Hanriot HD.3

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HD.3 and HD.4
Role Fighter
National origin France
Manufacturer Hanriot
Designer Emile Dupont
First flight June 1917
Primary users Aéronautique Militaire
Aéronautique Maritime
Number built ca. 90

The Hanriot HD.3 was a two-seat fighter aircraft produced in France during World War I.

Design and development[edit]

Similar in appearance to a scaled-up HD.1, the Hanriot HD.3 was a conventional, single-bay biplane with staggered wings of equal span. The pilot and gunner sat in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle. Short struts braced the fuselage sides to the lower wing.

Operational history[edit]

Flight testing revealed excellent performance, and the French government ordered 300 of the type in 1918, in preparation for a major offensive the following year. When the war ended, the contract was cancelled with around 75 aircraft having been delivered to the Aéronautique Militaire and at least 15 to the Aéronautique Maritime. One example was delivered to the Aéronautique Maritime in summer 1918 equipped with twin float undercarriage and a larger tailfin; it was intended that this would be the prototype of a dedicated floatplane fighter designated HD.4, but the war ended before any further development took place. The Armistice also led to the abandonment of a dedicated night fighter variant, the HD.3bis, with enlarged and balanced ailerons and rudder and with a wing of increased section.[1]

After the war, one of the navy's machines was used for trials aboard the new aircraft carrier Béarn, while another was used for floatation tests at the Isle of Grain.

Variants[edit]

HD.3[edit]

HD.3.C 2

Main production version

HD.3bis.CN 2
Nightfighter prototype with thick wing section and revised control surfaces[2] (1 built)

HD.4[edit]

HD.4
Floatplane derivative of HD.3. One built.[3]

HD.9[edit]

HD.9.Ap 1
Single-seat photo-reconnaissance biplane, powered by a 260 hp (194 kW) Salmson 9Za radial piston engine. Ten evaluation aircraft were ordered, with the first completed in November 1918.[4]

Operators[edit]

 France
Italy


Specifications (HD.3)[edit]

Data from War Planes of the First World War[5]

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two, pilot and gunner
  • Length: 6.95 m (22 ft 912 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.00 m (29 ft 614 in)
  • Height: 3.00 m (9 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 25.5 m2 (274.5 ft2)
  • Empty weight: 760 kg (1,670 lb)
  • Gross weight: 1,180 kg (2,611 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Salmson 9Za nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, 195 kW (260 hp) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 192[6] km/h (119 mph)
  • Range: 498 km (310 miles)
  • Endurance: 2 hours
  • Service ceiling: 5,700 m (18,700 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 4.1[7] m/s (800 ft/min)

Armament

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor and Alexander 1969, pp. 94-95.
  2. ^ Bruce 1972, p. 21.
  3. ^ Bruce 1972, p. 19.
  4. ^ Bruce 1972, pp. 32–35.
  5. ^ Bruce 1971, p. 22.
  6. ^ at 2,000 m (6,600 ft)
  7. ^ 3 min 21 s to 1,000 m (3,300 ft)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bruce, J.M. War Planes of the First World War: Volume Five, Fighters. London: Macdonald, 1972. ISBN 0-356-03779-7.
  • Taylor, John W. R. and Jean Alexander. Combat Aircraft of the World. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-71810-564-8.
  • Taylor, Michael J. H. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions, 1989. ISBN 0-517-69186-8.
  • World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing, File 896 Sheet 11.
  • S, W (January–February 2012). "Rara Avis - The Hanriot HD.3.C2". Windsock Worldwide (Albatros Productions) 28 (1): 15–18.