Hanuman

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"Anjaneya" and "Bajrangbali" redirect here. For the 2003 film, see Anjaneya (film). For the 1976 film, see Bajrangbali (film). For other uses, see Hanuman (disambiguation).
Hanuman
Devotion
Hanuman painted by Pahari Painter.jpg
Hanuman painted in Pahari Style
Sanskrit Transliteration हनुमान्
Affiliation Devotee of Rama
Abode Earth
Mantra Hanuman Chalisa
Weapon Gada (mace)

Hanuman (IPA: /hʌnʊˈmɑn/) is a Hindu god, an ardent devotee of Rama and the eleventh avatar (reincarnation) of Shiva. He is a central character in the Indian epic Ramayana and its various versions. He also finds mentions in several other texts, including Mahabharata, the various Puranas and some Jain texts. A vanara, Hanuman participated in Rama's war against the demon king Ravana. Several texts also present him as an incarnation of Lord Shiva. He is the son of Vayu, who according to several stories, played a role in his birth. Several sects including Arya Samaj believe that Hanuman was a human and not vanara.

Etymology and other names[edit]

Indonesian Balinese wooden statue of Hanuman

The Sanskrit texts mention several legends about how Sri Hanuman got his name. One legend is that Indra, the king of the deities, struck Sri Hanuman's jaw during his childhood (see below). The child received his name from the Sanskrit words Hanu ("jaw") and -man (or -mant, "prominent" or "disfigured"). The name thus means "one with prominent or disfigured jaw".[1] Another theory says the name derives from the Sanskrit words Han ("killed" or "destroyed") and maana (pride); the name implies "one whose pride was destroyed".[1] Some Jain texts mention that Sri Hanuman spent his childhood on an island called Hanuruha, which is the origin of his name.[2]

According to one theory, the name "Hanuman" derives from the proto-Dravidian word for male monkey (ana-mandi), which was later Sanskritized to "Hanuman" (see historical development below). Linguistic variations of "Hanuman" include Hanumat, Anuman (Tamil), Anoman (Indonesian), Andoman (Malay) and Hunlaman (Lao). Other names of Sri Hanuman include:

  • Anjaneya,Hanumanta,
  • Anjaneya, Anjaniputra or Anjaneyudu or Hanumanthudu (Telugu), all meaning "the son of Anjana".
  • Anjaneyar, used widely by rural Tamilians.
  • Kesari Nandan ("son of Kesari")
  • Maruti ("son of Marut") or Pavanputra ("son of wind"); these names derive from the various names of Vayu, the deity who carried Hanuman to Anjana's womb
  • Bajrang Bali, "the strong one (bali), who had limbs (anga) as hard as a vajra (bajra)"; this name is widely used in rural North India.[1] Bajrang Bali also implies "the strong one (bali), who is orange (Baj) or saffron colored
  • Sang Kera Pemuja Dewa Rama, Hanuman, the Indonesian for "The mighty devotee ape of Rama, Hanuman"

Epithets and attributes[edit]

In addition, Hanuman has received several epithets, including:

  • Manojavam, the one who is swift as mind (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
  • Maarutatulyavegam, the one who has a speed equal to the wind God (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
  • Jitendriyam, the one who has complete control on his senses (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
  • Buddhimataamvarishtham, the one who is most senior among intellectuals (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
  • Vaataatmajam, the one who is the son of wind God (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra)
  • Vaanarayoothamukhyam, the one who is the chief of vanara army (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra). Similar in meaning to - Vaanaraanaamadheesham.
  • Shreeraamadootam, the one who is the messenger of Rama (appears in Ram Raksha Stotra).
  • Atulita Bala Dhaamam, the one who is the repository of incomparable strength.
  • Hemshailaabha Deham, the one whose body resembles a golden mountain.
  • Danujvana Krushanum, the one who is the destroyer of forces of demons.
  • Gyaaninaam Agraganyam, the one who is considered foremost among knowledgeable beings.
  • Sakala Guna Nidhaanam, the one who is the repository of all the virtues and good qualities.
  • Raghupati Priya Bhaktam, the one who is the dearest of all devotees to Lord Rama.
  • Sankata Mochana, the one who liberates (moca) from dangers (sankata)[1]

In the 3rd chapter of Kishkindha Kaanda of Valmiki Ramayana,[3] Rama describes many attributes of Hanuman's personality. Summarized as follows:

  • Ablest sentence maker.
  • Know-er of all Vedas and Scriptures.
  • Scholar in nine schools of grammars.
  • Possessing faultless speech and facial features

Historical development[edit]

Standing Hanuman, Chola Dynasty, 11th Century, Tamil Nadu,India

The word "Vrsakapi" or "Vrishakapi", later used as an epithet for Hanuman,[4] is mentioned in Rigveda (X:96). Some writers, such as Nilakantha (author of Mantra Ramayana) believe that the Vrishakapi of Rigveda alludes to Hanuman. However, other scholars believe that Hanuman is not mentioned in the Vedic mythology: the "Vrsakapi" of Rigveda refers to another deity[5] or is a common name for the monkeys.[6]

F.E. Pargiter (1852-1927) theorized that Hanuman was a proto-Dravidian deity, and the name "Hanuman" was a Sanskritization of the Old Tamil word Aan-mandhi ("male monkey"). The Hindi writer Ray Govindchandra (1976) endorsed this view, and stated that the proto-Indo-Aryans must have invented a Sanskrit etymology for the deity's name, after they accepted Hanuman in their pantheon.[4] Murray Emeneau disagrees with this theory, and states that the word mandi, as attested in Sangam literature, can refer only to a female monkey, and therefore, the word ana-mandi makes no semantic sense.[4] Camille Bulcke, in his Ramkatha: Utpatti Aur Vikas ("The tale of Rama: its origin and development"), traces the origins of Hanuman worship to the pre-Indo-Aryan, pre-Dravidian aboriginal tribes of Central India.[5] According to him, Valmiki's Ramayana was based on older tribal ballads.

Hanuman came to be regarded as an avatar (incarnation) of Shiva by the 10th century CE (this development possibly started as early as in the 8th century CE).[5] Hanuman is mentioned as an avatar of Shiva or Rudra in the Sanskrit texts like Mahabhagvata Purana, Skanda Purana, Brhaddharma Purana and Mahanataka among others. This development might have been a result of the Shavite attempts to insert their ishta devata (cherished deity) in the Vaishnavite texts, which were gaining popularity.[5] The 17th century Oriya work Rasavinoda by Divakrsnadasa goes on to mention that the three gods – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva – combined take to the form of Hanuman.[7]

Hanuman became more important in the medieval period, and came to be portrayed as the ideal devotee (bhakta) of Rama. His characterization as a lifelong brahmachari (celibate) was another important development during this period.[5] The belief that Hanuman's celibacy is the source of his strength became popular among the wrestlers in India.[8] The celibacy or brahmacharya aspect of Hanuman is not mentioned in the original Ramayana.[9]

Birth and childhood[edit]

Murti of Hanuman and his mother Anjana, at the Anjani Mata temple, Chomu.

