Hampton Roads Transit
|Headquarters||3400 Victoria Blvd.
|Service area||Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Portsmouth, Hampton, Newport News, Smithfield|
|Service type||bus service, light rail, ferry, carpool|
|Hubs||Downtown Norfolk Transit Center (DNTC), Hampton Transportation Center (HTC), Newport News Transportation Center (NNTC)|
Ferry: 3 (additional port at Harbor Park for baseball games)
|Daily ridership||63,150(Weekday Daily) as of August 2012|
|Fuel type||Diesel, Diesel-electric|
|Chief executive||William E. Harrell|
Hampton Roads Transit "(HRT)", incorporated on October 1, 1999, began through the voluntary merger of PENTRAN (Peninsula Transportation District Commission) on the Virginia Peninsula and TRT (Tidewater Regional Transit a.k.a. Tidewater Transit District Commission) in South Hampton Roads and currently serves over 22 million annual passengers within its 369-square-mile (960 km2) service area around Hampton Roads. The purpose of the HRT is to provide reliable and efficient transportation service and facilities to the Hampton Roads community.
Its service area consists of the cities of Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Portsmouth, Hampton, Newport News, Williamsburg (Colonial Williamsburg) and the town of Smithfield. The entire service area population is 1.3 million. HRT also serves the area's major college campuses of Christopher Newport University, Hampton University, Norfolk State University, Old Dominion University, Thomas Nelson Community College, and Tidewater Community College.
Effective January 1, 2012, the City of Suffolk, Virginia chose to withdraw from the Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads and since, HRT no longer provides transit services within Suffolk.
- 1 Governance
- 2 Leadership
- 3 Funding
- 4 Corporate Time-Line
- 5 Bus fleet
- 6 Light rail fleet
- 7 Other fleet
- 8 Primary services
- 9 Other services
- 10 Projects under development
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Hampton Roads Transit is governed by the Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads (TDCHR). The TDCHR was established in accordance with Chapter 45 of Title 15.2 of the Code of Virginia, as amended, referred to as the Transportation District Act of 1964 and by ordinances adopted by the governing bodies of its components governments.
The Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads, HRT’s governing body, consists of 13 members, one elected official and one citizen representative from each city served by Hampton Roads Transit, and the chairman of the Commonwealth Transportation Board (CTB), or a designee. The six Hampton Roads cities that participate rotate the chairmanship each year. The Honorable Richard W. “Rick” West (Chesapeake) is the current chairman.
There are five established committees that provide input to the governing body. These committees are listed below:
- Executive Committee
- Audit/Budget Review Committee
- Operations & Oversight
- Planning and New Start Development
- Paratransit Committee
- Commission Effectiveness (Ad-hoc)
William E. Harrell is the current president and CEO of Hampton Roads Transit. Harrell went to Hampton Roads Transit from Chesapeake, Virginia, where he was the city manager since June 2007. Harrell replaced interim CEO Phillip A. Shucet on April 2, 2012.
Phillip A. Shucet was hired in February 2010 as an interim CEO to help complete construction of The Tide light rail while the company searches for a permanent replacement for long-time executive director Michael Townes. Townes was pressured by the Board of Directors and ultimately agreed to step down after the revelation of a $100 million cost overrun and a one-year delay on Norfolk’s light-rail starter line, which has been named "The Tide". Shortly previously, Townes had been criticized for his handling of an employee embezzlement scheme. While he had not been directly involved in the earlier problem, a majority of the board members cited poor management and communication on his part in calling for him to step down.
Hampton Roads Transit has no dedicated revenue source. Funding for service is provided with federal, state and local funding provided by member jurisdictions and farebox revenues. Local funding is provided based on the Cost Allocation Agreement - each city establishes how much service will be provided within its borders based on how much it is willing to pay for those services after all federal, state, and farebox revenues are applied. This means that the numbers of routes, service frequency, and service coverage areas as operated by Hampton Roads Transit are determined in each city during the annual budgetary cycle.
