Halobacteriaceae

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Halobacteriaceae
Scientific classification
Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: Euryarchaeota
Phylum: Euryarchaeota
Class: Halobacteria Grant et al. 2002
Order: Halobacteriales Grant and Larsen 1989
Family: Halobacteriaceae Gibbons 1974
Genus

In taxonomy, the Halobacteriaceae are a family of the Halobacteriales in the domain Archaea.[1]

Overview[edit]

Halobacteriaceae are found in water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. They are also called halophiles, though this name is also used for other organisms which live in somewhat less concentrated salt water. They are common in most environments where large amounts of salt, moisture, and organic material are available. Large blooms appear reddish, from the pigment bacteriorhodopsin. This pigment is used to absorb light, which provides energy to create ATP. Halobacteria also possess a second pigment, halorhodopsin, which pumps in chloride ions in response to photons, creating a voltage gradient and assisting in the production of energy from light. The process is unrelated to other forms of photosynthesis involving electron transport; however, and halobacteria are incapable of fixing carbon from carbon dioxide.

Halobacteria can exist in salty environments because although they are aerobes they have a separate and different way of creating energy through use of light energy. Parts of the membranes of halobacteria are purplish in color and containing retinal pigment. This allows them to create a proton gradient across the membrane of the cell which can be used to create ATP for their own use.

To live within their salty environments they have made certain adaptations. Their cellular machinery is adapted to high salt concentrations by having charged amino acids on their surfaces, allowing the cell to keep its water molecules around these components. They use the osmotic pressure and these amino acids to control the amount of salt within the cell. Also there are proteins inside of the cell that help to keep it alive in its environment. However, because of these adaptations if the cell were to be taken out of its natural salty environment it would most likely immediately burst from the osmotic pressure.

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)[2] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[3] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project.[4]



?Haloalcalophilium atacamensisLizama et al. 2000



?Halobaculum gomorrense Oren et al. 1995



?Halobellus clavatus Cui et al. 2011



?Halolamina pelagica Cui et al. 2011



?Halorientalis regularis Cui et al. 2011



?Halorussus rarusCui et al. 2010



?Salarchaeum japonicum Shimane et al. 2011



Halomarina oriensis Inoue et al. 2011




Natronomonas Kamekura et al. 1997 emend. Burns et al. 2010





?Halomicrobium zhouiiYang & Cui 2011





Halomicrobium mukohataei [type sp.] (Ihara et al. 1997) Oren et al. 2002



Halorhabdus Wainø et al. 2000 emend. Antunes et al. 2008





Halarchaeum acidiphilum Minegishi et al. 2010



Halobacterium Elazari-Volcani 1957 emend. Oren et al. 2009






Halosimplex carlsbadense Vreeland et al. 2003




Halomicrobium katesii Kharroub et al. 2008



Haloarcula Torreblanca et al. 1986 emend. Oren et al. 2009








Haladaptatus Savage et al. 2007 emend. Roh et al. 2010





Haloquadratum walsbyi Burns et al. 2007




Halopelagius inordinatus Cui et al. 2010




Halosarcina limi Cui et al. 2010




Halosarcina pallida Savage et al. 2008 [type sp.]



Halogeometricum Montalvo-Rodríguez et al. 1998 emend. Cui et al. 2010








Haloferax Torreblanca et al. 1986 emend. Oren et al. 2009




Halogranum Cui et al. 2010 emend. Cui et al. 2011





Halonotius pteroides Burns et al. 2010



Haloplanus Bardavid et al. 2007 emend. Cui et al. 2010




Halorubrum McGenity and Grant 1996 emend. Oren et al. 2009










Halalkalicoccus Xue et al. 2005



Halococcus Schoop 1935 emend. Oren et al. 2009





Natronoarchaeum mannanilyticum Shimane et al. 2010




Halovivax Castillo et al. 2006




Halopiger Gutiérrez et al. 2007





Halobiforma Hezayen et al. 2002 emend. Oren et al. 2009




Natronobacterium Tindall et al. 1984



Natronococcus Tindall et al. 1984






Haloterrigena species-group 1 [incl. Halorubrum trapanicum, Natrinema & Natronorubrum sediminis]




Haloterrigena species-group 2




Natronolimnobius Itoh et al. 2005




Natronorubrum Xu et al. 1999 emend. Oren et al. 2009



Natrialba [incl. Halostagnicola]















Notes:
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)
International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology or International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSB/IJSEM) published species that are in press.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Scientific journals[edit]

  • Wright, A-DG (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships within the order Halobacteriales inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequences". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56 (Pt 6): 1223–1227. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63776-0. PMID 16738095. 
  • Judicial, Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes: (2005). "The nomenclatural types of the orders Acholeplasmatales, Halanaerobiales, Halobacteriales, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales, Methanomicrobiales, Planctomycetales, Prochlorales, Sulfolobales, Thermococcales, Thermoproteales and Verrucomicrobiales are the genera Acholeplasma, Halanaerobium, Halobacterium, Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanomicrobium, Planctomyces, Prochloron, Sulfolobus, Thermococcus, Thermoproteus and Verrucomicrobium, respectively. Opinion 79". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55 (Pt 1): 517–518. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63548-0. PMID 15653928. 
  • Euzeby JP, Tindall BJ (2001). "Nomenclatural type of orders: corrections necessary according to Rules 15 and 21a of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), and designation of appropriate nomenclatural types of classes and subclasses. Request for an Opinion". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 2): 725–727. PMID 11321122. 
  • Oren A, Ventosa A (2000). "International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Halobacteriaceae. Minutes of the meetings, 16 August 1999, Sydney, Australia". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1405–1407. PMID 10843089. 

Scientific books[edit]

  • Grant WD, Larsen H (1989). "Group III. Extremely halophilic archaeobacteria. Order Halobacteriales ord. nov.". In JT Staley, MP Bryant, N Pfennig, and JG Holt, eds. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3 (1st ed.). Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co. p. 169. 
  • Gibbons, NE (1974). "Family V. Halobacteriaceae fam. nov.". In RE Buchanan and NE Gibbons, eds. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (8th ed.). Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co. 

Scientific databases[edit]

External links[edit]