Hans-Georg Gadamer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Hans Gadamer.png
Born (1900-02-11)February 11, 1900
Marburg, German Empire
Died March 13, 2002(2002-03-13) (aged 102)
Heidelberg, Germany
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School
Main interests
Notable ideas

Hans-Georg Gadamer (German: [ˈɡaːdamɐ]; February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) on hermeneutics.

Life[edit]

Gadamer was born in Marburg, Germany,[1] the son of Johannes Gadamer (1867–1928)[2] a pharmaceutical chemistry professor who later also served as the rector of the university there. He resisted his father's urging to take up the natural sciences and became more and more interested in the humanities. His mother, Emma Karoline Johanna Geiese (1869–1904) died of diabetes while Hans-Georg was four years old, and he later noted that this may have had an effect on his decision to not pursue scientific studies. Jean Grondin describes Gadamer as finding in his mother "a poetic and almost religious counterpart to the iron fist of his father".[3] Gadamer did not serve during World War I for reasons of ill health[4] and similarly was exempted from serving during World War II due to polio.[5]

He grew up and studied philosophy in Breslau[6] under Richard Hönigswald, but soon moved back to Marburg to study with the Neo-Kantian philosophers Paul Natorp and Nicolai Hartmann. He defended his dissertation—"The Essence of Pleasure according to Plato's Dialogues" (Das Wesen der Lust nach den Platonischen Dialogen)—in 1922.[7]

Shortly thereafter, Gadamer moved to Freiburg University and began studying with Martin Heidegger, who was then a promising young scholar who had not yet received a professorship. He and Heidegger became close, and when Heidegger received a position at Marburg, Gadamer followed him there, where he became one of a group of students such as Leo Strauss, Karl Löwith, and Hannah Arendt. It was Heidegger's influence that gave Gadamer's thought its distinctive cast and led him away from the earlier neo-Kantian influences of Natorp and Hartmann. Gadamer studied Aristotle both under Edmund Husserl and under Heidegger.[8]

Gadamer habilitated in 1929 and spent most of the early 1930s lecturing in Marburg. Unlike Heidegger, who joined the Nazi Party in May 1933 and continued as a member until the party was dissolved following World War II, Gadamer was silent on Nazism, and he was not politically active during the Third Reich. Gadamer did not join the Nazis, and he did not serve in the army because of the polio he had contracted in 1922. He joined the National Socialist Teachers League in August 1933.[9] In April 1937 he became a temporary professor at Marburg,[10] then in 1938 he received a professorship at Leipzig.[11] From an SS-point of view Gadamer was classified as neither supportive nor disapproving in the "SD-Dossiers über Philosophie-Professoren" (i.e. SD-files concerning philosophy professors) that were set up by the SS-Security-Service (SD).[12] In 1946, he was found by the American occupation forces to be untainted by Nazism and named rector of the university.

The level of Gadamer's involvement with the Nazis has been disputed in the works of Richard Wolin and Teresa Orzoco.[13] Orozco alleges, with reference to Gadamer's published works, that Gadamer had supported the Nazis more than scholars had supposed. Gadamer scholars have rejected these assertions: Jean Grondin has said that Orozco is engaged in a "witch-hunt"[14] while Donatella Di Cesare said that "the archival material on which Orozco bases her argument is actually quite negligible".[15] Cesare and Grondin have argued that there is no trace of antisemitism in Gadamer's work, and that Gadamer maintained friendships with Jews and provided shelter for nearly two years for the philosopher Jacob Klein in 1933 and 1934.[16] Gadamer also reduced his contact with Heidegger during the Nazi era.[17]

Communist East Germany was no more to Gadamer's liking than the Third Reich, and he left for West Germany, accepting first a position in Frankfurt am Main and then the succession of Karl Jaspers in Heidelberg in 1949. He remained in this position, as emeritus, until his death in 2002 at the age of 102.[18][19][20] He was also an Editorial Advisor of the journal Dionysius.[21] It was during this time that he completed his magnum opus, Truth and Method (1960), and engaged in his famous debate with Jürgen Habermas over the possibility of transcending history and culture in order to find a truly objective position from which to critique society. The debate was inconclusive, but marked the beginning of warm relations between the two men. It was Gadamer who secured Habermas's first professorship in Heidelberg.