NOTE: This section begins with the introduction of rubber-tired buses to the transit operations in Hampton and Newport News, following many years of public transit service performed earlier and during the transition by horse-drawn and electrically powered streetcars utlilizing rails imbedded in the streets and roads of the area.
|1944||The Virginia Transit Company begins operating rubber-wheeled bus service in Hampton Roads.||Norfolk, VA|
|1945||The Citizens Rapid Transit Company begins operating rubber-wheeled bus service on the Virginia Peninsula, thus ending an era of streetcar service in Hampton Roads.||Newport News, VA and Hampton, VA|
|January 1973||Tidewater Regional Transit (TRT) service begins, with the creation of the Tidewater Transportation District Commission (TTDC); and acquires the Virginia Transit Company, Norfolk Division||TRT service begins in Norfolk and Virginia Beach|
|January 1974||Peninsula Transportation District Commission (PTDC) created|
|April 1975||PENTRAN service begins, as the PTDC acquires the Citizens Rapid Transit Company||PENTRAN service begins in Newport News and Hampton|
|May 1975||The TTDC acquires the Community Motor Bus Company of Portsmouth||TTDC expands, with TRT service to Portsmouth, VA|
|1977||James City County Transit begins service within Colonial Williamsburg and James City County, Virginia||Williamsburg, VA not yet served by PENTRAN, nor TRT until 2004.|
|late-1970s/early-1980s||Service expansion to Chesapeake, VA, including communities such as South Norfolk, Great Bridge, Western Branch, Deep Creek and to the newly opened Greenbrier Mall||Chesapeake, VA|
|early-1990s||Service expansion to Suffolk, VA, exclusively to Tidewater Community College and downtown Suffolk||Suffolk, VA|
|1997||Crossroads service begins, linking the Virginia Peninsula cities with South Hampton Roads with local bus service for the first time in the region since special tunnel buses were discontinued many years earlier.|
|October 1, 1999||TRT merges with PENTRAN and forms Hampton Roads Transit (HRT).||HRT begins with bus service already existing in Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Portsmouth, Newport News, Hampton, and Suffolk.|
|June 2008||The MAX (Metro Area Express) began service with eight routes linking all six Hampton Roads Cities.||Norfolk (Norfolk Naval Base, Downtown Norfolk), Virginia Beach (Silverleaf, Oceanfront), Chesapeake (Greenbrier Mall, Chesapeake Square Mall), Portsmouth (Downtown, Victory Crossing, Newport News (Transit Center, Northrop Grumman), and Hampton (Transit Center).|
|August 2011||Virginia's first light rail line Tide Light Rail opens to the public. Passengers were offered free rides from the August 19th grand opening until August 28. More than 30,000 people rode the Tide the first day.||EVMC/Ft. Norfolk, York St./Freemason, Monticello Avenue, MacArthur Square, Harbor Park, Norfolk State University, Ballentine/Broad Creek, Ingleside, Military Highway, and Newtown Road.|
|January 2012||City of Suffolk withdrew contract with HRT to operate public transit in Suffolk.|
The HRT fleet inventory as of August 1, 2011 consisted of 302 vehicles, including 255 diesel buses, 37 hybrid buses and 10 trolley-style buses. The majority of the fleet, a total of 280 buses, were manufactured by Gillig. The HRT fleet also includes 12 Optima buses and 10 Trolley-style buses manufactured by Chance. HRT acquired 11 Gillig hybrids in June 2011 to replace the Chance trolleys.
Hampton Roads Transit's Bus Fleet were originally decorated with all white buses with a two line blue & green wave from the system's former(T) logo which is similar to math's approximate (≈) symbol. New buses since 2006 have a wave going from the back, then becomes smooth through the front and have frameless windows. All Hybrids and the two 2006 Optima Opus' are in the blue background. All MAX buses have a silver background with sky blue & solid blue wave colors. Select buses which had the two-line wave logo have been repainted with the newer back wave design and the exterior window rows are painted black around the windows to resemble the newer buses. In 2012, over 200 buses will be repainted into the silver/blue wave style like the MAX brand with the agency's new stripe logo.
|901 - 933||1993||Orion 05.501||40 feet (12.19 m)||Detroit Diesel 6V92TA||Allison HT-748||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk|
|934 - 949||1995||Orion 05.501||40 feet (12.19 m)||Detroit Diesel 6V92TA||Allison B400R||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk||
|501 - 534||1995||Gillig Phantom||40 feet (12.19 m)||Detroit Diesel Series 50||Allison B400R||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|1201–1229||1999||Gillig Low Floor||35 feet (10.67 m)||Cummins ISC||Voith D864.5||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|Last buses under Pentran and TRT.|
|1230–1239||2000||Gillig Phantom||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISC||Voith D864.5||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk||First buses purchased under HRT.|
|1240–1263||2001||Gillig Phantom||35 feet (10.67 m)||Cummins ISC||Voith D864.5||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk|
|1301–1305||2000||Gillig Low Floor||29 feet (8.84 m)||Cummins ISC||Voith D864.5||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton|
|1400–1409||2001||Chance Opus||30 feet (9.14 m)||Cummins ISB||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk||Several have been refurbished in 2013.|
|1500–1516||2002||Gillig Low Floor||35 feet (10.67 m)||Cummins ISC||Voith D864.5||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|1600–1614||2002||Gillig Low Floor||29 feet (8.84 m)||Cummins ISC||Voith D864.5||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|1700–1715||2003||Gillig Phantom||35 feet (10.67 m)||Cummins ISC||Voith D864.5||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk|
|1800–1810||2004||Gillig Phantom||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.3||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|First coach-style buses purchased by HRT.