Hanuman was born to the vanaras. His mother Anjana was an apsara who was born on earth due to a curse. She was redeemed from this curse on her giving birth to a son. The Valmiki Ramayana states that his father Kesari was the son of Brihaspati and that Kesari also fought on Rama's side in the war against Ravana.[10] Anjana and Kesari performed intense prayers to Shiva to get a child. Pleased with their devotion, Shiva granted them the boon they sought.[11] Hanuman, in another interpretation, is the incarnation or reflection of Shiva himself.

Hanuman is often called the son of the deity Vayu; several different traditions account for the Vayu's role in Hanuman's birth. One story mentioned in Eknath's Bhavartha Ramayana (16th century CE) states that when Anjana was worshiping Shiva, the King Dasharatha of Ayodhya was also performing the ritual of Putrakama yagna in order to have children. As a result, he received some sacred pudding (payasam) to be shared by his three wives, leading to the births of Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. By divine ordinance, a kite snatched a fragment of that pudding and dropped it while flying over the forest where Anjana was engaged in worship. Vayu, the Hindu deity of the wind, delivered the falling pudding to the outstretched hands of Anjana, who consumed it. Hanuman was born to her as a result.[10][12] Another tradition says that Anjana and her husband Kesari prayed Shiva for a child. By Shiva's direction, Vayu transferred his male energy to Anjana's womb. Accordingly, Hanuman is identified as the son of the Vayu.

Another story of Hanuman's origins is derived from the Vishnu Purana and Naradeya Purana. Narada, infatuated with a princess, went to his lord Vishnu, to make him look like Vishnu, so that the princess would garland him at swayamvara (husband-choosing ceremony). He asked for hari mukh (Hari is another name of Vishnu, and mukh means face). Vishnu instead bestowed him with the face of a vanara. Unaware of this, Narada went to the princess, who burst into laughter at the sight of his ape-like face before all the king's court. Narada, unable to bear the humiliation, cursed Vishnu, that Vishnu would one day be dependent upon a vanara. Vishnu replied that what he had done was for Narada's own good, as he would have undermined his own powers if he were to enter matrimony. Vishnu also noted that Hari has the dual Sanskrit meaning of vanara. Upon hearing this, Narada repented for cursing his idol. But Vishnu told him not repent as the curse would act as a boon, for it would lead to the birth of Hanuman, an avatar of Shiva, without whose help Rama (Vishnu's avatar) could not kill Ravana.

Birth place[edit]

Multiple places in India are claimed as the birthplace of Hanuman.

  • According to one theory, Hanuman was born on 'Anjaneya Hill', in Hampi, Karnataka.[13] This is located near the Risyamukha mountain on the banks of the Pampa, where Sugreeva and Rama are said to have met in Valmiki Ramayana's Kishkinda Kanda. There is a temple that marks the spot. Kishkinda itself is identified with the modern Anegundi taluk (near Hampi) in Bellary district of Karnataka.[citation needed]
  • Anjan, a small village about 18 km away from Gumla, houses "Anjan Dham", which is said to be the birthplace of Hanuman.[14] The name of the village is derived from the name of the goddess Anjani, the mother of Hanuman. Aanjani Gufa (cave), 4 km from the village, is believed to be the place where Anjani once lived. Many objects of archaeological importance obtained from this site are now held at the Patna Museum.
  • The Anjaneri (or Anjneri) mountain, located 7 km from Trimbakeshwar in the Nasik district, is also claimed as the birthplace of Hanuman.[15]
  • According to Anjan Dham, Hanuman was born on Lakshka Hill near Sujangarh in Churu district, Rajasthan.[16]

Childhood[edit]

Hanuman Mistakes the Sun for a Fruit by BSP Pratinidhi

As a child, believing the sun to be a ripe mango, Hanuman pursued it in order to eat it. Rahu, a Vedic planet corresponding to an eclipse, was at that time seeking out the sun as well, and he clashed with Hanuman. Hanuman thrashed Rahu and went to take sun in his mouth.[17] Rahu approached Indra, king of devas, and complained that a monkey child stopped him from taking on Sun, preventing the scheduled eclipse. This enraged Indra, who responded by throwing the Vajra (thunderbolt) at Hanuman, which struck his jaw. He fell back down to the earth and became unconscious. A permanent mark was left on his chin (हनुः hanuḥ "jaw" in Sanskrit), due to impact of Vajra, explaining his name.[10][18] Upset over the attack, Hanuman's father figure Vayu deva (the deity of air) went into seclusion, withdrawing air along with him. As living beings began to asphyxiate, Indra withdrew the effect of his thunderbolt. The devas then revived Hanuman and blessed him with multiple boons to appease Vayu.[10]

Brahma gave Hanuman a boon that would protect him from the irrevocable Brahma's curse. Brahma also said: "Nobody will be able to kill you with any weapon in war." From Brahma he obtained the power of inducing fear in enemies, of destroying fear in friends, to be able to change his form at will and to be able to easily travel wherever he wished. From Shiva he obtained the boons of longevity, scriptural wisdom and ability to cross the ocean. Shiva assured safety of Hanuman with a band that would protect him for life. Indra blessed him that the Vajra weapon will no longer be effective on him and his body would become stronger than Vajra. Varuna blessed baby Hanuman with a boon that he would always be protected from water. Agni blessed him with immunity to burning by fire. Surya gave him two siddhis of yoga namely "laghima" and "garima", to be able to attain the smallest or to attain the biggest form. Yama, the God of Death blessed him healthy life and free from his weapon danda, thus death would not come to him. Kubera showered his blessings declaring that Hanuman would always remain happy and contented. Vishwakarma blessed him that Hanuman would be protected from all his creations in the form of objects or weapons. Vayu also blessed him with more speed than he himself had. Kamadeva also blessed him that the sex will not be effective on him.So his name is also Bala Bramhachari.[citation needed]

