3 March 1912|
|Died||11 January 1995
|Buried at||Waldfriedhof Solln|
|Allegiance|| Nazi Germany (to 1945)
|Service/branch|| Luftwaffe (Wehrmacht)
|Years of service||1932–45 (Luftwaffe)
|Unit||JG 77, JG 51, JG 54|
|Commands held||III./JG 51, JG 54 Grünherz|
|Awards||Spanienkreuz in Gold mit Schwertern
Deutsches Kreuz im Gold
Johannes "Hannes" Trautloft (3 March 1912 – 11 January 1995) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1932 until the end of the war and again from 1957–70. He flew 560 combat sorties and was credited with 58 victories. He was regarded as a very competent leader, and much respected from those serving beneath him. He also was known as the father of JG 54.
Early life and service in Spain
On 7 April 1931, he began his pilot training at the Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule (German Air Transport School) at Schleißheim. The course he and 29 other trainees attended was called Kameradschaft 31, abbreviated "K 31". Among the members of K 31 were men like Wolfgang Falck and Günther Lützow. Trautloft graduated from the Deutsche Verkehrfliegerschule 19 February 1932. From K 31 Trautloft and 9 others were recommended for Sonderausbildung (special training) at the Lipetsk fighter-pilot school. These 10 men were the privileged few and were allowed to attend fighter pilot training. During this training, he spent four months in the Soviet Union, at the secret training facility Lipetsk. Upon returning to Germany Trautloft was promoted to Leutnant. With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Trautloft was one of six pilots sent aboard the Ursaramo to Cadiz to secretly aid General Franco. With them, the pilots had six crated Heinkel He 51 biplane fighters.
The men and machines arrived in Spain on 7 August 1936. Originally, they were intended to act as instructors, but the Spanish pilots struggled with learning to fly the He-51, so the German pilots soon took up combat duties. On 25 August Trautloft scored his first victory, shooting down a Republican Breguet XIX light bomber. Five days later, shortly after scoring his second victory (a Potez 54), Trautloft was himself shot down, crash-landing in his aircraft coded 2-4. This was the first Luftwaffe pilot to be shot down in Spain. Trautloft escaped capture, however, and continued flying combat missions.
As the war dragged on, the Soviets sent better planes to aid the Republicans. Among these were the agile Polikarpov I-15 and Polikarpov I-16 fighters. The He-51 proved no match for these new aircraft, and after pressure from the German pilots, four of the new prototype Bf-109 V3 were dispatched to the theater. Trautloft flew one of these new fighters, and scored a further three victories in Spain. Trautloft had the green heart symbolizing Thüringen painted on his plane. This symbol would later be the symbol of JG 54 once he assumed command.
World War II
Following his service in Spain, Trautloft held various Staffelkapitän positions, and at the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939 he was the commander of 2./Jagdgeschwader 77.[Note 1] He commanded this squadron during the Invasion of Poland, in which he got one victory. Trautloft was promoted to Hauptmann and appointed Gruppenkommandeur of I./JG 20 on 19 September.
Trautloft got a further two victories during the Battle of France in May 1940. On 4 July I./JG 20 was redesignated III./JG 51. During the Battle of Britain Trautloft got a further two victories with JG 51, bringing his total to 10. In late August it was becoming apparent to the German High Command that the battle of Britain was not going as planned. A frustrated Göring relieved several Geschwaderkommodore of their commands, and appointed younger, more aggressive men in their place. Adolf Galland was given command of JG 26 on 22 August, and Trautloft was given command of JG 54 on 25 August and promoted to Major. Trautloft flew over 120 combat sorties over the English Channel with JG 54, and the Geschwader earned a positive reputation among the German bomber crews. During this period Trautloft scored three more victories, bringing his total to 13.
In 1941 the Geschwader saw action in the East. First JG 54 took part in the Balkans Campaign, then Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June. On 27 June Trautloft was awarded the Ritterkreuz for 20 confirmed victories and outstanding leadership. On 4 December Trautloft ordered that all the aircraft of JG 54 would wear the Green Heart symbol of Thüringen that he himself had on his aircraft in Spain. From this date forth JG 54 became known as the Grünherz-Geschwader.
During 1942 and 1943 Trautloft proved a popular leader, and his tally rose to 58.[Note 2] On 6 July 1943 Trautloft was appointed as Jagdflieger Inspizient Ost, serving with the General der Jagdflieger office. This position put him in overall charge as Inspector of all the Fighter aircraft units fighting on the Eastern Front. In November he became Inspekteur der Tagjäger, giving him overall responsibilities for all day-fighters.
