Hannibal Hamlin

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Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin, photo portrait seated, c1860-65-retouched-crop.jpg
15th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865
President Abraham Lincoln
Preceded by John C. Breckinridge
Succeeded by Andrew Johnson
United States Senator
from Maine
In office
June 8, 1848 – January 7, 1857
Preceded by Wyman B. S. Moor
Succeeded by Amos Nourse
In office
March 4, 1857 – January 17, 1861
Preceded by Amos Nourse
Succeeded by Lot M. Morrill
In office
March 4, 1869 – March 3, 1881
Preceded by Lot M. Morrill
Succeeded by Eugene Hale
26th Governor of Maine
In office
January 8, 1857 – February 25, 1857
Preceded by Samuel Wells
Succeeded by Joseph H. Williams
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Maine's 6th district
In office
March 4, 1843 – March 3, 1847
Preceded by Alfred Marshall
Succeeded by James S. Wiley
United States Minister to Spain
In office
June 30, 1881 – October 17, 1882
Appointed by James Garfield
Preceded by Lucius Fairchild
Succeeded by John W. Foster
Personal details
Born (1809-08-27)August 27, 1809
Paris, Maine
Died July 4, 1891(1891-07-04) (aged 81)
Bangor, Maine
Political party Democratic (until 1856)
Republican
Spouse(s) Sarah Jane Emery (m. 1833–55), her death
Ellen Vesta Emery Hamlin (m. 1856–91), his death
Religion Unitarian
Signature Cursive signature in ink

Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was the 15th Vice President of the United States (1861–1865), serving under President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. He was the first Vice President from the Republican Party.

Prior to his election in 1860, Hamlin served in the United States Senate, the House of Representatives, and, briefly, as the 26th Governor of Maine.

Early life[edit]

Hamlin was born to Anna (née Livermore) and Cyrus Hamlin in Paris, Maine. He was a descendant in the sixth generation of English colonist James Hamlin, who had settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1639 . Hamlin was a great nephew of U.S. Senator Samuel Livermore II of New Hampshire,[citation needed] and a grandson of Stephen Emery, Maine's Attorney General in 1839–1840.

Hamlin attended the district schools and Hebron Academy and later managed his father's farm. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1833. He began practicing in Hampden, a suburb of Bangor, where he lived until 1848.

Hamlin in his younger years

Hamlin married Sarah Jane Emery of Paris Hill in 1833. After Sarah died in 1855, he married her half-sister, Ellen Vesta Emery in 1856. He had four children with Sarah: George, Charles, Cyrus and Sarah, and two, Hannibal E. and Frank, with Ellen. Ellen Hamlin died in 1925.[1]

Political beginnings[edit]

Hamlin's political career began in 1836, when he began a term in the Maine House of Representatives after being elected the year before.

Appointed a Major on the staff of Governor John Fairfield, he served with the militia in the bloodless Aroostook War of 1839, and the negotiations he facilitated between Fairfield and Lieutenant Governor John Harvey of New Brunswick helped reduce tensions and make possible the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, which ended the war.

Hamlin unsuccessfully ran for the United States House of Representatives in 1840 and left the State House in 1841. He later served two terms in the United States House of Representatives, from 1843–1847. He was elected to fill a U.S. Senate vacancy in 1848, and to a full term in 1851. A Democrat at the beginning of his career, Hamlin supported the candidacy of Franklin Pierce in 1852.

From the very beginning of his service in Congress, he was prominent as an opponent of the extension of slavery. He was a conspicuous supporter of the Wilmot Proviso and spoke against the Compromise Measures of 1850. In 1854, he strongly opposed the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise. After the Democratic Party endorsed that repeal at the 1856 Democratic National Convention, on June 12, 1856, he withdrew from the Democratic Party and joined the newly organized Republican Party, causing a national sensation.

The Republicans nominated him for Governor of Maine in the same year. He carried the election by a large majority and was inaugurated on January 8, 1857. In the latter part of February 1857, however, he resigned the governorship, and was again a member of the United States Senate from 1857 to January 1861.

Vice presidency[edit]

1860 election campaign button for Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin. The other side of the button has Lincoln's portrait.