On ascertaining Surya to be an all-knowing teacher, Hanuman raised his body into an orbit around the sun and requested to Surya to accept him as a student. Surya refused and explained claiming that he always had to be on the move in his chariot, it would be impossible for Hanuman to learn well. Undeterred, Hanuman enlarged his form, with one leg on the eastern ranges and the other on the western ranges, and facing Surya again pleaded. Pleased by his persistence, Surya agreed. Hanuman then learned all of the latter's knowledge. When Hanuman then requested Surya to quote his "guru-dakshina" (teacher's fee), the latter refused, saying that the pleasure of teaching one as dedicated as him was the fee in itself. Hanuman insisted, whereupon Surya asked him to help his (Surya's) spiritual son Sugriva. Hanuman's choice of Surya as his teacher is said to signify Surya as a Karma Saakshi, an eternal witness of all deeds. Hanuman later became Sugriva's minister.[10][19]

Hanuman was mischievous in his childhood, and sometimes teased the meditating sages in the forests by snatching their personal belongings and by disturbing their well-arranged articles of worship. Finding his antics unbearable, but realizing that Hanuman was but a child, (albeit invincible), the sages placed a mild curse on him by which he became unable to remember his own ability unless reminded by another person. The curse is highlighted in Kishkindha Kanda and he was relieved from the curse by the end of Kishkindha Kanda when Jambavantha reminds Hanuman of his abilities and encourages him to go and find Sita and in Sundara Kanda he used his supernatural powers at his best.[10]

Adventures in Ramayana[edit]

The Sundara Kanda, the fifth book in the Ramayana, focuses on the adventures of Hanuman.

Meeting with Rama[edit]

Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa meeting Hanumān at Rishyamukha

Hanuman meets Rama during the Rama's 14-year exile.[20] With his brother Lakshmana, Rama is searching for his wife Sita who had been abducted by Ravana. Their search brings them to the vicinity of the mountain Rishyamukha, where Sugriva, along with his followers and friends, are in hiding from his older brother Vali.

Having seen Rama and Lakshmana, Sugriva sends Hanuman to ascertain their identities. Hanuman approaches the two brothers in the guise of a brahmin. His first words to them are such that Rama says to Lakshmana that none could speak the way the brahmin did unless he or she had mastered the Vedas. He notes that there is no defect in the brahmin's countenance, eyes, forehead, brows, or any limb. He points out to Lakshmana that his accent is captivating, adding that even an enemy with sword drawn would be moved. He praises the disguised Hanuman further, saying that sure success awaited the king whose emissaries were as accomplished as he was.[20]

When Rama introduces himself, the brahman identitifies himself as Hanuman and falls prostrate before Rama, who embraces him warmly. Thereafter, Hanuman's life becomes interwoven with that of Rama. Hanuman then brings about friendship and alliance between Rama and Sugriva; Rama helps Sugriva regain his honour and makes him king of Kishkindha. Sugriva and his vanaras, most notably Hanuman, help Rama defeat Raavana and reunite with Sita.

In their search for Sita, a group of Vanaras reaches the southern seashore. Upon encountering the vast ocean, every vanara begins to lament his inability to jump across the water. Hanuman too is saddened at the possible failure of his mission, until the other vanaras and the wise bear Jambavantha begin to extol his virtues. Hanuman then recollects his own powers, enlarges his body, and flies across the ocean. On his way, he encounters a mountain that rises from the sea, proclaims that it owed his father a debt, and asks him to rest a while before proceeding. Not wanting to waste any time, Hanuman thanks the mountain, touches it briefly, and presses on. He then encounters a sea-monster, Surasa, who challenges him to enter her mouth. When Hanuman outwits her, she admits that her challenge was merely a test of his courage. After killing Simhika, a rakshasi, he reaches Lanka.

Finding Sita[edit]

Hanuman finds Sita in the ashoka grove, and shows her Rama's ring

Hanuman reaches Lanka through flight and marvels at its beauty. After he finds Sita in captivity in a garden, Hanuman reveals his identity to her, reassures her that Rama has been looking for her, and uplifts her spirits. He offers to carry her back to Rama, but she refuses his offer, saying it would be an insult to Rama as his honour is at stake. In order to give Sita faith, Hanuman gives her a ring that Ram wanted Hanuman to give her. After meeting Sita, Hanuman begins to wreak havoc, gradually destroying the palaces and properties of Lanka. He kills many rakshasas, including Jambumali and Aksha Kumar. To subdue him, Ravana's son Indrajit uses the Brahmastra. Though immune to the effects of this weapon Hanuman, out of respect to Brahma, allows himself be bound. Deciding to use the opportunity to meet Ravana, and to assess the strength of Ravana's hordes, Hanuman allows the rakshasa warriors to parade him through the streets. He conveys Rama's message of warning and demands the safe return of Sita. He also informs Ravana that Rama would be willing to forgive him if he returns Sita honourably.

Enraged, Ravana orders Hanuman's execution, whereupon Ravana's brother Vibhishana intervenes, pointing out that it is against the rules of engagement to kill a messenger. Ravana then orders Hanuman's tail be lit afire. As Ravana's forces attempted to wrap cloth around his tail, Hanuman begins to lengthen it. After frustrating them for a while, he allows it to burn, then escapes from his captors, and with his tail on fire he burns down large parts of Lanka. After extinguishing his flaming tail in the sea, he returns to Rama.

Shapeshifting[edit]

In the Ramayana Hanuman changes shape several times. For example, while he searches for the kidnapped Sita in Ravana's palaces on Lanka, he contracts himself to the size of a cat, so that he will not be detected by the enemy. Later on, he takes on the size of a mountain, blazing with radiance, to show his true power to Sita.[21]

Also he enlarges & immediately afterwards contracts his body to out-wit Surasa, the she-demon, who blocked his path while crossing the sea to reach Lanka. Again, he turns his body microscopically small to enter Lanka before killing Lankini, the she-demon guarding the gates of Lanka.

He achieved this shape-shifting by the powers of two siddhis; Anima and Garima bestowed upon him in his childhood by Sun-God, Surya.

