Hanno (elephant)

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For other uses of Hanno, see Hanno (disambiguation).
Sketch of Hanno and mahout, after Raphael, c.1514.
Woodcut of Hanno on pamphlet by Philomathes (Rome, c. 1514)
Sketch of Hanno, the elephant offered to the Pope by Manuel I of Portugal, from title page of Leitura Nova.
Sketch of Hanno's memorial fresco and epitaph.

Hanno (Italian, Annone; c. 1510 – 8 June 1516) was the pet white elephant given by King Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X (born Giovanni de' Medici) at his coronation. Hanno, actually an Asian elephant, came to Rome in 1514 with the Portuguese ambassador Tristão da Cunha and quickly became the Pope's favorite animal. Hanno died two years later from complications of a treatment for constipation with gold-enriched laxative.[1]

Background[edit]

King Manuel had either received him as a gift from the King of Cochin, or had asked Afonso de Albuquerque, his viceroy in India, to purchase him. Hanno was said to be white in colour, and arrived by ship from Lisbon to Rome in 1514, aged about four years, and was kept initially in an enclosure in the Belvedere courtyard, then moved to a specially constructed building between St. Peter's Basilica and the Apostolic Palace, near the Borgo Sant'Angelo (a road in the rione of Borgo). His arrival was commemorated in poetry and art. Pasquale Malaspina wrote:

Hanno became a great favourite of the papal court and was featured in processions. Two years after he came to Rome, he fell ill suddenly, was given a purgative, and died on 8 June 1516, with the pope at his side. Hanno was interred in the Cortile del Belvedere at the age of seven.

The artist Raffaello Santi designed a memorial fresco (which does not survive), and the Pope himself composed the epitaph:

Hanno was also the subject of a satirical pamphlet by Pietro Aretino titled "The Last Will and Testament of the Elephant Hanno." The fictitious will cleverly mocked the leading political and religious figures of Rome at the time, including Pope Leo X himself. The pamphlet was such a success that it kickstarted Aretino's career and established him as a famous satirist, ultimately known as "the Scourge of Princes."

There are four sketches of Hanno, done in life with red chalk, in the collection of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.

Cultural references[edit]

Hanno's story is told at some length in Robert Greene's The 48 Laws of Power (2000) in a section titled "Enter Action with Boldness." Greene claims that Aretino's audacious move to satirize Pope Leo's sacred pet was responsible for the author's rise to literary infamy.

See also[edit]

References[edit]