|1900–1909||2004||Gillig Low Floor||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|First 40-foot low floor buses. 1901 has lighted up stop sign at the rear.|
|2000–2020||2006||Gillig Low Floor||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk||First buses with frameless windows|
|1410–1416||2006||Optima Opus||30 feet (9.14 m)||Cummins ISB||Diesel||18th St. Norfolk||1415 & 1416 are the system's first blue background colors, originally test buses for shuttles, however they are used for any regular route in the system.|
|2021–2039||2007||Gillig Low Floor||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|2007||Startrans Candidate Ford||21 feet (6.40 m)||For HRT's "Handi-Ride" service for disabled patrons|
|3000 - 3025||2007||Gillig Low Floor||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Clean Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
|4000 - 4023||2008||Gillig BRT Hybrid||29 feet (8.84 m)||Cummins ISB-02||Allison EP40 hybrid system||Diesel-Electric Hybrid||Virginia Beach Trolley Base
18th St. Norfolk
|First hybrids purchased by HRT, usually found in Virginia Beach.
Buses 4015-4023 are the BRT roofed hybrids used for Downtown Norfolk's NET shuttle.
|2040–2046||2008||Gillig Low Floor||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Clean Diesel||18th St. Norfolk||First buses with square sided windows on bus doors|
|3026 - 3035||2008||Gillig Low Floor||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Clean Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton
18th St. Norfolk
MAX Express Buses, also equipped with cargo attachments above some seats.
|4024-4025||2009||Gillig BRT Hybrid||29 feet (8.84 m)||Cummins ISB-02||Allison EP40 hybrid system||Diesel-Electric Hybrid||Virginia Beach Trolley Base|
|2010||Startrans Candidate Ford||21 feet (6.40 m)||For HRT's "Handi-Ride" service for disabled patrons|
|2047–2052||2011||Gillig Low Floor||40 feet (12.19 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Clean Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton|
|4026-4036||2011||Gillig BRT Hybrid||29 feet (8.84 m)||Cummins ISB-02||Allison EP40 hybrid system||Diesel-Electric Hybrid||Virginia Beach Trolley Base||Newest Hybrid shuttle buses on HRT's fleet|
|5000-5008||2012||Gillig Low Floor||35 feet (10.67 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Clean Diesel||18th St. Norfolk||Newest regular service buses on HRT's Southside fleet, First buses manufactured with the new logo.|
|5009-5013||2013||Gillig Low Floor||35 feet (10.67 m)||Cummins ISL||Voith D864.5||Clean Diesel||Victoria Blvd Hampton||Newest regular service buses on HRT's Peninsula fleet.|
On July 18, 2011, it was announced that the Commonwealth of Virginia has signed an umbrella contract with New Flyer Industries for the provision of buses to any Virginia transit authority. It remains to be seen whether or not the contract will include buses for HRT, but highly unlikely due to their contract for Gillig buses.
Light rail fleet
The Tide Light Rail began service on August 19, 2011 with nine of the trainsets entering to revenue service.
|401-409||2009||Siemens Avanto Light Rail||Delivered on October 2009-used since August 2011 when The Tide Light Rail began service.|
HRT has three ferries, with two operating in the peak periods. HRT owns a total of 33 paratransit vans. HER is also leasing an additional 54 paratransit vans from its contractor to meet service requirements. HER owns 74 vanpool vehicles for its Traffix Vanpool Program.
