Hanuman Chalisa

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Hanuman Chalisa
Lord hanuman singing bhajans AS.jpg
Hanuman singing bhajan
Author Tulsidas
Country India
Language Awadhi
Genre Bhakti literature (Devotional poetry)

The Hanuman Chalisa (Devanagari: हनुमान चालीसा; Hindi pronunciation: [ɦənʊmaːn tʃaːliːsaː]; literally Forty chaupais on Hanuman) is a Hindu devotional hymn (stotra) addressed to Hanuman.[1][2] It is traditionally believed to have been authored by 16th-century poet Tulsidas in the Awadhi language,[1] and is his best known text apart from the Ramcharitmanas.[3][4] The word "chālīsā" is derived from "chālīs", which means the number forty in Hindi, as the Hanuman Chalisa has 40 verses (excluding the couplets at the beginning and at the end).[1]

Hanuman is a vanara (a monkey-like humanoid deity), a devotee of Rama, and one of the central characters in the Sanskrit epic Ramayana. Folk tales increasingly eulogise the powers of Hanuman, and he is considered by many to be an avatar of the god Shiva.[5] The qualities of Hanuman – his strength, courage, wisdom, celibacy, devotion to Rama and the many names by which he was known – are detailed in the Hanuman Chalisa.[5] There are more temples devoted to Hanuman than any other deity in India, and recitation or chanting of the Hanuman Chalisa is a common religious practice.[6]

About the work[edit]

The authorship of the Hanuman Chalisa is attributed to Tulsidas, a poet-saint who lived in the 16th century CE. He says in the last stanza of the Chalisa that whoever chants it with full devotion to Hanuman, will have Hanuman's grace. Amongst the Hindus of Northern India, it is a very popular belief that chanting the Hanuman Chalisa invokes Hanuman's divine intervention in grave problems, including those concerning evil spirits.

Author[edit]

The most common picture of Tulasidas

Tulsidas (Devanagari: तुलसीदास, Hindi pronunciation: [t̪uls̪iːd̪ɑːs̪], also known as Goswami Tulsidas),[7] (1497/1532–1623 CE) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher renowned for his devotion for the god Rama. A composer of several popular works, he is best known for being the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayana in the vernacular Awadhi. Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayana in Sanskrit.[8] Tulsidas lived in the city of Varanasi until his death.[9] The Tulsi Ghat in Varnasi is named after him.[7] He founded the Sankatmochan Temple dedicated to Hanuman in Varanasi, believed to stand at the place where he had the sight of Hanuman.[10] Tulsidas started the Ramlila plays, a folk-theatre adaption of the Ramayana.[11] He has been acclaimed as one of the greatest poets in Hindi, Indian, and world literature.[12][13][14][15] The impact of Tulsidas and his works on the art, culture and society in India is widespread and is seen to date in vernacular language, Ramlila plays, Hindustani classical music, popular music, and television series.[11][16][17][18]

Language[edit]

The language is very simple and rustic conforming to the popular belief that it was created by the boy Tulsidas.[19] There are 2 couplets in the beginning and one couplet at the ending between the 40 verses of Chalisa.[20] The Chalisa details Hanuman in the order of his knowledge, devotion to Rama and man without any desire.[21] As with the case of devotional literature, Tulsidas starts the poem with two couplets praising his Guru (teacher).[22] The language of Chalisa is in the refined Avadhi language.[23]

Deity[edit]

The Hindu deity to whom the prayer is addressed, Hanuman (Sanskrit: हनुमान्, Hanumān), is an ardent devotee of Rama, the seventh Avatar of Vishnu, and a central character in the Indian epic Ramayan. A general among the vanaras, Hanuman is a disciple of Lord Rama in the war against the demon king Ravan. Hanuman's exploits are much celebrated in a variety of religious and cultural traditions,[24] particularly in Hinduism, to the extent that he is often the object of worship according to some bhakti traditions,[25] and is the prime deity in many temples known as Hanuman Mandirs.

Text[edit]

The work consists of forty-three verses – two introductory Dohas, forty Chaupais and one Doha in the end.[1] The first introductory Doha begins with the word shrī, which refers to Sita, who is considered the Guru of Hanuman.[26] The auspicious form, knowledge, virtues, powers and bravery of Hanuman are described in the first ten Chaupais.[27][28][29] Chaupais eleven to twenty describe the acts of Hanuman in his service to Rama, with the eleventh to fifteenth Chaupais describing the role of Hanuman in bringing back Lakshman to consciousness.[27] From the twenty-first Chaupai, Tulsidas describes the need of Hanuman's Kripa.[30] At the end, Tulsidas hails Hanuman[31] and requests him to reside in his heart and in the heart of Vaishnavas.[32] The concluding Doha again requests Hanuman to reside in the heart, along with Rama, Lakshman and Sita.[33]

The translation below follows the English and Hindi translations by Gita Press, Rao, Mehta and Rambhadracharya.[28][34][35][36]

Introductory Dohas[edit]

Before the Chalisa are two Dohas.

Devanagari
श्रीगुरु चरन सरोज रज निज मन मुकुर सुधारि।
बरनउँ रघुबर बिमल जसु जो दायकु फल चारि॥

Hunterian
shrīguru charana saroja raja nija mana mukuru sudhāri।
baranau raghubara bimala jasu jo dāyaku phala chāri॥

Cleansing the mirror in the form of my mind with the pollen of the lotus-feet of the Guru, I describe the unblemished glory of Rama, which bestows the four fruits.[26][34]

Gita Press translation interprets the four fruits as the four PuruṣārthasDharma, Artha, Kāma, and Mokṣa.[34] Rambhadracharya comments that the four fruits refer to any of the following

  1. The four Puruṣārthas – Dharma, Artha, Kāma, Mokṣa
  2. The four types of Mukti – Sālokya, Sāmīpya, Sāyujya, Sārūpya
  3. Dharma, Jñāna, Yoga, