Hanlon's razor is an eponymous adage that allows the elimination of unlikely explanations for a phenomenon. It reads:
Never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by stupidity.
This particular form is attributed to a Robert J. Hanlon. However, earlier utterances that convey the same basic idea are known.
The adage was popularized in this form and under this name by the Jargon File, a glossary of computer programmer slang. In 1990, it appeared in the Jargon File described as a "murphyism" parallel to Occam's Razor". The name was inspired by Occam's razor. Later that same year, the Jargon File editors noted lack of knowledge about the term's derivation, and the existence of a similar epigram by William James. In 1996, the Jargon File entry on Hanlon's Razor noted the existence of a similar quotation in Robert A. Heinlein's 1941 short story "Logic of Empire" ("You have attributed conditions to villainy that simply result from stupidity"), with speculation that Hanlon's Razor might be a corruption of "Heinlein's Razor".
In 2001, Quentin Stafford-Fraser published two blog entries citing e-mails from one Joseph E. Bigler about how the quotation originally came from Robert J. Hanlon of Scranton, Pennsylvania, as a submission for a book compilation of various jokes related to Murphy's law published in 1980 in Arthur Bloch's Murphy's Law Book Two: More Reasons Why Things Go Wrong!. Subsequently, in 2002, the Jargon File entry noted the same, though not definitively.
"Heinlein's Razor" has since been defined as variations on Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity, but don't rule out malice. This quotation is attributed to Albert Einstein in Peter W. Singer's 2009 book Wired for War.
...misunderstandings and neglect create more confusion in this world than trickery and malice. At any rate, the last two are certainly much less frequent.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Similarly, Jane West's The Loyalists (1812) includes:
Let us not attribute to malice and cruelty what may be referred to less criminal motives. Do we not often afflict others undesignedly, and, from mere carelessness, neglect to relieve distress?—Jane West
Many journalists have fallen for the conspiracy theory of government. I do assure you that they would produce more accurate work if they adhered to the cock-up theory.—Sir Bernard Ingham
Another similar instance from politics is the attribution by First Minister of Scotland, Henry McLeish, of financial irregularities that led to his resignation in 2001, to "a muddle, not a fiddle".
- "Hanlon's Razor". Jargon File, as of v4.3.2. Eric S. Raymond. 2002-03-03. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Andrew S. Wigosky (2004). RAPID Value Management for the Business Cost of Ownership. Digital Press. p. 5. ISBN 9781555582890. "[...] Hanlon's Razor: "Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity." This definition comes from "The Jargon File" (edited by Eric Raymond), but one poster attributes it to Robert Heinlein, in a 1941 story called "Logic of Empire.""
- Guy L. Steele; Eric S. Raymond (eds.). "THE JARGON FILE, VERSION 2.1.1 (DRAFT) 12 JUN 1990". jargon-file.org. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Giancarlo Livraghi, Il potere della stupidità, Monti & Ambrosini, Pescara, Italy, 2004, p. 1
- Eric S. Raymond; Guy L. Steele (eds.). "THE JARGON FILE, VERSION 2.2.1 15 DEC 1990". jargon-file.org. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Eric S. Raymond (ed.). "THE JARGON FILE, VERSION 4.0.0, 24 JUL 1996". jargon-file.org. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "[untitled]". Status-Q - Quentin Stafford-Fraser's blog. 2001-11-26. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "[untitled]". Status-Q - Quentin Stafford-Fraser's blog. 2001-12-04. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Arthur Bloch (1980). Murphy's Law Book Two: More Reasons Why Things Go Wrong!. Price Stern Sloan. p. 52. ISBN 0-417-06450-0.
- Eric S. Raymond (ed.). "THE JARGON FILE, VERSION 4.3.2, 3 MAR 2002". jargon-file.org. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Peter W. Singer: Wired for War, 2009, ISBN 1594201986, p. 434.
- "Napoleon I on Incompetence - Quotation - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.[dead link]
- "daß Mißverständnisse und Trägheit vielleicht mehr Irrungen in der Welt machen als List und Bosheit. Wenigstens sind die beiden letzteren gewiß seltener." Werther. Erstes Buch. zeno.org
- Jane West (1812). "Chapter XXII". The Loyalists 2. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- Pigden, Charles (2006). "Chapter 3: Popper Revised, or What is Wrong with Conspiracy Theories?". In David Coady. Conspiracy Theories: The Philosophical Debate. p. 17.
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