Hanko – Hangö
|Municipality and town|
|Hangon kaupunki – Hangö stad|
|• Town manager||Jouko Mäkinen|
|• Total||800.15 km2 (308.94 sq mi)|
|• Land||116.89 km2 (45.13 sq mi)|
|• Water||683.26 km2 (263.81 sq mi)|
|Area rank||146th largest in Finland|
|• Rank||109th largest in Finland|
|• Density||79.31/km2 (205.4/sq mi)|
|Population by native language|
|• Finnish||53.5% (official)|
|• Swedish||43.7% (official)|
|Population by age|
|• 0 to 14||15.2%|
|• 15 to 64||65.4%|
|• 65 or older||19.4%|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Municipal tax rate||20.75%|
Hanko (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈhɑŋko]; Swedish: Hangö), is a bilingual port town and municipality on the south coast of Finland, 130 kilometres (80 mi) west of Helsinki. Its current population is 9,270 (31 August 2013), with a majority being Finnish speakers and a strong minority being Swedish speakers (44%).
Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Hanko:
- Social Democratic Party 29.8%
- Swedish People's Party 25.9%
- National Coalition Party 13.4%
- True Finns 12.8%
- Left Alliance 6.3%
- Green League 3.8%
- Christian Democrats 3.6%
- Centre Party 3.0%
The Hanko Peninsula, on which the city is located, is the southernmost tip of continental Finland. The soil is a sandy moraine, and vegetation consists mainly of pine and low shrubs, mostly Calluna. Hanko is known for its beautiful archipelago.
The skyline of Hanko is dominated by the church and the water tower. Both of them received their current appearance after World War II, as their predecessors were either damaged or destroyed by the Soviet Armed Forces.
Scandlines serve the link between Hanko and Rostock since October 2007 four times a week with two RoRo-vessel. The trip takes some 36 hours.
The Hangon Regatta has been a traditional fixture on the Finnish social scene, and is the major summer event in Hanko. Sailing enthusiasts attend in order to compete, as well as mostly young people who have little or no interest in sailing; they attend only in order to party and drink. The latter constitute the "Regatta tail", not appreciated by most of the town's residents, since it causes huge expenses for clean-up of the parks and streets of all the litter left by those partying.
Other traditional summer activities are the "Tennis Week", the "Sea Horse" riding competitions, the "Summer Theatre" and Hanko Music Festival events.
Several sandy beaches and a multitude of leisure harbors attract tourists during the summer months.
Hanko has a long history of wars and battles. The Battle of Gangut between Swedish and Russian navies was fought in 1714 in the archipelago north of the peninsula. The battle was the first-ever victory of the Russian regular fleet.
The fortification works on the Hanko Peninsula had already been started by the end of the 18th century, when the Swedish constructed three separate forts on the outlying islands. The forts were taken over by Russia in 1809, and were later bombarded by the Royal Navy during the Crimean War and they were eventually blown up during the hostilities by their own defenders.
In the late 19th century, while Finland was still a Grand Duchy under Russia, Hanko was a popular spa resort for the Russian nobility. Some of the buildings from that period survive, notably the Hanko Casino (which is not a gambling establishment, but a former banquet hall of the spa). It is nowadays a restaurant.
The Bengtskär lighthouse is the highest one (52 m or 171 ft) in the Nordic countries. It is situated 25 km (16 mi) southwest of Hanko. It was built in 1906 and it is the first lighthouse museum in Finland.
In the Moscow Peace Treaty that ended the Winter War on March 13, 1940, Hanko was leased to the Soviet Union as a military base for a period of 30 years. During the Continuation War, Soviet troops were forced to evacuate Hanko in early December 1941. The Soviet Union renounced the lease formally in the Paris peace treaty of 1947. As a curiosity, it can be noted that the short Russo-Finnish front across the base of the peninsula on the Finnish side was held in part by volunteer troops from Sweden. A museum has been established at this location, among the trenches and other remnants of the war.
The following sports clubs are located in Hanko:
Twin towns — Sister cities
Hanko is twinned with:
- "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 31.8.2013" (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Register Center of Finland. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hanko.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Hangö.|
- Town of Hanko – official website
- Hanko travel guide from Wikivoyage
- The Front Museum on the Hanko Peninsula, documenting the wartime lease of Hanko to the USSR
- Details about Hanko and Porkkala leased bases, maps
- Bengtskär Lighthouse
- The Harparskog-line Finnish fortification line at Hanko front during World War II.
- Hanko and its fortifications.