In 1861, Hamlin became Vice President under Abraham Lincoln, whom he did not meet until after the election. Maine was the first state in the Northeast to embrace the Republican Party, and the Lincoln-Hamlin ticket thus made sense in terms of regional balance. Hamlin was also a strong orator, and a known opponent of slavery. While serving as Vice President, Hamlin had little authority in the Lincoln Administration, although he urged both the Emancipation Proclamation and the arming of Black Americans. He strongly supported Joseph Hooker's appointment as commander of the Army of the Potomac, which was a dismal failure. In June 1864, the Republicans and War Democrats joined to form the National Union Party. Although Lincoln was renominated, War Democrat Andrew Johnson of Tennessee was named to replace Hamlin as Lincoln's running mate. Lincoln was seeking to broaden his base of support and was also looking ahead to Southern Reconstruction, at which Johnson had proven himself adept as war governor of occupied Tennessee. Hamlin, by contrast, was an ally of Northern radicals (who would later impeach Johnson). Lincoln and Johnson were elected in November 1864, and Hamlin's term expired on March 4, 1865.

Hamlin and Lincoln were not close personally, but had a good working relationship. At the time, White House etiquette did not require the Vice President to regularly attend cabinet meetings; thus, Hamlin did not regularly visit the White House. It was said that Mary Todd Lincoln and Hamlin disliked each other. For his part, Hamlin complained, "I am only a fifth wheel of a coach and can do little for my friends." [2]

Although Hamlin narrowly missed becoming President, his vice presidency would usher in a half-century of sustained national influence for the Maine Republican Party. In the period 1861–1911, Maine Republicans occupied the offices of Vice President, Secretary of the Treasury (twice), Secretary of State, President pro tempore of the United States Senate, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (twice), and would field a national presidential candidate in James G. Blaine, a level of influence in national politics unmatched by subsequent Maine political delegations.

Later life and death[edit]

Not content with private life, Hamlin returned to the U.S. Senate in 1868 to serve two more 6-year terms before declining to run for re-election in 1880 because of an ailing heart. His last duty as a public servant came in 1881 when then-Secretary of State James G. Blaine convinced President James A. Garfield to name Hamlin as United States Ambassador to Spain. On June 30, 1881, Hamlin was appointed as the United States Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain (the ministerial post's official title until 1913 when it became Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary). On December 20, 1881, Hamlin was officially presented with ambassadorship credentials and held the post until October 17, 1882.

Upon returning from Spain in the fall of 1882, Hamlin retired from public life to his home in Bangor, Maine, which he had previously purchased in 1851. The Hannibal Hamlin House – as it is known today – is located in central Bangor at 15 5th Street; incorporating Victorian, Italianate, and Mansard-style architecture, the mansion was posted to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.[3]

On Independence Day, July 4, 1891, Hamlin collapsed and fell unconscious while playing cards at the Tarratine Club he founded in downtown Bangor. He was then placed on one of the club's couches and died in the evening a few hours later. He was 81. Hannibal Hamlin was buried with honors in the Hamlin family plot at Mount Hope Cemetery in Bangor, Maine.[4] He had survived six of his successors as Vice President: Andrew Johnson, Schuyler Colfax, Henry Wilson, William A. Wheeler, Chester A. Arthur and Thomas A. Hendricks. From June 4, 1887 to March 4, 1889, he was the only living Vice President.

Family[edit]

Hamlin in his elder years

Hamlin had four sons who grew to adulthood: Charles Hamlin, Cyrus Hamlin, Hannibal Emery and Frank Hamlin. Charles and Cyrus served in the Union forces during the Civil War, both becoming generals, Charles by brevet. Cyrus was among the first Union officers to argue for the enlistment of black troops, and himself commanded a brigade of freemen in the Mississippi River campaign. Charles and sister Sarah were present at Ford's Theater the night of Lincoln's assassination. Hannibal Emery Hamlin was Maine Attorney General from 1905 to 1908. Hannibal Hamlin's great-granddaughter Sally Hamlin was a child actor who made many spoken word recordings for the Victor Talking Machine Company in the early years of the 20th century.

