Hamengkubuwono X

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Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X
Hamengkubuwono x.jpg
Predecessor Paku Alam VIII
Predecessor Hamengkubuwono IX
Spouse GKR Hemas
Born (1946-04-02) 2 April 1946 (age 68)
Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Religion Islam/Kejawen[citation needed]
Occupation Monarch

His Majesty Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (also seen as Hamengkubuwana) (born BRM Herjuno Darpito, 2 April 1946 in Yogyakarta) is the current monarch of the historic Yogyakarta Sultanate in Indonesia, and is currently also the governor of the modern Yogyakarta Special Region (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta). He was inaugurated on 3 October 1998.

During Dutch Colonialism prior to 1941, the governmental position of Governor was occupied by the Dutch-appointed Dutch Resident of Yogyakarta, with the Sultan maintaining a facade with merely ceremonial powers.

Due to special status granted to the Yogyakarta Region when the Republic of Indonesia was formed in 1945, in recognition of the late Hamengkubuwana IX's heroic support and role in the Indonesian War of Independence, the hereditary monarch was to hold the position of Provincial Governor. However, this provision was not honored by the Indonesian central government when Bendoro Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito ascended the throne in 1988 as Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwana X (SS HB X for brevity).

One of the two symbolically important banyan trees, namely Kiai Dewandaru planted during the reign of SS HB I fell in the Alun-Alun Utara (northern Parade Square) coincidentally concurrently with the funerary rites of his late father SS HB IX, attributed by kejawen Javanese as a sign of immense grief of even the physical lands of the kingdom. The banyan was replanted with approval of SS HB X although it is diminutive beside the centuries-old Kiai Wijayadaru on the east flank.

Under the Suharto regime, vice-governor Sri Paku Alam VIII, prince of the subordinate enclave of Paku Alaman within Yogyakarta was instead (controversially) elevated to the position of governor.

In 1998 the central government required an election be held for the post of Yogyakarta Governor and the 3rd of October 1998 SS HB X was democratically elected by Yogyakarta Provincial electorate as Governor.

Background[edit]

Billboard announcing the coronation of Hamengkubuwana X on 7 March 1989.

SS HB X was a graduate of Public Administration at the Faculty of Law of Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta.

SS HB X was active as Chairman DIY KADINDAII (Business Association), Chairman of the DPD Golkar DIY (Golongan Karya Party Yogyakarta), Chairman of the DIY Sports Committee Chairman and Managing Director of PT Punokawan Construction, President of the PG Madukismo Commissioner, and in July 1996 was appointed Chairman of the DIY Expert Counsel to the Governor.

SS HB X followed the tradition of his late father Sri Sultan Hamengkubawana IX in the spirit of Indonesian Nationalism over self-interest by participating in street protests in support of the student demonstrations opposing Suharto's rule on May 14 of 1998, and like his illustrious father, wanted to be a pioneer in the Yogyakarta Reformation Movement albeit in a non-violent manner.

SS HB X was also one of the four key figures in the early reform period sparked Ciganjur Declaration urging the government to hold elections as soon as possible, because President BJ Habibie had neither Constitutional nor legal right to resume the presidency of Suharto who had just resigned.

SS HB X has stated his vision for his region and Sultanate is the development of science and technology, development of agriculture, tourism and world famous cultural industries and thus provide a fair and prosperous life to all his citizens.

SS HB X was nominated by popular choice, Golkar Yogyakarta Assembly as a Presidential Candidate for the 2009 Indonesian Presidential Election Campaign. SS HB X, though widely respected across all parties and nation-wide as neutral, honest and uncorrupted was ultimately unsuccessful in garnering support outside Central Java and was unsuccessful to attain first round voting position.

Personal life[edit]

Coronation of Hamengkubuwono X and Hemas in 1989

SS HB X has discontinued the polygamist tradition of Javanese royalty with kings having several wives and possible multiple concubines, as per his late father's wishes to modernize the royal system and thus women's rights, and to lead by example and is married to Queen consort Gusti Kanjeng Ratu (GKR) Hemas.

Their five daughters (in birth order) are:

SS HB X resides in the Keraton Yogyakarta complex and uses the Governor's mansion solely for political affairs.

Titles[edit]

In Javanese Kraton (palaces) - names of individuals change with respect to change in status:[1]-

  • From birth until marriage: Bendoro Raden Mas (Flag Lord) Herjuno Darpito
  • Post-nuptial until appointment as Crown Prince: Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Haryo (KGPH) Mangkubumi
  • As Heir Apparent Crown Prince: Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya (KGPAA) Hamengku Negara Sudibyo Raja Putra Nalendra Mataram.
  • As Sultan: Ngarsa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senapati ing Ngalogo Ngabdurrokhman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah ingkang jumeneng kaping X

His style and title in full English: His Majesty, Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See also Javanese names

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Sri Paku Alam VIII
Governor of Yogyakarta
3 October 1998 - Present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX
Sultan of Yogyakarta
7 March 1989 - Present
Succeeded by
Incumbent