- 1 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Ocean View/Pembroke East
- 2 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Old Dominion University/Naval Station
- 3 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Ocean View Station/Naval Station
- 4 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Old Dominion University
- 5 Evelyn Butts & J/Willoughby Spit
- 6 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/South Norfolk/Robert Hall Blvd
- 8 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Evelyn Butts & J (via Tidewater Drive)
- 9 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Evelyn Butts & J (via Sewells Point Road)
- 11 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Colonial Place
- 12 South Norfolk/Tidewater Community College-Virginia Beach
- 13 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Campostella/Robert Hall Blvd
- 14 Robert Hall Blvd/Battlefield/Tidewater Community College-Chesapeake
- 15 Evelyn Butts & J/Robert Hall Boulevard/Greenbrier Mall
- 16 Old Dominion University/Ft Norfolk Light Rail Station/Colley Ave
- 17 Downtown Norfolk NET Loop
- 18 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Ballentine Blvd
- 20 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Virginia Beach Oceanfront
- 21 Naval Station/Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story
- 22 Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story/Newtown Road Light Rail Station
- 23 Ft Norfolk Light Rail Station/Military Circle/Military Hwy Light Rail Station
- 25 Military Circle/Princess Anne/Tidewater Community College-Virginia Beach/Virginia Beach Municipal Center
- 26 Tidewater Community College-Virginia Beach/Lynnhaven Mall/Oceana West
- 27 Pleasure House Rd/Newtown Road Light Rail Station
- 29 Pleasure House Rd/Lynnhaven Mall-Virginia Beach
- 33 North Seashore/Municipal Center/Tidewater Community College-Virginia Beach
- 36 Holland Rd/Pembroke East/Tidewater Community College-Virginia Beach
- 41 Downtown Portsmouth/Cradock/Victory Crossing
- 43 Downtown Portsmouth/Midtown Wal-Mart via Parkview & London Blvd
- 44 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Ft. Norfolk Light Rail Station/Midtown Portsmouth/Chesapeake Square Mall/Starmount Pkwy
- 45 Downtown Norfolk Transit Center/Downtown Portsmouth/Victory Crossing/Tidewater Community College-Portsmouth
- 47 Downtown Portsmouth/Churchland/Lakeview Ind Park
- 50 Academy Park/Victory Crossing
- 57 Robert Hall Blvd/Airline Boulevard
- 58 South Norfolk/Bainbridge Boulevard/Robert Hall Blvd
- 64 Smithfield/Gwaltney-Northrup/Downtown Newport News
- 101 Downtown Newport News/Kecoughton-Downtown Hampton
- 102 Peninsula Town Center/Downtown Hampton
- 103 Downtown Newport News/Shell Rd-Downtown Hampton
- 104 Downtown Newport News/Newmarket
- 105 Maple Ave/Briarfield-Peninsula Town Center
- 106 Newport News-Warwick Blvd/Fort Eustis
- 107 Newport News-Warwick Blvd/Denbigh
- 108 Patrick Henry Mall/Lee Hall (via Warwick Blvd.)
- 109 Downtown Hampton/Buckroe
- 110 Downtown Hampton/Thomas Nelson Community College
- 111 Thomas Nelson Community College/Riverside/Denbigh
- 112 Downtown Newport News-Jefferson/Riverside Hospital/Christopher Newport University
- 114 Newmarket/Weaver Rd-Downtown Hampton
- 115 Buckroe/Willow Oaks/Downtown Hampton
- 116 Lee Hall/Patrick Henry Mall (via Jefferson Avenue)
- 117 Phoebus/Hampton University/VA Hospital
- 118 Langley/Semple Farm Rd
- 119 Patrick Henry Mall-Thimble Shoals Blvd/Oyster Point
- 120 Downtown Hampton-Mallory/Buckroe
- 121 Patrick Henry Mall-Williamsburg/Newport News
Peninsula Commuter Routes
- 403 Buckroe/NGSB Commuter
- 405 Buckroe/NNTC Commuter
- 412 The ARC Commuter
- 414 NNTC-Jefferson/Oakland Commuter
- 415 NNTC-Denbigh Commuter
- 427 Denbigh Night Commuter
- 430 Denbigh Fringe Commuter
MAX Express Routes
- 918 Virginia Beach-Naval Station (Staff College)
- 919 Virginia Beach-Naval Station
- 922 Chesapeake-Virginia Beach-Naval Station Norfolk
- 960 Virginia Beach-Norfolk
- 961 Newport News-Hampton-Norfolk
- 965 Patrick Henry Mall-Naval Station Norfolk
- 967 Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Chesapeake-Newport News
Handi-Ride is HRT's ADA Paratransit service, and is available within 3/4 of a mile of regularly scheduled bus routes. Fare is $3.00. Certification and reservations are required. Reservation hours are from 8 a.m. until 5 p.m. daily. Reservations must be made no later than 5:00 PM the day before you need transportation and you can reserve a ride up to 3 days in advance, at this time.
TRAFFIX is a service provided by Hampton Roads Transit. It encourages citizens throughout Hampton Roads to use alternative forms of transportation that reduces use of single occupancy vehicles. TRAFFIX oversees and promotes regional commuter initiatives, including carpooling and telecommuting, by reaching out to area employers. Some of its key clients include the U.S. Navy, Northrop Grumman, Wal-mart, and Canon. To date, TRAFFIX has removed nearly 800 vehicles off the road and has saved consumers over 600,000 gallons of gas and over $1.8 million in vehicle related expenses.