Mountain Lifting[edit]

Hanuman fetches the herb-bearing mountain, in a print from the Ravi Varma Press, 1910s

When Lakshmana is severely wounded during the battle against Ravana, Hanuman is sent to fetch the Sanjivani, a powerful life-restoring herb, from Dronagiri mountain in the Himalayas, to revive him. Ravana realises that if Lakshmana dies, a distraught Rama would probably give up, and so he dispatches the sorcerer Kalanemi to intercept Hanuman.[22] Kalanemi, in the guise of a sage, deceives Hanuman, but Hanuman uncovers his plot with the help of an apsara, whom he rescues from her accursed state as a crocodile.[22]

Ravana, upon learning that Kalanemi has been slain by Hanuman, summons Surya to rise before its appointed time because the physician Sushena had said that Lakshmana would perish if untreated by daybreak. Hanuman realizes the danger, however, and, becoming many times his normal size, detains the Sun God to prevent the break of day. He then resumes his search for the precious herb, but, when he finds himself unable to identify which herb it is, he lifts the entire mountain and delivers it to the battlefield in Lanka. Sushena then identifies and administers the herb, and Lakshmana is saved. Rama embraces Hanuman, declaring him as dear to him as his own brother. Hanuman releases Surya from his grip, and asks forgiveness, as the Sun was also his Guru.

Hanuman was also called "langra veer"; langra in Hindi means limping and veer means "brave". The story behind Hanuman being called langra is as follows. He was injured when he was crossing the Ayodhya with the mountain in his hands. As he was crossing over Ayodhya, Bharat, Rama's young brother, saw him and assumed that some Rakshasa was taking this mountain to attack Ayodhya. Bharat then shot Hanuman with an arrow, which was engraved with Rama's name. Hanuman did not stop this arrow as it had Rama's name written on it, and it injured his leg. Hanuman landed and explained to Bharat that he was moving the mountain to save his own brother, Lakshmana. Bharat, very sorry, offered to fire an arrow to Lanka, which Hanuman could ride in order to reach his destination more easily. But Hanuman declined the offer, preferring to fly on his own, and he continued his journey with his injured leg.

Patala incident[edit]

In another incident during the war, Rama and Lakshmana are captured by the rakshasa Mahiravana and Ahiravan), brother of Ravana, who held them captive in their palace in Patala (or Patalpuri) --the netherworld. Mahiravana keeps them as offerings to his deity. Searching for them, Hanuman reaches Patala, the gates of which are guarded by a young creature called Makardhwaja (known also as Makar-Dhwaja or Magar Dhwaja), who is part reptile and part Vanara.

The story of Makardhwaja's birth is said to be that when Hanuman extinguished his burning tail in the ocean, a drop of his sweat fell into the waters, eventually becoming Makardhwaja, who perceives Hanuman as his father. When Hanuman introduces himself to Makardhwaja, the latter asks his blessings. Hanuman enters Patala.

Upon entering Patala, Hanuman discovers that to kill Mahiravana, he must simultaneously extinguish five lamps burning in different directions. Hanuman assumes the Panchamukha or five-faced form of Sri Varaha facing north, Sri Narasimha facing south, Sri Garuda facing west, Sri Hayagriva facing the sky and his own facing the east, and blows out the lamps. Hanuman then rescues Rama and Lakshmana. Afterwards, Rama asks Hanuman to crown Makardhwaja king of Patala. Hanuman then instructs Makardhwaja to rule Patala with justice and wisdom.

To date Chandraloak Devpuri mandir is located at Dugana a small village 17 km from Laharpur,Sitapur district,Uttar Pradesh. A divine place where Chakleswar Mahadev situated.

Honours[edit]

Hanuman showing Rama in His heart

Shortly after he is crowned Emperor upon his return to Ayodhya, Rama decides to ceremoniously reward all his well-wishers. At a grand ceremony in his court, all his friends and allies take turns being honoured at the throne. Hanuman approaches without desiring a reward. Seeing Hanuman come up to him, an emotionally overwhelmed Rama embraces him warmly, declaring that he could never adequately honour or repay Hanuman for the help and services he received from the noble Vanara. Sita, however, insists that Hanuman deserved honour more than anyone else, and Sita gives him a necklace of precious stones adorning her neck.

When he receives it, Hanuman immediately takes it apart, and peers into each stone. Taken aback, many of those present demand to know why he is destroying the precious gift. Hanuman answers that he was looking into the stones to make sure that Rama and Sita are in them, because if they are not, the necklace is of no value to him. At this, a few mock Hanuman, saying his reverence and love for Rama and Sita could not possibly be as deep as he implies. In response, Hanuman tears his chest open, and everyone is stunned to see Rama and Sita literally in his heart.

Hanuman Ramayana[edit]

Hanuman beheads Trisiras-from The Freer Ramayana

After the victory of Rama over Ravana, Hanuman went to the Himalayas to continue his worship of the Lord Rama. There he scripted a version of the Ramayana on the Himalayan mountains using his nails, recording every detail of Rama's deeds. When Maharishi Valmiki visited him to show him his own version of the Ramayana, he saw Hanuman's version and became very disappointed.

When Hanuman asked Valmiki the cause of his sorrow, the sage said that his version, which he had created very laboriously, was no match for the splendour of Hanuman's, and would therefore go ignored. At this, Hanuman discarded his own version, which is called the Hanumad Ramayana. Maharishi Valmiki was so taken aback that he said he would take another birth to sing the glory of Hanuman which he had understated in his version.

Later, one tablet is said to have floated ashore during the period of Mahakavi Kalidasa, and hung at a public place to be deciphered by scholars. Kalidasa is said to have deciphered it and recognised that it was from the Hanumad Ramayana recorded by Hanuman in an extinct script, and considered himself very fortunate to see at least one pada of the stanza.

After the Ramayana war[edit]

After the war, and after reigning for several years, the time arrived for Rama to depart to his supreme abode Vaikuntha. Many of Rama's entourage, including Sugriva, decided to depart with him. Hanuman, however, requested from Rama that he will remain on earth as long as Rama's name was venerated by people. Sita accorded Hanuman that desire, and granted that his image would be installed at various public places, so he could listen to people chanting Rama's name. He is one of the immortals (Chiranjivi) of Hinduism.[23]

Mahabharata[edit]

Hanuman is also considered to be the brother of Bhima, on the basis of their having the same father, Vayu. During the Pandavas' exile, he appears disguised as a weak and aged monkey to Bhima in order to subdue his arrogance. Bhima enters a field where Hanuman is lying with his tail blocking the way. Bhima, unaware of his identity, tells him to move it out of the way. Hanuman, incognito, refuses. Bhima then tries to move the tail himself but he is unable, despite his great strength. Realising he is no ordinary monkey, he inquires as to Hanuman's identity, which is then revealed. At Bhima's request, Hanuman is also said to have enlarged himself to demonstrate the proportions he had assumed in his crossing of the sea as he journeyed to Lanka and also said that when the war came, he would be there to protect the Pandavas. This place is located at Sariska National Park in the Alwar District of the State of Rajasthan and named as Pandupole(Temple of Hanuman ji).Pandupole is very famous tourist spot of Alwar.

