Hamama

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Hamama
Hamama.jpg
People of Hamama with governor Aref al Aref, in 1943
Hamama is located in Mandatory Palestine
Hamama
Hamama
Arabic حمامة
Name meaning "dove"[1]
Also spelled Hamameh[2]
Subdistrict Gaza
Coordinates 31°41′28.39″N 34°35′23.96″E / 31.6912194°N 34.5899889°E / 31.6912194; 34.5899889Coordinates: 31°41′28.39″N 34°35′23.96″E / 31.6912194°N 34.5899889°E / 31.6912194; 34.5899889
Population 5,070 (1945)
Area 41,366 dunams

41.4 km²

Date of depopulation 4 November 1948[3]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Current localities Nitzanim, Beit Ezra, Eshkolot

Hamama (Arabic: حمامة‎; also known in Byzantine times as Peleia) was a Palestinian Arab town of over 5,000 inhabitants that was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[4] It was located 24 kilometers north of Gaza, between Ashkelon and Ashdod.


History[edit]

Hamama is identified as the fifth century CE Byzantine town of Peleia. Peleia translates as "dove", and when the Arabs conquered it through the Rashidun Caliphate in the seventh century, the town received its Arabic name Hamama meaning "dove", reflecting its Byzantine roots.[5]

Hamama was located near the site of a battle between the Crusaders and the Fatimids in 1099, resulting in a Crusader victory.[5] Later Hamama passed into Muslim Mamluk hands, and by 1333/4 CE (734 H.) some of the income from the village formed part of a waqf of the tomb (turba) and madrasa of Aqbugha b. Abd Allah in Cairo.[6] In 1432, it is reported that the Mamluk sultan Barsbay passed through the village. In this period, a renowned scholar and preacher at the al-Aqsa Mosque, Ahmad al-Shafi'i (1406–1465), was born there.[5]

In 1596, Hamama was a village in the Ottoman nahiya of Gaza (Sanjak Gaza), with a population of 462. It paid taxes on goats and beehives.[7] The seventeenth-century traveller al-Nabulsi recorded that the tomb (qabr) of Shaykh Ibrahim Abi Arqub was located in the village,[8] while the Sufi traveller al-Bakri al-Siddiqi visited Hamama in the mid-eighteenth century, after leaving al-Jura.[9]

Hamama appears on Jacotin's map drawn-up during Napoleon's invasion in 1799, though its position is interchanged with that of Majdal.[10] In 1863, the French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village, and noted a mosque constructed with ancient materials.[11]

Under the British Mandate in Palestine, a village council was established to administer local affairs, and Hamama had a mosque, and two primary schools for boys and girls established in 1921. In 1946, the boys' school had an enrollment of 338, and the girls' school an enrollment of 46. Its inhabitants engaged primarily in fishing and agriculture, cultivating grain, citrus, apricots, almonds, figs, olives, watermelons, and cantaloupes. Due to the existence of sand dunes in the north part of the town, trees were planted on parts of those lands to prevent soil erosion.[12] During the Mandate time, the village was visited by inspectors from the Department of Antiquities who noted two mosques. One of these, known as Shaykh Ibrahim Abi Arqub, included marble columns and capitals in the iwan. The other mosque, known as Shaykh Hamid, also incorporated marble fragments. Neither of these mosques have survived.[8]

1948 War[edit]

Hamama was first drawn into the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, after a group of workers from the town laboring in the adjacent fields were struck by Jewish settlers from Nitzanim on January 22, 1948, leaving fifteen Arabs wounded. Two days later, a unit from Nitzanim opened fire on Hamama residents, killing one, and on February 17, a group of workers waiting for a bus on the road between Isdud and the town were fired upon, wounding two.[12]

It was captured by Israel from the Egyptian Army in the first stage of Operation Yoav on October 28. By then several refugees from nearby towns were in Hamama, most of them, along with many of Hamama's residents, fled with the withdrawing Egyptian troops.[13]

At the end of November 1948, Coastal Plain District troops carried out sweeps of the villages around and to the south of Majdal. Hamama was one of the villages named in the orders to the IDF battalions and engineers platoon, that the villagers were to be expelled to Gaza, and the IDF troops were "to prevent their return by destroying their villages." The path leading to the village was to be mined. The IDF troops were ordered to carry out the operation "with determination, accuracy and energy".[14] The operation took place on 30 November. The troops found "not a living soul" in Hamama. However, the destruction of the villages was not completed immediately due to the dampness of the houses and the insufficient amount of explosives.[15]

Mohammed Dahlan's family is originally from Hamama.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 267
  2. ^ Conder and Kitchener, SWP II, 1882, p. 418
  3. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xix, village #286. Also gives the cause of depopulation.
  4. ^ "Welcome to Hamama". Palestine Remembered. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  5. ^ a b c Khalidi, 1992, p.97-98.
  6. ^ MPF, 10 No. 30. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 146
  7. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 142. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 98.
  8. ^ a b Petersen, 2001, p. 146
  9. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 98.
  10. ^ Palestine Exploration Quarterly Jan-Apr 1944. Jacotin's Map of Palestine. D.H.Kellner. p. 161.
  11. ^ Guérin, 1869, pp. 129 -130
  12. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p.99
  13. ^ Morris (1987), p.220, quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.99.
  14. ^ Coastal Plain District HQ to battalions 151 and ´1 Volunteers`, etc., 19:55 hours, 25 Nov. 1948, IDFA (=Israeli Defence Forces and Defence Ministry Archive) 6308\49\\141. Cited in Morris (2004), p.517
  15. ^ Coastal Plain HQ to Southern Front\Operations, 30 Nov. 1948, IDFA 1978\50\\1; and Southern Front\Operations to General Staff Divisions, 2. Dec. 1948, IDFA 922\75\\1025. Cited in Morris (2004), p.518

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]