Hangal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hanagal
Hangal
town
Hangal Tarakeshwara temple
Hangal Tarakeshwara temple
Hanagal is located in Karnataka
Hanagal
Hanagal
Location in Karnataka, India
Coordinates: 14°46′01″N 75°07′34″E / 14.767°N 75.126°E / 14.767; 75.126Coordinates: 14°46′01″N 75°07′34″E / 14.767°N 75.126°E / 14.767; 75.126
Country  India
State Karnataka
District Haveri
Lok Sabha Constituency Haveri
Elevation 555 m (1,821 ft)
Population (2001)
 • Total 25,011
Languages
 • Official Kannada
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 581 104
Telephone code 08379
Vehicle registration KA-27
Website www.hanagaltown.gov.in

Hangal also spelled as Hanagal is a town in Haveri district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is 75 km away from Hubli-Dharwad. It is on the left bank of the Dharma river, and has ruins of some fortification on the river bank. The town has a huge lake near Billeshwara temple called Anekere. This town is named Viratnagar of Mahabharath. famous Cultural sport of the hangal is "HattiHabba" The town has the huge Tarakeshwara temple. Other temples in the town are the Ganesha temple, Virabhadra temple, Billeshwara and Ramalinga temples.[1] And a famous Veerashaiva Kumaraswami matha located in this town.

History[edit]

Hangal Tarakeshwara temple first half

Hangal was also known as Hanungal.[2]

Hangal was the capital of the Hangal Kadambas,[3][4][5][6] feudatories of the Kalyani Chalukyas. It is mentioned as Panungal in early records and identified by tradition with Viratanagara of Mahabharata days. It was once the headquarters of a district called Panungal-500.

Kadambas[edit]

Main article: Kadamba Dynasty
  • Kadambas is an ancient dynasty of south India which primarily ruled the region of the present day state of Goa and nearby Konkan region (part of modern Maharashtra and Karnataka state). The early rulers of this dynasty established themselves at Vaijayanti or Banavasi in 345 AD and ruled as independent rulers for more than two centuries.
  • The Kadambas, the earliest known dynasty to patronize Jainism was that of the Kadambas who ruled around 485 A.D. This is evident from Kamalajinalaya built near Banavasi by Ravivarma. There were several other Jaina monuments built under Kadamba patronage. Parsvanatha temple at Kuppatur built for Kadamba queen Maladevi and Jaina temple built in Hangal,[7] fort are two such examples.

Western Chalukyas[edit]

Hangal attained significance under the Kalyani Chalukyas[8] who were the chief powers in the Deccan (10th–12th century). Chalukyas were renowned for their architectural (Gadag style) innovations, built out of the grey green chloritic schist of the region. For example the monuments (temples) at Mahadeva Temple, Gadag, Hangal and Lakkundi. So Hangal comes under the core area of Western Chalukya.

The Western Chalukyas (in 973) rose to power by defeating the Rashtrakutas with the help of Kadambas.[9] Then Kadambas chief Chatta Deva was allowed by Taila II to rule Banavasi, he (during 980 - 1031 AD), consolidated his domain in the western Tungabhadra river basin under Chalukya shelter.


Hoysalas[edit]

Hangal gained importance during the rule of Kalyani Chalukyas (10th to the 12th century), and later came under the Hoysalas[10] with the decline of the Chalukyas. Bileshwara temple at Hangal is in the Hoysala style.

Tourism attractions[edit]

Hangal large domical ceiling in the main hall at Tarateshwara temple
Hangal Tarakeshwara entrance to Garbhagudi
Hangal Tarakeshwara domical ceiling
Pillars at Hangal Tarakeshwara temple

Hangal has many historic temples related to the Chalukyas and the Hoysalas. Tarakeshwara temple, Veerabhadra Temple, Billeshwara Temple[11] are a few.

Tarakeshwara temple[edit]

Hangal has a huge structure with wonderful series of images and polished tall Chalukya pillars.[12] The Tarakeshwara temple[13][14] (mid-12th century),[15] dedicated to Shiva.

The outer walls of the temple are articulated with both Dravidian and nagara style of miniature shikaras.

The temple is famous for its very large domical ceiling in the main hall, which rises, in concentric circles of cusped mouldings, and then, at the apex, falling again in a great rosette or pendant.