During the great battle of Kurukshetra, Arjuna entered the battlefield with a flag displaying Hanuman on his chariot.[23] The incident that led to this was an earlier encounter between Hanuman and Arjuna, wherein Hanuman appeared as a small talking monkey before Arjuna at Rameshwaram, where Rama had built the great bridge to cross over to Lanka to rescue Sita. Upon Arjuna's wondering aloud at Rama's taking the help of monkeys rather than building a bridge of arrows, Hanuman challenged him to build a bridge capable of bearing him alone; Arjuna, unaware of the vanara's true identity, accepted. Hanuman then proceeded to repeatedly destroy the bridges made by Arjuna, who decided to take his own life. Krishna smiled and placed his divine discus beneath the bridge,and this time hanuman could no longer break it.Vishnu then appeared before them both after originally coming in the form of a tortoise, chiding Arjuna for his vanity and Hanuman for making Arjuna feel incompetent. As an act of penitence, Hanuman decided to help Arjuna by stabilizing and strengthening his chariot during the imminent great battle. After, the battle of Kurukshetra was over, Krishna asked Arjuna, that today you step down the chariot before me. After Arjuna got down, Krishna followed him and thanked Hanuman for staying with them during the whole fight in the form of a flag on the chariot. Hanuman came in his original form, bowed to Krishna and left the flag, flying away into the sky. As soon as he left the flag, the chariot began to burn and turned into ashes. Arjuna was shocked to see this, then Krishna told Arjuna, that the only reason his chariot was still standing was because of the presence of Himself and Hanuman, otherwise, it would have burnt many days ago due to effects of celestial weapons thrown at it in the war.

According to legend, Hanuman is one of the four people to have heard the Bhagwad Gita from Krishna and seen his Vishvarupa (universal) form, the other three being Arjuna, Sanjaya and Barbarika, son of Ghatotkacha.

Other texts[edit]

Indonesian Javanese wayang representation of Hanuman.
Hanuman is characterized as a celibate in most Indian texts. However, in the Khmer Reamker and Thai Ramakien, Hanuman falls in love with the pretty mermaid Suvannamaccha[24]

Apart from Ramayana and Mahabharata, Hanuman is mentioned in several other texts. Some of these stories add to his adventures mentioned in the earlier epics, while others tell alternative stories of his life.

Paumacariya (also known as Pauma Chariu or Padmacharit), the Jain version of Ramayana written by Vimalasuri, mentions Hanuman as a Vidyadhara (a supernatural being), who is the son of Pavangati and Anjana Sundari. Anjana gives birth to Hanuman in a forest cave, after being banished by her in-laws. Her maternal uncle rescues her from the forest; while boarding his vimana, Anjana accidentally drops her baby on a rock. However, the baby remains uninjured while the rock is shattered. The baby is raised in Hanuruha, his great uncle's island kingdom, from which Hanuman gets his name. In this version, Hanuman is not celibate. He marries princess Anangakusuma, the daughter of Kharadushana and Ravana's sister Chandranakha. Ravana also presents Hanuman one of his nieces as a second wife. After becoming an ally of Sugriva, Hanuman acquires a hundred more wives. Hanuman is originally enraged at Rama for murdering his father-in-law Kharadushana. However, he becomes a supporter of Rama after meeting him and learning about Sita's kidnapping by Ravana. He goes to Lanka on Rama's behalf, but is unable to convince Ravana to surrender. Ultimately, he joins Rama in the war against Ravana and performs several heroic deeds. After the victory and subsequent celebrations, both Rama and Hanuman take Jaineshwari Diksha and become Jain Munis and achieve salvation.[25] Later Jain texts such as Uttarapurana (9th century CE) by Gunabhadra and Anjana-Pavananjaya (12th century CE) tells the same story.

The Brahma Purana mentions that the vanaras built several Shiva lingams in Kishkindha. After his return to Ayodhya, Rama asks Hanuman to destroy these lingams, as they are no longer required. However, when Hanuman is unable to uproot these lingams, Rama orders them to worshipped permanently. The Skanda Purana mentions a variant of this story, which happens in Rameswaram.[26] The Narada Purana describes Hanuman as a master of vocal music, and as an embodiment of the combined power of Shiva and Vishnu.

Apart from the Puranas, the Agama Saunaka Samhitha, and Agastya Sara Samhitha explains certain stories which are not mentioned in other Hindu texts along with the worship rituals of Hanuman. Recently a simple English Translation of some of stories are released as a book named Tales Of Hanuman: Tales from the eternal life of Hanuman[27]

The 16th-century Indian poet Tulsidas wrote Hanuman Chalisa, a devotional song dedicated to Hanuman. He claimed to have visions where he met face to face with Hanuman. Based on these meetings, he wrote Ramcharitmanas, an Awadhi language version of Ramayana.[28] The Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple (Varanasi) is said to be located on the spot where Tulsidas had these visions. The works of Tulsidas played an important role in increasing the popularity of Hanuman worship in North India.

Durga Chalisa mentions that Hanuman leads and welcomes the procession of the ferocious lion-riding Bhavani.

The non-Indian versions of Ramayana, such as the Thai Ramakien, mention that Hanuman had relationships with multiple women, including Svayamprabha, Benjakaya (Vibhisana's daughter), Suvannamaccha and even Ravana's wife Mandodari.[5] According to these versions of the Ramayana, Macchanu is son of Hanuman borne by Suvannamaccha, daughter of Ravana.[29][30][31] The Jain text Paumacariya also mentions that Hanuman married Lankasundari, the daughter of Lanka's chief defender Bajramukha.[32] Another legend says that a demigod named Matsyaraja (also known as Makardhwaja or Matsyagarbha) claimed to be his son. Matsyaraja's birth is explained as follows: a fish (matsya) was impregnated by the drops of Hanuman's sweat, while he was bathing in the ocean.[5]

Prophecy and legacy[edit]

Hanuman as depicted in Yakshagana, popular folk art of Karnataka

A number of religious leaders have claimed to have seen Hanuman over the course of the centuries, notably Madhvacharya (13th century CE), Tulsidas (16th century), Samarth Ramdas (17th century), Raghavendra Swami (17th century) and Swami Ramdas (20th century).

Swaminarayan, founder of the Hindu Swaminarayan sects, holds that other than worship of God through the Narayana Kavacha, Hanuman is the only deity who may be worshiped in the event of trouble by evil spirits.