In 1968, Gadamer invited Tomonobu Imamichi for lectures at Heidelberg, but their relationship became very cool after Imamichi alleged that Heidegger had taken his concept of Dasein out of Okakura Kakuzo's concept of das in-der-Welt-sein (to be in the being of the world) expressed in The Book of Tea, which Imamichi's teacher had offered to Heidegger in 1919, after having followed lessons with him the year before.[22] Imamichi and Gadamer renewed contact four years later during an international congress.[22]

In 1981, Gadamer attempted to engage with Jacques Derrida at a conference in Paris but it proved less enlightening because the two thinkers had little in common. A last meeting between Gadamer and Derrida was held at the Stift of Heidelberg in July 2001, coordinated by Derrida's students, Joseph Cohen and Raphael Zagury-Orly.[citation needed] This meeting marked, in many ways, a turn in their philosophical encounter. After Gadamer's death, Derrida called their failure to find common ground one of the worst debacles of his life and expressed, in the main obituary for Gadamer, his great personal and philosophical respect. Richard J. Bernstein said that "[a] genuine dialogue between Gadamer and Derrida has never taken place. This is a shame because there are crucial and consequential issues that arise between hermeneutics and deconstruction".[23]

Gadamer received honorary doctorates from the University of Bamberg, the University of Breslau, Boston College,[24] Charles University in Prague, Hamilton College, the University of Leipzig, the University of Marburg (1999) the University of Ottawa, Saint Petersburg State University (2001), the University of Tübingen and University of Washington.[25]

On February 11, 2000, the University of Heidelberg celebrated Gadamer's one hundredth birthday with a ceremony and conference. Gadamer's last academic engagement was in the summer of 2001 at an annual symposium on hermeneutics that two of Gadamer's American students had organised. On March 13, 2002, Gadamer died at Heidelberg's University Clinic. He is buried in the Köpfel cemetery in Ziegelhausen.[26]

Work[edit]

Truth and Method[edit]

Gadamer's philosophical project, as explained in Truth and Method, was to elaborate on the concept of "philosophical hermeneutics", which Heidegger initiated but never dealt with at length. Gadamer's goal was to uncover the nature of human understanding. In the book Gadamer argued that "truth" and "method" were at odds with one another. He was critical of two approaches to the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). On the one hand, he was critical of modern approaches to humanities that modelled themselves on the natural sciences. On the other hand, he took issue with the traditional German approach to the humanities, represented for instance by Friedrich Schleiermacher and Wilhelm Dilthey, who believed that correctly interpreting a text meant recovering the original intention of the author who wrote it. Instead, Gadamer argued that a text's meaning is not reducible to the author's intentions, but is dependent on the context of interpretation.

In contrast to both these positions, Gadamer argued that people have a "historically-effected" consciousness (wirkungsgeschichtliches Bewußtsein) and that they are embedded in the particular history and culture that shaped them. These define an interpreter's "prejudices" that affect how he or she will make interpretations. For Gadamer, these prejudices are not something that hinders our ability to make interpretations, but a prerequisite to interpretation. He postulates that biases cannot and should not be eliminated, but embraced in order to gain a more thorough understanding of a situation or argument's context.[27] [28] Gadamer criticised Enlightenment thinkers for harboring a "prejudice against prejudices".[29]

For Gadamer, interpreting a text involves a fusion of horizons (Horizontverschmelzung) where the scholar finds the ways that the text's history articulates with their own background. In doing so, the reader must acknowledge that mere exposure to alternate perspectives, regardless of whether or not they are agreed with, alters one's worldview. [30] Truth and Method is not meant to be a programmatic statement about a new 'hermeneutic' method of interpreting texts. Gadamer intended Truth and Method to be a description of what we always do when we interpret things (even if we do not know it): "My real concern was and is philosophic: not what we do or what we ought to do, but what happens to us over and above our wanting and doing".[31]

Truth and Method was published twice in English, and the revised edition is now considered authoritative. The German-language edition of Gadamer's Collected Works includes a volume in which Gadamer elaborates his argument and discusses the critical response to the book. Finally, Gadamer's essay on Celan (entitled "Who Am I and Who Are You?") has been considered by many—including Heidegger and Gadamer himself—as a "second volume" or continuation of the argument in Truth and Method.