  • Kirtimukhas are wonderfully done, including Scenes from the Ramayana on these walls.
  • The open hall contains (at its centre), a most intricately carved, domical corbelled lotus ceiling.
  • The rock is carved in the form of a lotus[16] and is 30 feet in diameter, is a octagonal piece of stone supported on 8 pillars.
  • The temple consists of a sanctuary with a great adjoining pillared hall.
  • Pillars are lathe-turned have bell-shaped section. There are plenty of decorative art on pillars, having elephants carved in such a way that a visible space separates the trunks from the pillar. A simple diamond shaped motif that are carved in bands around pillars are done in different sizes and minor variations.
  • Nandi pavilion resting on 12 pillars and leaning balcony seating.
  • The columns are lathe turned (have geometric shapes).
  • Both halls have stepped pyramidal roofs.
  • The outer walls have carvings of miniature temples.
  • There are memorial stones carved with religious (Mastigallu)and military scenes(Veeragallu).

There is Ganesha temple near Tarakeshwara temple, which has a Nagara style (northern curvilinear) Shikhara.

Jain Temple in the Fort[edit]

Hangal temple at horticulture department
Hangal temple at horticulture department

The Jain temple at Hangal in the fort[17] area (at horticulture department premises). It is mostly built after AD 1150.[18] The temple is beautifully decorated but there is need of conservation and restoration. The temple has Hoysala style[19] of architecture. The temple was built on a stepped plan. It has an open hall and sanctuary but both do not have their superstructure now. The sculptural decoration (includes flowers, garlands, torana, animals, birds and gods) upper portion of the wall is elaborate. The temple walls are decorated with thin pilasters. The open hall has lathe turned pillars.

Veerabhadra Temple[edit]

Veerabhadra Temple,[20] located in the Hangal Fort, is a beautifully carved temple. There is a crying need to carry out conservation and restoration work by the Archeological Survey of India.

Billeshwara Temple[edit]

Hangal Billeshwara temple
Hangal Billeshwara temple

The Billeshwara temple is in the Hoysala style. The main attraction in this Temple are its elaborately carved jambs of the doorframe of the garbhagudi. At the lower end of each one (right and left sides of the doorframe) there are 5 carved figures - Manmatha is in the central projection, Rati is at his side with Daksha (the goat headed god) and both are flanked by attendants. It consists of a sanctuary face (incomplete), the outer walls are decorated with designs that look like temple towers and it also has a carved decoration consisting of diamond shaped depressions. The square panels have - carved into them - serpents with intertwined tails, animals, musicians, and foliage.

Kumaraswamy Matha[edit]

Hangal Kumaraswamy Matha

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[21] Hangal had a population of 25,011. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Hangal has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 67%, and female literacy is 60%. In Hangal, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.


Transport[edit]

Hangal is approximately 370 km from Bengaluru and 40 km from Haveri. This town can be reached from Bengaluru via Chitradurga & Haveri and from Dharwad via Hubli & Shiggavi. The nearest rail head is Haveri - its Railway Station code is HVR.

Alphabetically Arranged List Of Villages In Hangal Sub-District[edit]

