, G. B. 15, G. B. 16, G. B. 17 and G. B. 18.
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Unknown
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Zornia latifolia

Zornia latifolia, is mentioned in Food of the Gods as "an hallucinogenic substitute for cannabis". It's nicknamed Maconha brava because locals use it as a cannabis substitute.
Blank.jpg
Unknown
Stachelmohn.JPG

Argemone mexicana

Used by Chinese residents of Mexico during the early 20th century as a legal substitute for opium and currently smoked as a marijuana substitute.
Ergine.png
Ergine
Starr 050107-2974 Argyreia nervosa.jpg

Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose)

Seeds contain high amounts of LSA (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.
Ibogaine.png
Ibogaine
Iboga.jpg

Tabernanthe iboga

Ibogaine in root bark[98]
Ibogaine.png
Ibogaine

Tabernanthe orientalis

Ibogaine in root leaves[98]
Ibogaine.png
Ibogaine

Tabernanthe pubescens

Ibogaine and similar alkaloids[98]
Ibogaine.png
Ibogaine

Tabernaemontana sp.

Ibogaine[98]
Ibogaine.png
Ibogaine
Confederate Jasmine, Star Jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides).jpg

Trachelospermum jasminoides

Ibogaine[99]
Aporphine.svg
Aporphine
Nymphaea caerulea.jpg

Nymphaea caerulea

Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and apomorphine, which have been recently isolated by independent labs.[citation needed]

These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer's Odyssey.

Used in aromatherapy, Nymphaea caerulea is purported to have a "divine" essence, bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility.[citation needed]

Other sources cite anti-spasmodic and sedative, purifying and calming properties.

Leonurine structure.png
Leonurine
Leonotis leonurus flower.jpg

Leonotis leonurus

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Leonurine structure.png
Leonurine
Leonotis nepetifolia1.jpg

Leonotis nepetifolia

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Blank.jpg
Active Chemical Unknown
Calea zacatechichi cutting.jpg

Calea zacatechichi

Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent. Its psychedelic properties do not become apparent until the user is asleep.
Blank.jpg
Unknown
Silene-capensis.jpg

Silene capensis

Produces vivid dreams after smoking.

Convolvulaceae:

Ipomoea tricolor-1.jpg
Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea
D-lysergic acid amide and lysergic acid amides in the seeds; up to 0.12% total[100]
Rivea corymbosa
Seeds contain D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and turbicoryn; lysergic acid alkaloids up to 0.03%[101]
Some Mirabilis sp. (Actually in Nyctaginaceae family)
LSA[citation needed]

Apocynaceae family:

Aquifoliaceae family:

  • Ilex guayusa, which is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca. According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.

Euphorbiaceae family:

Loganaceae family:

Lythraceae family:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]