In late 1944, a rumor crossed Trautloft's desk that a large number of Allied airmen were being held at Buchenwald Concentration Camp. Trautloft decided to visit the camp and see for himself under the pretence of inspecting aerial bomb damage near the camp. Trautloft was about to leave the camp when captured US airman Bernard Scharf called out to him in fluent German from behind a fence. The SS guards tried to intervene but Trautloft pointed out that he out-ranked them and made them stand back. Scharf explained that he was one of more than 160 allied airmen imprisoned at the camp and begged Trautloft to rescue him and the other airmen. Trautloft's adjutant also spoke to the groups commanding officer, Phil Lamason. Disturbed by the event, Trautloft returned to Berlin and began the process to have the airmen transferred out of Buchenwald. Seven days before their scheduled execution, the airmen were taken by train by the Luftwaffe to Stalag Luft III.
In early 1945 Trautloft joined other high-ranking pilots in the "Fighter Pilots Revolt", protesting the squandering of the precious Luftwaffe fighters and pilots in high-loss operations like Operation Bodenplatte. Following this revolt Trautloft was relieved of his position and sent to command the 4 Flieger-Schule Division (4th Pilot School Division) in Strassburg. He spent the remainder of the war there. Trautloft ended the war as an Oberst.
After World War II
After the war Trautloft joined the new Bundesluftwaffe on 1 October 1957, now with the rank of Brigadegeneral. He served throughout the 1960s as deputy Inspector General of the Bundesluftwaffe, and retired in 1970 as a Generalleutnant. He was an active member of many veteran organizations including the Gemeinschaft der Jagdflieger until his death on 11 January 1995 at Bad Wiessee.
- Spanish Cross in Gold with Swords
- Iron Cross (1939)
- 2nd Class
- 1st Class
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 27 July 1941 as Major and Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 54
- German Cross in Gold on 27 July 1942 as Major in Jagdgeschwader 54
- Mentioned five times in the Wehrmachtbericht (29 June 1941, 1 July 1941, 5 April 1942, 20 June 1942 and 21 February 1943)
|Date||Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording||Direct English translation|
|Sunday, 29 June 1941||Ein Jagdgeschwader unter Führung von Major Trautloft errang am 26. Juni seinen 500. Luftsieg.||A fighter wing under the command of Major Trautloft achieved on 26 June its 500th aerial victory.|
|Tuesday, 1 July 1941||Dem Jagdgeschwader Trautloft gelang es bei Dünaburg von 40 angreifenden Sowjetflugzeugen alle 40 zu vernichten.||The fighter wing Trautloft succeeded in destroying every one of 40 attacking Soviet aircraft at Dünaburg [Daugavpils, Latvia].|
|Sunday, 5 April 1942||Ein Jagdgeschwader unter Führung seines Kommodore Major Trautloft errang am gestrigen Tage den 2000. Luftsieg.||A fighter wing under the command of its commodore Major Trautloft achieved yesterday its 2000th aerial victory.|
|Saturday, 20 June 1942||Ein Jagdgeschwader unter Führung des Majors Trautloft hat an der Ostfront seinen 2000. Abschuß erzielt.||A fighter wing under the command of Major Trautloft shot down its 2000th enemy on the Eastern Front.|
|21 February 1943||Ein Jagdgeschwader unter Führung des Oberstleutnants Trautloft erzielte seinen 4000. Abschuß.||A fighter wing under the command of Lientenant Colonel Trautloft achieved its 4000th victory.|
- Kurt Braatz, pp. 28–51
- Deighton, Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain, p.182
- Makos, Adam (2013, pp. 316–318). A higher call. Published by Berkley Books, New York. OCLC 791682283. ISBN 9780425252864.
- Moser, Joseph and Baron, Gerald (2009, p. 122). A fighter pilot in Buchenwald. Published by Edens Veil Media, Bellingham, WA. OCLC 311551716. ISBN 978-0-615-22111-3
- Burgess, Colin (1995, p. 133). Destination Buchenwald. Published by Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst NSW. OCLC 35019954. ISBN 0-86417-733-X.
- Kinnis, Arthur and Booker, Stanley (1999, p. 176). 168 Jump Into Hell. Published by Victoria B.C. OCLC 43390724. ISBN 0-9684198-0-1
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 425.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 749.
- Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 479.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 592.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 598.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, p. 77.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, p. 168.
- Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, p. 447.
- Deighton, Len (1977). Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain, Pimlico. (ISBN 0-7126-7423-3)
- Kurt Braatz (2005), Gott oder ein Flugzeug - Leben und Sterben des Jagdfliegers Günther Lützow. NeunundzwanzigSechs Verlag. ISBN 3-9807935-6-7
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Forsyth, Robert (2011). Aces of the Legion Condor. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84908-347-8.
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- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
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Major Martin Mettig
|Commander of Jagdgeschwader 54 Grünherz
15 August 1940 – 5 July 1943
Major Hubertus von Bonin
Oberst Günther Lützow
|Commander of 4. Fliegerschul-Division
10 November 1944 – 8 May 1945