Contributions to Communication Ethics[edit]

Gadamer's Truth and Method has become an authoritarian work in the communication ethics field, spawning several prominent ethics theories and guidelines. The most profound of these is the formulation of the dialogic coordinates, a standard set of prerequisite communication elements necessary for inciting dialogue. Adhering to Gadamer's theories regarding bias, communicators can better initiate dialogic transaction, allowing biases to merge and promote mutual understanding and learning. [32]

Other works[edit]

Gadamer also added philosophical substance to the notion of human health. In The Enigma of Health, Gadamer explored what it means to heal, as a patient and a provider. In this work the practice and art of medicine are thoroughly examined, as is the inevitability of any cure.[33]

In addition to his work in hermeneutics, Gadamer is also well known for a long list of publications on Greek philosophy. Indeed, while Truth and Method became central to his later career, much of Gadamer's early life centered around studying Greek thinkers, Plato and Aristotle specifically. In the Italian introduction to Truth and Method, Gadamer said that his work on Greek philosophy was "the best and most original part" of his career.[34] His book Plato's Dialectical Ethics looks at the Philebus dialogue through the lens of phenomenology and the philosophy of Martin Heidegger.[33]

Prizes and awards[edit]

1971: Pour le mérite and the Reuchlin Prize
1972: Great Cross of Merit with Star of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
1979: Sigmund Freud Award for scientific prose and Hegel Prize
1986: Jaspers Prize
1990: Great Cross of Merit with Star and Sash of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
1993: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
12 January 1996: appointed an honorary member of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig
Honorary doctorates
1995: University of Wrocław
1996: University of Leipzig
1999: Philipps-University Marburg

Bibliography[edit]

Primary
  • Dialogue and Dialectic: Eight Hermeneutical Studies on Plato. Trans. and ed. by P. Christopher Smith. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1980.
  • The Enigma of Health: The Art of Healing in a Scientific Age. Trans. John Gaiger and Richard Walker. Oxford: Polity Press, 1996.
  • Gadamer on Celan: ‘Who Am I and Who Are You?’ and Other Essays. By Hans-Georg Gadamer. Trans. and ed. Richard Heinemann and Bruce Krajewski. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1997.
  • The Gadamer Reader: A Bouquet of the Later Writings. Ed. by Richard E. Palmer. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2007.
  • Hegel's Dialectic: Five Hermeneutical Studies. Trans. P. Christopher Smith. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1976.
  • Heidegger's Ways. Trans. John W. Stanley. New York: SUNY Press, 1994.
  • The Idea of the Good in Platonic-Aristotelian Philosophy. Trans. P. Christopher Smith. New Haven, CT: 1986.
  • Literature and Philosophy in Dialogue: Essays in German Literary Theory. Trans. Robert H. Paslick. New York: SUNY Press, 1993.
  • Philosophical Apprenticeships. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985 (Gadamer's memoirs.)
  • Philosophical Hermeneutics. Trans. and ed. by David Linge. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  • Plato's "Parmenides" and Its Influence. Dionysius, Volume VII (1983): 3-16[35]
  • Reason in the Age of Science. Trans. by Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.
  • The Relevance of the Beautiful and Other Essays. Trans. N. Walker. ed. R. Bernasconi, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Praise of Theory. Trans. Chris Dawson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
  • Truth and Method. 2nd rev. edition. Trans. J. Weinsheimer and D. G. Marshall. New York: Crossroad, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8264-7697-5 excerpt
Secondary
  • Arthos, John. The Inner Word in Gadamer's Hermeneutics. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2009.
  • Cercel, Larisa (ed.), Übersetzung und Hermeneutik / Traduction et herméneutique, Bucharest, Zeta Books, 2009, ISBN 978-973-199-706-3.
  • Dostal, Robert L. ed. The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  • Drechsler, Wolfgang. Gadamer in Marburg. Marburg: Blaues Schloss, 2013.
  • Code, Lorraine. ed. Feminist Interpretations of Hans-Georg Gadamer. University Park: Penn State Press, 2003.
  • Coltman, Robert. The Language of Hermeneutics: Gadamer and Heidegger in Dialogue. Albany: State University Press, 1998
  • Grondin, Jean. The Philosophy of Gadamer. trans. Kathryn Plant. New York: McGill-Queens University Press, 2002.
  • Grondin, Jean. Hans-Georg Gadamer: A Biography trans Joel Weinsheimer. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
  • Lawn, Chris. Gadamer : a guide for the perplexed. (Guides for the perplexed) London: Continuum, c2006. ISBN 978-0-8264-8461-1
  • Malpas, Jeff, and Santiago Zabala (eds),Consequences of Hermeneutics: Fifty Years after Truth and Method, (Northwestern University Press, 2010).
  • Malpas, Jeff, Ulrich Arnswald and Jens Kertscher (eds.). Gadamer's Century: Essays in Honour of Hans-Georg Gadamer. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002.
  • Risser, James. Hermeneutics and the Voice of the other: Re-reading Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.
  • Warnke, Georgia. "Gadamer: Hermeneutics, Tradition and Reason". Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987.
  • Weinsheimer, Joel. Gadamer's Hermeneutics: A Reading of "Truth and Method". New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.
  • Wierciński, Andrzej. Gadamer’s Hermeneutics and the Art of Conversation Germany, Münster: LIT Verlag, 2011.
  • Wright, Kathleen ed. Festivals of Interpretation: Essays on Hans-Georg Gadamer's Work. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1990.
  • P. Della Pelle, La dimensione ontologica dell'etica in Hans-Georg Gadamer, FrancoAngeli, Milano 2013
  • P. Della Pelle, La filosofia di Platone nell'interpretazione di Hans-Georg Gadamer, Vita e Pensiero, Milano 2014

