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|State of Han
|Capital||Yangzhai (before 375 BC)
Xinzheng (after 375 BC)
|Religion||Chinese folk religion, ancestor worship|
Its territory directly blocked the passage of the state of Qin into the North China Plain, thus becoming a frequent target of Qin's military operations. Although Han had attempted several self strengthening reforms, notably under the noted legalist Shen Buhai, it would never overcome the Qin. In fact it was the first of the other six Chinese kingdoms to be conquered by Qin.
According to Shiji, the Han family was descended from the Zhou kings. Members of the family became ministers in the powerful state of Jin and were granted Hanyuan (韓原, Land of the Hans). During the Spring and Autumn Period, the Han family gradually gained influence and importance within Jin. In 403 BC, Marquess Jing of Han (韓景侯), along with Marquess Wen of Wei and Marquess Lie of Zhao partitioned Jin into Han, Wei, and Zhao marking the beginning of the Warring States Period and Han as an independent polity. King Lie of Zhou recognized the new states and elevated the rulers' titles to Marquess.
The high point of the Han state occurred during the rule of Marquess Xi. Xi appointed Shen Buhai (申不害) Chancellor and implemented Shen's Legalist philosophy. Shen's policies strengthened the state of Han and the kingdom became a xiaokang society.
Decline and Fall 
Because of the nature of the partition of Jin, the Han state was landlocked on all sides by other powerful states like Chu to the south, Qi to the east, Qin to the west, and Wei to the north. Han was the smallest of the seven states, and was bullied militarily by more powerful neighbors.
During its steady decline, the Han state lost the power to defend its territory and often had to request military assistance from other states in order to defend its own territory. In the early Warring States era, the contest between the State of Wei and the State of Qi over the domination of Han would eventually lead to the Battle of Maling, which cemented the position of Qi as the preeminent state in the east. Later, in 260 BC, Qin's invasion of Han led to Zhao intervention, leading to the Battle of Changping.
During the late years of the era, in an attempt to drain Qin's resources with an expensive construction project, the state of Han sent the civil engineer Zheng Guo to Qin to persuade them into building a canal. The scheme, while indeed expensive, backfired spectacularly when it was eventually completed; the irrigation abilities of the new Zhengguo Canal far outweighed its cost, and gave Qin the agricultural and economic means to dominate the other six states. Han would be the first of these states to fall, in 230 BC.
Notable individuals 
- Han Fei - Representative figure in Legalist philosophy
- Zhang Liang - Major contribution in the founding of the Han Dynasty
- Zheng Guo - Hydraulic engineer who designed the Zhengguo Canal
List of Han rulers 
|424 BC – 409 BC|
|408 BC – 400 BC|
|399 BC – 387 BC||Marquess Wu (韓武侯)|
|unknown||386 BC – 377 BC|
|unknown||376 BC – 374 BC|
|374 BC – 363 BC||Marquess Zhuang (韓莊侯)
Marquess Yi (韓懿侯)
|362 BC – 233 BC||Marquess Zhao (韓昭侯)|
|unknown||332 BC – 312 BC||King Xuan (韓宣王)
Marquess Wei (韓威侯), before 323 BC
|unknown||311 BC – 296 BC||King Xiang'ai (韓襄哀王)
King Daoxiang (韓悼襄王)
|295 BC – 273 BC|
|unknown||272 BC – 239 BC|
|238 BC – 230 BC|
Han in astronomy 
Han is represented by the star 35 Capricorni in asterism Twelve States, Girl mansion. Han is also represented by the star Zeta Ophiuchi in asterism Right Wall, Heavenly Market enclosure (see Chinese constellation).
See also