Others have also asserted his presence wherever the Ramayana is read.[33]

अमलकमलवर्णं प्रज्ज्वलत्पावकाक्षं सरसिजनिभवक्त्रं सर्वदा सुप्रसन्नम् |
पटुतरघनगात्रं कुण्डलालङ्कृताङ्गं रणजयकरवालं वानरेशं नमामि ||

यत्र यत्र रघुनाथकीर्तनं तत्र तत्र कृतमस्तकाञ्जलिम् ।
बाष्पवारिपरिपूर्णलोचनं मारुतिं नमत राक्षसान्तकम् ॥

yatra yatra raghunāthakīrtanaṃ tatra tatra kṛta mastakāñjalim ।
bāṣpavāriparipūrṇalocanaṃ mārutiṃ namata rākṣasāntakam ॥

This can be found in other texts such as the Vinaya Patrika by Tulsidas and the Mahabharta, and in other texts with only slight variation in language. During the readings of the Ramayana (Ramayanpath), a special puja and space (asan) are reserved for Hanuman.

Temples[edit]

Lord Anjaneya decorated with flowers , Namakkal, Tamil Nadu,India
41 meters high Hanuman monument at Yerravaram, Andhra Pradesh

Hanuman is worshipped by villagers as a boundary guardian, by Shaiva ascetics as a Yogi, and by wrestlers for his strength.[34] There are numerous temples for Hanuman, and his images are usually installed at all temples where images of avatars of Vishnu are installed. Hanuman temples are believed to keep the area and surroundings free of rakshasas (demons) and other evil beings. Hanuman idols are found on mountain roads because it is believed that he protects people from accidents.

Jakhu temple is a famous temple at Shimla, the capital of Himachal Pradesh. The word "Jakhu" is derived from "Yaku"/"Yaksha". The hill is the legendary abode of Yaksha, Kinners Nagas and Asuras. The temple was founded on a plain where, according to legend, Hanuman's sudden landing flattened a hill. A 108-foot (33-metre) statue of Hanuman has been erected at the top of the 8,500-foot (2,591-metre) tall Jakhu Hill, the highest point in Shimla.[35]

According to the Ramayana, during the battle between Lord Rama and Ravana at Lanka, Lakshmana, brother of Lord Rama, was mortally wounded by an arrow. To save his life, Hanuman journeyed to the Himalayas to retrieve the Sanjeevani herb. En route, he encountered a meditating sage on Jakhu mountain; as he paused to inquire about the herb, Hanuman's landing on the mountain compressed the earth, changing the shape of the mountain to its present state. In his haste to depart, Hanuman is said to have left his friends behind, and they are said to continue to roam the area even today. A temple honoring Lord Hanuman was constructed by the Jakhu sage.

The oldest known independent Hanuman statue is the one at Khajuraho, which has an inscription dated Sam. 940 (AD 883) mentioning that it was erected by Gahil's son Gollak.[36][37]

Sankat Mochan Shri Hanuman Mandir, located in the Punjab town of Phillaur is one of the popular temples of Hanuman. Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, Varanasi, believed to be built by Tulsidas, is second most popular temple in the city.

Namakkal Anjaneyar temple is located in the town of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu. There is an 18-feet idol of Sri Hanuman in the temple facing east, worshipping Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swami (one of the avatar of god Vishnu) in this temple. Anjenayar idol is Swayambu, believed to be growing in height; thus, temple has no roof enclosing.

Sholinghur Sri Yoga Narasimha swami temple and Sri Yoga Anjaneyar temple, located in Sholinghur, a town which is about 30 km from Arakkonam of Vellore District.Sri yoga Anjaneyar temple located over small hill containing 480 steps from ground. Lord Anjaneyar with Sathurpujam (sathur=four, pujam=arms) Sri Sangu and Sri Chakaram 2 hands and Jabba Malai and Jaba Shankaram in other two respectively facing Sri yoga Narasimha swami and Yoga Amurthavalli Thayar present over hill (periya malai= big hill) with 1305 steps from ground. Sholinghur shetram one among 108 divya desams also one of most famous temple of our Lord Anjaneya.

Ragigudda Anjaneya temple is a Hanuman temple located in JP Nagar Bangalore. The temple is located on a hillock.

Hanuman temple,Nurawa Eliya,Sri Lanka

The Hanuman temple at Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India is situated inside SIES complex. The Hanuman idol is 33 feet (10 m) tall and is installed on a pedestal of height 12 feet (4 m), bringing the total height to 45 feet (14 m). In the picture shown, Hanuman has silver coverings (Silver Kavasam). The 33 feet Hanuman idol is carved out of single granite stone. This is the tallest single granite stone Hanuman idol in India as per the temple.

Similarly, a 32 feet (10 m) idol of Sri Anjaneyar was entrenched in 1989 at Nanganallur in Chennai, India. The distinguishing factor of the idol is that it was molded out of a single rock.

An 85-foot (26 m) Karya Siddhi Hanuman statue was installed at Carapichaima in Trinidad and Tobago, by Avadhoota Dattapeetham's Pontiff Ganapathy Sachchidananda. It is the tallest in the Western hemisphere and second tallest in the world. One has also built a Karya Siddhi Hanuman Temple in Frisco, Texas in the U.S.

The tallest Hanuman statue is the Veera Abhaya Anjaneya Hanuman Swami, standing 135 feet tall at Yerravaram, 46 km from Rajahmundry in Andhra Pradesh, installed in 2003.[38]

The image of Hanuman is said to have come alive and moved when installed at the Shri Hanuman Mandir, Sarangpur. The temple is noted for getting rid of evil spirits.[39]

Suchindram temple is a pious place lying about 14 km from Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu. The temple is famous for it 18 feet tall Hanuman idol. This idol is decorated fully with butter (Vennai kappu in Tamil) and Sandalwood paste (Chandana kappu in Tamil).

In Rajasthan,Hanuman Temples at Mehendipur Balaji in Dausa district (80 km from Jaipur) and Salasar dhaam in Churu district (160 km from Jaipur) attract a large number of devotees from all over India. [{Chandraloak Devpuri Balaji}] is located in Dugana 17  km from Laharpur district-sitapur,UttarPradesh

Bhaktha Anjaneyar is Temple is located in Vedasandur, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu.

Kaviyoor is a small village about 5–6 km from the town of Thiruvalla, Kerala The Kaviyoor Mahadevar Temple here is about 100 years old and the Hanuman temple inside the Shiva temple is considered as very auspicious by devotees. Hanuman idol consecrated here is made of Panchaloha and is depicting him telling the story of Ramayana to Sita in the Asoka Vana.