Sl. #| Vil. #| Village Name| Post| Taluk Name
1| 604140| Adur| Adur| Hangal
2 604133 Ajagundikoppa Mudur Hangal
3 604152 Akki Alur Akki Alur Hangal
4 604095 Akkivalli Araleshwar Hangal
5 604061 Aladakatti Belagalapeth Hangal
6 604065 Allapur Sangur Haveri
7 604092 Araleshwar Araleshwar Hangal
8 604178 Arashinguppi Akki Alur Hangal
9 604040 Badamgatti Bommanahalli Hangal
10 604080 Baichavalli Baichavalli Hangal
11 604052 Bailwal Hullatti Hangal
12 604147 Balambeed Balambeed Hangal
13 604121 Balihalli Balihalli Hangal
14 604151 Balur Akki Alur Hangal
15 604160 Basapur (M) Adur Hirehullal Hangal
16 604057 Basapur (M) Nidasangi Yalavatti Hangal
17 604099 Basavanagara ? ?
18 604072 Belagalapeth Belagalapeth Hangal
19 604049 Belavatti (Hunasikatti) Belagalapeth Hangal
20 604063 Bhingapur Belagalapeth Hangal
21 604101 Bidarakoppa Hirekanagi Hangal
22 604037 Bommanahalli Bommanahalli Hangal
23 604169 Byagawadi Herur Hangal
24 604182 Byathanal Kusnur Hangal
25 604062 Chandragiri Belagalapeth Hangal
26 604139 Channapur (M) Adur Adur Hangal
27 604076 Cheeranahalli Baichavalli Hangal
28 604156 Chikkahullal Didogur Haveri
29 604104 Chikkeri Hangal Hangal
30 604130 Chikkounshi Hosur Chikkounshi Hosur Hangal
31 604054 Dasharatkoppa Kopparsikoppa Hangal
32 604106 Dolleshwar Surleshwar Hangal
33 604173 Dommanala Tilavalli Hangal
34 604048 Dyamankoppa (Inam) Belagalapeth Hangal
35 604120 Dyamankoppa (Sarkar) Shirgoda Hangal
36 604055 Gadegundiyellapur Hullatti Hangal
37 604118 Gadiyankanahalli Hirur Hangal
38 604087 Gazipur Kopparsikoppa Hangal
39 604108 Gejjihalli Hirur Hangal
40 604107 Girishinkoppa Hirur Hangal
41 604138 Gondi Gondi Hangal
42 604102 Gotagodi Hirekanagi Hangal
43 604077 Gudagudi Kopparsikoppa Hangal
44 604171 Guddad Mattihalli Sangur Haveri
45 604060 Gundur Belagalapeth Hangal
46 604149 Gururayapatna Akki Alur Hangal
47 604186 Hallibail Tilavalli Hangal
48 604164 Hanamapur Akki Alur Hangal
49 604038 Hanamasagar Bommanahalli Hangal
50 604103 Handihal Hirekanagi Hangal
51 803103 Hangal (Town Municipal Council) Hangal Hangal
52 604116 Hanumanakoppa Hirur Hangal
53 604045 Haranagiri Bankapur Shiggavi
54 604122 Harlakoppa Sammasgi Hangal
55 604044 Harvi Bankapur Shiggavi
56 604056 Hasanabadi Hullatti Hangal
57 604148 Havanagi Havanagi Hangal
58 604155 Herur Herur Hangal
59 604174 Hirebasur Tilavalli Hangal
60 604154 Hirehullal Hirehullal Hangal
61 604098 Hirekanagi Hirekanagi Hangal
62 604137 Hirekounshi Gondi Hangal
63 604117 Hirur Hirur Hangal
64 604064 Hombli Maranabeed Hangal
65 604180 Honkan Sheshagiri Hangal
66 604097 Hosahalli Hangal Hangal
67 604041 Hospet Bommanahalli Hangal
68 604094 Hotanhalli Araleshwar Hangal
69 604187 Hulagaddi Tilavalli Hangal
70 604125 Hulaginahalli Konankoppa Hangal
71 604088 Hulaginakoppa Hangal Hangal
72 604053 Hullatti Hullatti Hangal
73 604071 Jakkanaikankoppa Adur Hangal
74 604050 Janagundikoppa Belagalapeth Hangal
75 604131 Janginakoppa Shirgoda Hangal
76 604084 Kadashettihalli Savasgi Hangal
77 604188 Kalguddi Tilavalli Hangal
78 604158 Kalkeri Herur Hangal
79 604163 Kallapur Kallapur Hangal
80 604069 Kalvekallapur Adur Hangal
81 604093 Kalveyellapur Araleshwar Hangal
82 604109 Kamanhalli Manthagi Hangal
83 604085 Kanchinegalur Kanchinegalur Hangal
84 604177 Kanneshwar Kusnur Hangal
85 604176 Karekyathanahalli Kusnur Hangal
86 604082 Kargudri Kargudri Hangal
87 604175 Kelavarkoppa Kelavarkoppa Hangal
88 604185 Kirwadi Tilavalli Hangal
89 604142 Kodiyellapur Adur Hangal
90 604127 Konankoppa Konankoppa Hangal
91 604134 Kondoji Akki Alur Hangal
92 604190 Koppagondankop Tilavalli Hangal
93 604086 Kopparsikoppa Kopparsikoppa Hangal
94 604066 Kudal Sangur Haveri
95 604096 Kuntanhosahalli Hangal Hangal
96 604168 Kusnur Kusnur Hangal
97 604128 Kyasanur Chikkounshi hosur Hangal
98 604146 Lakamapur (M) Adur Balambeed Hangal
99 604181 Lakmapur (Inam) Akki Alur Hangal
100 604112 Laxmipur Sammasgi Hangal
101 604075 Maharajpet Kargudri Hangal
102 604136 Makarvalli Akki Alur Hangal
103 604162 Malagund Kallapur Hangal
104 604183 Malapur Tilavalli Hangal
105 604090 Malligar Hangal Hangal
106 604110 Manthagi Manthagi Hangal
107 604046 Maranabeed Maranabeed Hangal
108 604047 Masanakatti Masanakatti Hangal
109 604126 Mattihalli Sangur Haveri
110 604119 Mavakoppa Shirgoda Hangal
111 604132 Mudur Mudur Hangal
112 604172 Mulathalli Sangur Haveri
113 604067 Naregal Naregal Hangal
114 604043 Neeralgi (M) Adur Bankapur Shiggavi
115 604073 Negavanigi Kargudri Hangal
116 604070 Nellibeed Adur Hangal
117 604039 Nellikoppa Bommanahalli Hangal
118 604124 Neralgi (Inam) Konankoppa Hangal 119 604059 Nitaginakoppa Kargudri Hangal
120 604079 Ramathirtha Baichavalli Hangal
121 604081 Rathnapur Kargudri Hangal
122 604113 Sagarvalli Sammasgi Hangal
123 604123 Sammasgi Sammasgi Hangal
124 604141 Sankrikoppa Adur Hangal
125 604089 Satenhalli Hangal Hangal
126 604091 Savasgi Savasgi Hangal
127 604115 Savikeri Balihalli Hangal
128 604150 Sevalal Akki Alur Hangal
129 604144 Sheegihalli (Shingahalli) Adur Hangal
130 604179 Sheshagiri Sheshagiri Hangal
131 604143 Shingapur Adur Hangal
132 604129 Shirgoda Shirgoda Hangal
133 604083 Shirmapur (M) Adur Savasgi Hangal
134 604100 Shivajinagar ? ?
135 604111 Shivapura Manthagi Hangal
136 604135 Shyadaguppi Shyadaguppi Hangal
137 604074 Sivajipur Belagalapeth Hangal
138 604161 Somapur Tilavalli Hangal
139 604170 Somasagara Tilavalli Hangal
140 604114 Sringeri Balihalli Hangal
141 604105 Surleshwar Surleshwar Hangal
142 604159 Tavargoppa Sangur Haveri
143 604078 Thimmapur (M) Nidasangi Bommanahalli Hangal
144 604184 Tilavalli Tilavalli Hangal
145 604145 Tumarikoppa Sangur Haveri
146 604157 Uppanshi Sangur Haveri
147 604153 Veerapura Havanagi Hangal
148 604042 Walageri Masanakatti Hangal
149 604068 Wardi Wardi Hangal
150 604167 Wasan Tilavalli Hangal
151 604051 Yalavatti Yalavatti Hangal
152 604036 Yaliwal Bommanahalli Hangal
153 604165 Yallapur (Inam) Akki Alur Hangal
154 604058 Yallur Kargudri Hangal
155 604189 Yathinhalli (M) Tilavalli Tilavalli Hangal
156 604166 Yethinahalli-M-Adur Akki Alur Hangal