HRT's Paddlewheel Ferry is a system of three 150-passenger paddle-wheel ferry boats: The Elizabeth River Ferry II, Elizabeth Ferry III, and the James C. Echols. The Ferry travels between North Landing and High Street in Portsmouth and downtown Norfolk at The Waterside and Harbor Park.
The Ferry operates every 30 minutes, with 15-minute service at peak times on weekends. The Ferry is wheelchair accessible and allows boarding passengers to board with their bicycles. The general cost to board the ferry is $1.50, and 75 cents for seniors and disabled patrons.
The Ferry is three blocks from Downtown Portsmouth's bus transfer area at County St & Court St
The Downtown Loop, formally known as Norfolk Electric Transit or NET is the complimentary downtown bus service provided by the City of Norfolk and operated by Hampton Roads Transit. Service, using 29-foot Gillig BRT Hybrid buses, connects the Downtown Norfolk Transit Center with the major employment sites downtown.
Virginia Beach Wave
The VB Wave runs through the main areas of Virginia Beach.
Route 30 Atlantic Ave (May 1-October 2 8am-2am, About every 15 minutes) which serves all the stops along the Atlantic Avenue boardwalk, This includes the Old Coast Guard Station Museum, the Virginia Beach Fishing Pier, plus the north beaches HRT transfer.
Route 31 Museum Express (Daily, Memorial Day-Labor Day 8am-2am, About every 15 minutes) Serves the Virginia Aquarium, Ocean Breeze Waterpark, Owl Creek Municipal Tennis Center, Holiday Trav-L-Park Campground, and KOA Campground.
Route 32 Shoppers Express (Daily, Memorial Day-Labor Day 10am-9pm, About every hour) Serves the Shops at Hilltop, and ends at Lynnhaven Mall.
VB Wave Service Fares: Adults/Children $1.00 Child (under 38" tall) Free Seniors, patrons with disabilities and Medicare card holders $0.50 Farecard holders for regular bus routes:
MAX (Metro Area Express)
The MAX is the first regional express service connecting all of Hampton Roads. The bus service uses dedicated Gillig buses equipped with coach-style seating to make a more comfortable ride. All MAX buses are equipped with Wi-Fi. The routes connect area Park and Ride lots to Downtown Norfolk and other major employment locations in the area. There are two other express routes (Routes 64 and 121) that are not branded as MAX routes, although Route 121 often uses MAX buses.
Projects under development
The Tide (Completed August 2012)
The Tide, Norfolk's Light Rail System, runs from Eastern Virginia Medical School through downtown Norfolk to Newtown Road (near Sentara Leigh Memorial Hospital). The Groundbreaking Ceremony was held on December 8, 2007. Primary construction began in early 2008, and the Tide became fully operational on August 19, 2011. The first train set arrived on October 6, 2009.
Other projects including the Virginia Beach Extension Study and Peninsula Rapid Transit Project
- "Hampton Roads Transit Performance Dashboard | Gohrt.com". Gohrt.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- "William E. Harrell hired as HRT’s new President/CEO | Gohrt.com". Gohrt.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- "William E. Harrell | Gohrt.com". Gohrt.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- / "William E. Harrell hired as HRT’s new President/CEO | Gohrt.com". Gohrt.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- "HRT head Michael Townes, under fire, agrees to retire | HamptonRoads.com | PilotOnline.com". HamptonRoads.com. 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- "30,000 people rode the Tide opening day| Gohrt.com". Gohrt.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- "Bus service changes in Suffolk| Gohrt.com". Gohrt.com. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- New Flyer Announces Second Quarter 2011 Orders and Backlog
- . Retrieved November 17, 2009. Archived April 23, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- . Retrieved November 17, 2009. Archived February 27, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Starting in December 2011, a new delivery system utilizing a mixed use of taxis, involving local taxi companies and dedicated Handi-Ride buses was implemented. This transformation was the result of Hampton Roads Transportation, Inc.'s Frank Azzalina approaching HRT CEO Philip Shucet, and proposing that significant savings in paratransit could be realized if a mixed-use strategy was administered. After a long period of fleet, and routing optimization analysis occurred, the program was eventually put in place. According to the Virginia Pilot - HRT estimates the changes will result in reducing costs by about $500,000 a year, or about $1.25 million for the remainder of its contract with MV Transportation, the company that operates Handi-Ride. The fleet of paratransit buses was trimmed from 87 to 33.
-  Archived February 27, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- [dead link]
- "Twitter / 10 On Your Side: Norfolk just unveiled "The". Twitter.com. 2009-10-06. Retrieved 2010-05-29.