Yalagur, a small village about 30–35 km from the town of Bagalkot in Karnataka, also has a temple dedicated to Hanuman.

Sri Baktha Hanuman Temple, Ramboda.Sri Lanka. Ramboda is a place where Hanuman was searching for Sita Devi.

Worship[edit]

Some of the prayers, songs, mantras, shlokas, devoted to Hanuman include Hanuman Chalisa, Bajranga Baan, Maruti Strotam, Anjaneya Dandakam , Vadvanal Strotam, Hanuman Sathhika, Hanuman Bahuk, Hanuman Dwadesha, Bhimrupi Strotam, Sundara Kanda, Maruti Gayatri Mantra, Hanumansahasranam stotra (Stotra of thousand names of Hanuman), Ek-mukhi Hanuman Raksha Kavacham, Pancha-mukhi Hanuman Raksha Kavacham and Sapta-mukhi Hanuman Raksha Kavacham.

"Ram Raksha Strotam", the Sanskrit Strota, a Shield of Rama has lines devoted to Hanuman, saying, whoever, reads this, will be protected by Hanuman.

Panchamukha Sri Hanuman[edit]

A terracotta sculpture of Panchamukha Sri Hanuman

Sri Hanuman assumed Panchamukha or five-faced form to kill Ahiravana, a powerful rakshasa black-magician and practitioner of the dark arts during the Ramayana war. Ahiravana, brother of Ravana, had taken Lord Rama and Lakshmana to netherworld as captive, and the only way to kill him was to extinguish five lamps burning in different directions, all at the same instant. Sri Hanuman assumed His Panchamukha form and accomplished the task, thus killing the rakshasa, and freeing Rama and Lakshmana.

Face Direction Significance
Sri Hanuman (Original) East This face removes all blemishes of sin and confers purity of mind.
Narasimha South Removes fear of enemies and confers victory. Narasimha is the Lion-Man avatar of Lord Vishnu, who took the form to protect his devotee Prahlad from his evil father, Hiranyakashipu. Sri Hanuman may have had this face during the burning of Lanka and fighting in the war.
Garuda West Drives away evil spells, black magic influences, negative spirits and removes all poisonous effects in one's body. Garuda is Lord Vishnu's vehcile, this bird knows the secrets of death and the beyond. The Garuda Purana is a Hindu text based on this knowledge.
Varaha North Wards off the troubles caused by bad influences of the planets and confers all eight types prosperity (Ashta Aishwarya). Varaha is another Lord Vishnu avatar, he took this form and dug up land, Sri Hanuman may have had this face whilst collecting the Sanjeev mountain.
Hayagriva Upwards (Urddha Mukha) face confers knowledge, victory, good wife and progeny.

This form of Sri Hanuman is very popular, and is also known as Panchamukha Anjaneya and Panchamukhi Anjaneya. (Anjaneya, which means "son of Anjana", is another name of Sri Hanuman). These faces show there is nothing in the world which does not come under any the influence of any of the five faces, symbolic of his all around security to all devotees. This also signifies vigilance and control over the five directions - north, south, east, west and the upward direction/zenith.

There are five ways of prayer, Naman, Smaran, Keerthanam, Yachanam and Arpanam. The five faces depict these five forms. Lord Sri Hanuman always used to Naman, Smaran and Keerthanam of Lord Sri Rama. He totally surrendered (Arpanam) to his Master Sri Rama. He also begged (yachanam) Sri Rama to bless him the undivided love.

The weapons are a parashu, a Khanda, a chakra, a dhaalam, a gada, a trishula, a kumbha, a Katar, a plate filled with blood and again a big Gada.

Chitrakoot in Central India is claimed to be the resting place of Sri Hanuman. The Hanuman Dhara Temple is situated on the peak of mountain where there is natural rock formation image of Shri Hanuman inside the cave and a natural stream of water falling on the tail. It is believed that after the coronation of Lord Rama, Sri Hanuman requested for a permanent place to settle in the Kingdom of Lord Rama, where his Injury of burns on his tails will be cured. Lord Rama, then with his arrow, spurred a stream of water on the tip of mountain and asked Sri Hanuman to rest there with water of the stream falling on his tail to cool down burning sensation in his tail. The access to the cave temple is through stairs starting from bottom of the mountain to its top. It takes roughly 30 to 40 minutes to reach the temple. Over time the temple has gained a new name, namely Hanuman Dhara.[citation needed]

Sri Panchamukha Anjaneya Swami was the main deity of Sri Raghavendra Swami. The place where he meditated on this five-faced form of Sri Hanuman is now known as Panchamukhi, wherein a temple for him has been built. There is also a shrine for Panchamukha Anjaneya Swami at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu, India. A 40 feet (12 m) tall monolithic green granite murti of Sri Panchamukha Hanuman has been installed in Thiruvallur, also in Tamil Nadu. This place was known as Rudravanam in olden times when many saints and seers had blessed this place with their presence. The Panchamukha Hanuman Ashram itself was established by a saint called Venkatesa Battar.[citation needed] A four foot image of Panchmukha Hanuman has been consecrated West of Lusaka, Zambia in Oye Kapi farm.

Relation with Shani[edit]

In Hinduism, Hanuman is one of the few deities not afflicted by Shani.[40] Hanuman is the one of the deities in Hindu religion, over whom Shani could not cast his spell. Shani could not overcome Hanuman and as such people worship Hanuman to get rid of malefic effects of Shani.

In the Ramayana, Hanuman is said to have rescued Shani, from the clutches of Ravana.[41]

In gratitude, Shani promised Hanuman that those who prayed him (Hanuman) would be rescued from the painful effects of Saturn, which in Hindu astrology, is said to produce malefic effects on one's life when one is afflicted "negatively" with Saturn.[41]

Another version of the encounter between Lord Hanuman and Shani Bhagavan is that the latter once climbed on to Lord Hanuman's shoulder, implying that he (Hanuman) was coming under the effects of the influence of Shani. At this, Hanuman assumed a large size, and Shani was caught painfully between Hanuman's shoulders and the ceiling of the room they were in. As the pain was unbearable, Shani requested Hanuman to release him, promising that he (Shani) would moderate the malefic effects of his influence on a person praying to Hanuman. Hanuman released Shani thereafter.[42]

In the verse with a thousand Names of Hanuman the Hanumansahasranam stotra, Shani is one of the Names of Hanuman. In some regions of India, Hanuman is also seen sporting an iron whip akin to Shani.