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Karnataka - Dharwad". Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  2. ^ "Oriental Numismatic Society Newsletter, Gold coins of Hangal Kadamba ruler Shantivarma (1075-1094 AD) in the name of Western Chalukya ruler Jayasimha II Jagadekamalla". Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  3. ^ "Handbook of Karnataka, History". Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  4. ^ "The Kadambas of Hangal". Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  5. ^ The Kadamba Kula. By George Moraes, Moraes M.George. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  6. ^ "THE SOUTHERN INDIA , THE KADAMBAS OF HANGAL". Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  7. ^ "General view of a small ruined Jain temple in the Fort, Hangal". Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  8. ^ "Hungul. A temple. [Tarakeshwara Temple, Hangal.], by William Henry Pigou, c. 1857,". Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  9. ^ "THE KADAMBAS OF HANGAL". Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  10. ^ "Hungul. Detached temple, with lintel of the doorway. [Hangal.]". Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  11. ^ "Hungul. Detached temple, with lintel of the doorway. [Hangal.]". Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  12. ^ "Hungul. A temple. [Tarakeshwara Temple, Hangal.]". Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  13. ^ "Alphabetical List of Monuments - Karnataka - Dharwad, Dharwad Circle, Karnataka". Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  14. ^ "The Architectural Antiquities Of Western India". Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  15. ^ "Hungul. A temple. [Tarakeshwara Temple, Hangal.], by William Henry Pigou, c. 1857,". Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  16. ^ "General view from the south-west of the Tarakeshvara Temple, Hangal". Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  17. ^ "Monuments list". Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  18. ^ "View from the north of one of the Jain temples in the Fort at Hangal". Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  19. ^ Indian Temple Architecture By Adam Hardy. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  20. ^ "Karnataka Temples". Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  21. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

External links[edit]