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Grondin 2003, p. 12.
  2. ^ Grondin 2003, pp. 26, 33.
  3. ^ Grondin 2003, p. 21.
  4. ^ Grondin 2003, p. 45.
  5. ^ Grondin 2003, p. 46.
  6. ^ Grondin 2003, p. 37.
  7. ^ Cesare 2007, p. 5–7.
  8. ^ Cesare 2007, p. 7–8.
  9. ^ Ideologische Mächte im deutschen Faschismus Band 5: Heidegger im Kontext: Gesamtüberblick zum NS-Engagement der Universitätsphilosophen, George Leaman, Rainer Alisch, Thomas Laugstien, Verlag: Argument Hamburg, 1993, p. 105, ISBN 3886192059
  10. ^ De Cesare, Donatella (2013). Gadamer: A Philosophical Portrait. Indiana University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0253007631. 
  11. ^ Dostal, Robert (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0521000416. 
  12. ^ Leaman, Georg / Simon, Gerd: Deutsche Philosophen aus der Sicht des Sicherheitsdienstes des Reichsführers SS. Jahrbuch für Soziologie-Geschichte 1992, pages 261-292
  13. ^ Orozco 1995.
  14. ^ Grondin 2003, p. 165.
  15. ^ Cesare 2007, p. 30.
  16. ^ Grondin 2003, pp. 153–154.
  17. ^ Cesare 2007, pp. 14–15.
  18. ^ "Hans-Georg Gadamer Dies; Noted German Philosopher". Washington Post. March 16, 2002. Retrieved March 25, 2011. 
  19. ^ Roberts, Julian (March 18, 2002). "Hans-Georg Gadamer". The Guardian. Retrieved March 25, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Hans-Georg Gadamer". The Independent. March 26, 2002. Retrieved March 25, 2011. 
  21. ^ http://classics.dal.ca/Journals/Dionysius/Editorial_Board.php
  22. ^ a b Tomonobu Imamichi, In Search of Wisdom. One Philosopher's Journey, Tokyo, International House of Japan, 2004 (quoted by Anne Fagot-Largeault in her [1] {dead link} course (Le Devenir Impensable) at the Collège de France on 7 December 2006).
  23. ^ Richard J. Bernstein (2002). "Hermeneutics, Critical Theory and Deconstruction". The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521801931. 
  24. ^ Gadamer, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  25. ^ Cesare 2007, p. 27.
  26. ^ Cesare 2007, pp. 27–28.
  27. ^ NNDB, http://www.nndb.com/people/964/000093685/ "Hans-Georg Gadamer"
  28. ^ Nielsen, http://percaritatem.com/2006/12/21/gadamer%E2%80%99s-positive-view-of-%E2%80%9Cprejudices%E2%80%9D/#sthash.DXyXWbON.dpbs "Gadamer’s Positive View of “Prejudices”
  29. ^ Gadamer, H.-G. (2004). Truth and method. (J. Weinsheimer & D. G. Marshall, Trans.) (2. ed., p. 601). Chicago: Continuum, p. 273.
  30. ^ Communication Ethics Literacy: Dialogue and Difference Arnett, Harden Fritz & Bell, Los Angeles 2009
  31. ^ Truth and Method 2nd ed. Sheed and Ward, London 1989 XXVIII
  32. ^ Communication Ethics Literacy: Dialogue and Difference Arnett, Harden Fritz & Bell, Los Angeles 2009
  33. ^ a b Robert J. Dostal (2002). "Introduction". The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521801931. 
  34. ^ Donatella Di Cesare. Gadamer: A Philosophical Portrait. Niall Keane (trans.). Indiana University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780253007636. 
  35. ^ http://classics.dal.ca/Journals/Dionysius/Index_to_Volumes_I-X.php

References[edit]

  • Grondin, Jean (2003). Hans-Georg Gadamer: A Biography. 
  • Cesare, Donatella Di (2007). Gadamer: A Philosophical Portrait. Niall Keane (trans.). Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253007636. 
  • Orozco, Teresa (1995). Platonische Gewalt: Gadamers politische Hermeneutik der NS-Zeit. 

External links[edit]