Hanuman and negative energies[edit]

Hanuman is worshiped also to get rid or win over demons (like daitya, danava), demi-gods (like Yaksha, kinnara, Gandharvas, Nāga-Nāginī), evil spirits (like Bhutam, Preta, Pishacha, Churela, Vetala, Brahmrakshasa) and other powerful negative energies (like Dakini, Shakini, Kakini, Kamini), which find their mention in Hinduism.[43][44][45][46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Philip Lutgendorf (11 January 2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  2. ^ Philip Lutgendorf (11 January 2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  3. ^ "Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda in Prose Sarga 3". Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Philip Lutgendorf (11 January 2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Camille Bulcke; Dineśvara Prasāda (2010). Rāmakathā and Other Essays. Vani Prakashan. pp. 117–126. ISBN 978-93-5000-107-3. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand. Sarup & Sons. pp. 411–. ISBN 978-81-7625-226-3 http://books.google.com/books?id=nmmkM0fVS-cC&pg=PA411. Retrieved 14 July 2012.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ Shanti Lal Nagar (1999). Genesis and evolution of the Rāma kathā in Indian art, thought, literature, and culture: from the earliest period to the modern times. B.R. Pub. Co. ISBN 978-81-7646-082-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  8. ^ Devdutt Pattanaik (1 September 2000). The Goddess in India: The Five Faces of the Eternal Feminine. Inner Traditions * Bear & Company. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-89281-807-5. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  9. ^ Philip Lutgendorf (11 January 2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas: (A-C) ; 2.(D-H) ; 3.(I-L) ; 4.(M-R) ; 5.(S-Z), pp=628-631, Swami Parmeshwaranand, Sarup & Sons, 2001, ISBN 81-7625-226-3, ISBN 978-81-7625-226-3
  11. ^ Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) "Hanuman Chalisa" p. 5
  12. ^ Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) "Hanuman Chalisa" pp. 5-6
  13. ^ Ali Javid, Tabassum Javeed, ed. (2008). World heritage monuments and related edifices in India, Volume 1. Algora Publishing. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-87586-482-2. 
  14. ^ Gumla block, Official website of the Gumla District
  15. ^ Harish Kapadia (2008). Trek the Sahyadris. Indus. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-7387-151-1. 
  16. ^ Manish Jhulka (1992). Ramayana. Lotus. p. 183. ISBN 978-81-7587-151-1 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  17. ^ Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) "Hanuman Chalisa" p. 6
  18. ^ Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) "Hanuman Chalisa" p. 7
  19. ^ Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) "Hanuman Chalisa" p. 7
  20. ^ a b Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) "Hanuman Chalisa" p. 8
  21. ^ Goldman, Robert P. (Introduction, translation and annotation) (1996). The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, Volume V: Sundarakanda. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 0691066620. pp. 45-47.
  22. ^ a b Lutgendorf, Philip. Hanuman's tale: the messages of a divine monkey. 2007, page 147
  23. ^ a b Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) "Hanuman Chalisa" p. 9
  24. ^ Satyavrat Sastri (2006). Discovery of Sanskrit Treasures: Epics and Puranas. Yash Publications. p. 77. ISBN 978-81-89537-04-3. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  25. ^ Philip Lutgendorf (11 January 2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  26. ^ Diana L. Eck (1991). Devotion divine: Bhakti traditions from the regions of India : studies in honour of Charlotte Vaudeville. Egbert Forsten. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-6980-045-5. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  27. ^ K.Koushik (2014). Tales Of Hanuman: Tales from the eternal life of Hanuman. CreateSpace Independent Publ. p. 136. ISBN 978-1500381585. Retrieved 23 Jun 3 2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  28. ^ Catherine Ludvík (1994). Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa. Motilal Banarasidas publ. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  29. ^ The Ramayana and the Malay shadow-play by Amin Sweeney, Vālmīki. Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,. 1972. pp. 238, 246, 440. 
  30. ^ Śrīrāmakīrtimahākāvyam: Thāirāmakathāmāśritya praṇītamabhinavaṃ Saṃskr̥tamahākāvyam by Satyavrat Sastri. Mūlāmala Sacadeva Pratiṣṭhānam. 1990. pp. xvi,224, 282. 
  31. ^ Satya sudhā, a critical evaluation of Dr. Satya Vrat Shastri's creative works by Satya Vrat Varma. Eastern Book Linkers. 1991. pp. 190, 205, 214. 
  32. ^ Truman Simanjuntak (2006). Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective : R.P. Soejono's Festschrift. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. p. 362. ISBN 978-979-26-2499-1. Retrieved 14 July 2012. 
  33. ^ Hanuman, Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
  34. ^ Claus (2003)
  35. ^ The Indian Express, Chandigarh, Tuesday, November 2, 2010, p. 5.
  36. ^ Reports of a Tour in Bundelkhand and Rewa in 1883-84, and of a Tour in Rewa, Bundelkhand, Malwa, and Gwalior, in 1884-85, Alexander Cunningham, 1885
  37. ^ Hanuman's tale: the messages of a divine monkey, Philip Lutgendorf, Oxford University Press US, 2007
  38. ^ Hanuman's tale: the messages of a divine monkey, Philip Lutgendorf, 2007
  39. ^ Raymond Brady Williams (2001). An introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65422-7. Retrieved May 14, 2009.  Page 128
  40. ^ [1] according to scriptures Shani declared that any one who worshipped Lord Hanuman would not be affected by the evil effect of the planet-Source-spirituality.indiatimes.com
  41. ^ a b Lutgendorf, Philip (2007). Hanuman's tale: the messages of a divine monkey. Oxford University Press US. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8. 
  42. ^ [2] Shani & Hanuman-Source Google Books-Gods and goddesses of India By Kailash Nath Seth, B. K. Chaturvedi
  43. ^ Vichitra veer hanuman mantra-Maruti stotram ...prakata vikrama veera daitya Danava yaksha graha bandhnaya bhutam graha bandhanaya preta grah bandhnaya pishacha graha bandhnaye shakini dakini graha bandhaya kakini kamini graha bandhnaya brahama graha bandhnaya brahmarakshasa graha bandhnaya...
  44. ^ Lord Hanuman is the God of velour power, wisdom and great renown. The devotees believe that Hanuman dispels all fears and all spirits. All ailments caused by Ghosts, spirits, Goblins, Ghouls, Malignant, super natural powers such as Shakini, Dakini, Pishachini etc. Therefore, they propitiate the Lord for their own protection and the protection of their family.
  45. ^ Panchamukhi Hanuman Kavachama
  46. ^ Saptamukhi Hanuman Kavacham

References[edit]


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]