Hannibal's older brother, Elijah Livermore Hamlin, was president of the Mutual Fire Insurance Co. of Bangor, and the Bangor Institution for Savings.[5] He was twice an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Maine in the late 1840s, though he did serve as Mayor of Bangor in 1851–52. The brothers were members of different political parties (Hannibal a Democrat, and Elijah a Whig) before both becoming Republican in the later 1850s.[6] Hannibal's nephew (Elijah's son) Augustus Choate Hamlin was a physician, artist, mineralogist, author, and historian. He was also Mayor of Bangor in 1877–78, and a founding member of the Bangor Historical Society.[7] Augustus served as surgeon in the 2nd Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the Civil War, eventually becoming a U.S. Army Medical Inspector, and later the Surgeon General of Maine. He wrote books about Andersonville Prison and the Battle of Chancellorsville.[8]

Hannibal's first cousin Cyrus Hamlin, who was a graduate of the Bangor Theological Seminary, became a missionary in Turkey, where he founded Robert College. He later became president of Middlebury College in Vermont. His son, A. D. F. Hamlin, Hannibal's first cousin once removed, became a professor of architecture at Columbia University and a noted architectural historian.

There are biographies of Hamlin by his grandson Charles E. Hamlin (published 1899, reprinted 1971) and by H. Draper Hunt (published 1969).

Honors[edit]

Hamlin County in South Dakota is named in his honor, as are Hamlin, Kansas, Hamlin, New York, Hamlin, West Virginia, and both Hamlin Township and Hamlin Lake in Mason County, Michigan. There are statues in Hamlin's likeness in the United States Capitol and in a public park (Norumbega Mall) in Bangor, Maine. There is also a building on the University of Maine Campus, in Orono, named Hannibal Hamlin Hall. This burned down in 1945, in a fire that killed two students, but was subsequently rebuilt. Hannibal Hamlin Memorial Library is next to his birthplace in Paris, Maine.

Sculptor Charles Tefft of Brewer, Maine, created this bronze statue of Hannibal Hamlin, which was dedicated in 1927 in downtown Bangor.

Hamlin's house in Bangor subsequently housed the Presidents of the adjacent Bangor Theological Seminary. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, as is Hamlin's house in Paris, Maine.

Biographies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fogler Library: Finding Guide to the Hamlin Family Papers". Library.umaine.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-01. 
  2. ^ "Abraham Lincoln's White House - Hannibal Hamlin (1809-1891)". Mrlincolnswhitehouse.org. Retrieved 2012-10-01. 
  3. ^ "The Hannibal Hamlin House posted to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979". Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  4. ^ Hannibal Hamlin at Find a Grave
  5. ^ Augustus C. Smith, Bangor, Brewer, and Penobscot Co. Directory, 1859–60 (Bangor, 1859)
  6. ^ "The late Hon. Elijah L. Hamlin" (PDF). New York Times. July 23, 1872. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  7. ^ Warren King Moorhead, A Report on the Archeology of Maine, p. 34
  8. ^ Augustus Choate Hamlin (1896). The Battle of Chancellorsville. Bangor, Maine. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
John C. Breckinridge
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865
Succeeded by
Andrew Johnson
Preceded by
Samuel Wells
Governor of Maine
January 8 – February 25, 1857
Succeeded by
Joseph H. Williams
Preceded by
John Z. Goodrich
Collector of Customs for the Port of Boston
1865 – 1866
Succeeded by
Darius N. Couch
United States Senate
Preceded by
Lot M. Morrill
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Maine
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1881
Served alongside: William P. Fessenden, Lot M. Morrill, James G. Blaine
Succeeded by
Eugene Hale
Preceded by
Amos Nourse
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Maine
March 4, 1857 – January 17, 1861
Served alongside: William P. Fessenden
Succeeded by
Lot M. Morrill
Preceded by
Wyman B. S. Moor
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Maine
June 8, 1848 – January 7, 1857
Served alongside: James W. Bradbury and William P. Fessenden
Succeeded by
Amos Nourse
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Alfred Marshall
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Maine's 6th congressional district

March 4, 1843 – March 4, 1847
Succeeded by
James S. Wiley
Party political offices
Preceded by
William L. Dayton
Republican vice presidential nominee
1860
Succeeded by
Andrew Johnson(1)
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Lucius Fairchild
United States Minister to Spain
June 30, 1881 – October 17, 1882
Succeeded by
John W. Foster
Notes and references
1. Lincoln and Johnson ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.