Hani people

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Hani
An ethnic Hani girl with a typical Hani headgear for children. Near Yuanyang, Yunnan Province, China
An ethnic Hani girl with a typical Hani headgear for children. Near Yuanyang, Yunnan Province, China
Total population
758,600
Regions with significant populations

China: Yunnan
Vietnam 21,725 (2009)[1]

Laos 1,120 (1995)
Languages
Hani, Hanoish languages
Religion
Animism, Buddhism, Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Akha, Yi, Lahu
Typical daily attire of ethnic Hani in China.
In Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province.
A Ho (Hani) woman and her child in Laos, circa 2003.

The Hani or Ho people (Hani: Haqniq; Chinese: 哈尼族; pinyin: Hānízú; Vietnamese: Người Hà Nhì) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia.

They form one of the 56 officially recognized nationalities of the People's Republic of China, and one of the 54 officially recognized ethnic groups of Vietnam. In Laos, the Hani are more commonly known as Ho.

Distribution[edit]

There are 12,500 Hani living in Lai Châu Province and Lào Cai Province of Vietnam. The Ho reside in the mountainous northern regions of Phongsaly Province in Laos, near the Chinese and Vietnamese borders.

China[edit]

Over ninety percent of present day Hani peoples live in the Province of Yunnan in southern China, located across the Ailao Mountains, between the Mekong River and the Red River (Yuanjiang river).

Subdivisions of Hani autonomous counties within prefecture-level cities, and a prefecture, within Yunnan are:

Origins[edit]

The origins of the Hani are not precisely known, though their ancestors, the ancient Qiang tribe, are believed to have migrated southward from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau prior to the third century CE.

The Hani oral traditions state that they are descended from the Yi people, and that they split off as a separate tribe fifty generations ago. One of their oral traditions is the recital of the names of Hani ancestors from the first Hani family down to oneself.

Religion[edit]

The Hani are polytheists and they profess a special adoration toward the spirits of their ancestors. They are used to practicing rituals to venerate to the different gods and thus to obtain their protection.

The religious hierarchy of the Hani is divided into three main personages: the zuima that directs the main celebrations; the beima, responsible for practicing the exorcisms and the magical rituals; the nima that takes charge of carrying out predictions and to administer the medicinal herbs. This last charge can be performed indistinctly by men and women.

Some Hani also practice Theravada Buddhism.

Culture[edit]

Hani's house in Vietnam

The dwellings of the Hani are usually two or three stories high, built with bamboo, mud, stone and wood.

The traditional clothing of the Hani is used made out of dark blue fabric. The men dress in short jackets and in long wide pants. They also wear turbans which are white or black. The women dress depending on which clan they belong to. There is no gender difference in the clothing of children under the age of seven.

Hani is known for their unique vocal polyphonic singing. Eight-part polyphony was discovered here in the 1990s.[2] They play traditional musical instruments, end-blown flute labi (俄比). and three-stringed plucked lute lahe.

Part of thousand years old culture are terraced fields.

Elderly Hani ladies enjoying ice cream at Laomeng market. Near Yuanyang, Yunnan Province, China

Language[edit]

The Hani language spoken by many of the Hani belongs to the Lolo-Burmese branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Many Hani speak languages related Lolo-Burmese languages. Oral tradition tells of an ancient written script, tradition says it was lost on the migration from Sichuan. They now use a romanization of the Luchun dialect as a written script.

Subgroups[edit]

According to You Weiqiong (2013:159-160),[3] Hani subgroups were classified as such in 1954, with 11 primary branches. Respective locations (counties) are listed as well.

  • Hani 哈尼
    • Nuobi 糯比: in Xinping, Mojiang
    • Qidi 其弟/期弟: in Honghe, Mojiang, Puer, Zhenyuan, Sipsongpanna
    • Mahei 麻黑: in Puer, Jinggu, Zhenyuan
    • Luomian 罗勉: in Luquan, Wuding
    • Lami 腊米: in Zhenyuan, Mojiang, Honghe, Sipsongpanna
    • Kabie 卡别: in Mojiang
    • Duota 堕塔: in Puer, Xinping, Zhenyuan
    • Sanda 三达: in Sipsongpanna
    • Haini 海尼: in Jinggu
    • Huagu 花姑: in Yuanyang
    • Aka 阿卡: in Puer
  • Yeni 耶尼 (exonym: Kaduo 卡多): in Mojiang, Xinping, Puer, Zhenyuan, Jingdong, Jinggu, Sipsongpanna
  • Biyue 碧约: in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Xinping, Zhenyuan, Simao, Jinggu, Sipsongpanna, Jingdong
  • Haoni 豪尼
    • Budou 布都: in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, Simao, Xinping
    • Bujiao 补角: in Sipsongpanna
    • Baike 白壳: in Zhenyuan
  • Gecuo 哥搓 (exonym: Kucong 苦聪): in Zhenyuan, Xinping, Jinping, Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Yuanyang, Jinggu, Jingdong, Shuangbai
  • Axiluma 阿西鲁吗 (exonym: Ximoluo 西摩洛): in Mojiang, Puer, Honghe, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, Simao, Jingdong
  • Duoni 多尼: in Yuanyang, Jinping
  • Amu 阿木: in Mojiang, Zhenyuan, Puer
  • Suoni 梭尼 (exonym: Asuo 阿梭): in Jinping
  • Luomei 罗美 (exonym: Suobi 梭比): in Xinping
  • Bukong 布孔 (exonyms: Heni 合尼, Baihong 白宏): in Mojiang, Honghe, Puer, Sipsongpanna, Zhenyuan, Jingdong

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 135. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Zhang, Xingrong (1997). ‘A New Discovery: Traditional 8-Part Polyphonic Singing of the Hani of Yunnan’. Chime 10/11 (Spring/Autumn), pg 145–52. http://contemporary_chinese_culture.academic.ru/306/Han_Shaogong
  3. ^ You Weiqiong [尤伟琼]. 2013. Classifying ethnic groups of Yunnan [云南民族识别研究]. Beijing: Nationalities Press [民族出版社].
  4. ^ http://ic.payap.ac.th/graduate/linguistics/papers/Akha_Status_2000.pdf

External links[edit]