Hammad ibn Buluggin
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After the death of his father Buluggin ibn Ziri, al-Mansur ibn Buluggin (984–995), Hammad's brother, became the head of the Zirid dynasty in Ifriqiya, and installed Hammad as governor of the central Maghreb (grossly corresponding to the modern northern Algeria). He took on the Zanata tribes and eventually drove them into Morocco. In 1007 Hammad founded the residence of al-Qala ("the Fortress") in the Hodna mountains west of Setif and embarked on an extensive building programme, which included a palace and mosque that became famous amongst contemporaries.
Following this Hammad gained ever more influence in the western Zirid realm. In 1014 he declared his independence from the Zirids and recognised the Abbasids in Baghdad as being the rightful Caliphs (not the Fatimids in Egypt, on whose behalf the Zirids ruled). Although there was initially conflict with the Zirids, in 1016 they were forced to conclude a ceasefire, and in 1018 they recognised the independence of the Hammadids.
The successor of Hammad was Qaid ibn Hammad (1028–1054), under whom relations with the Fatimids were re-established.
Qaid ibn Hammad
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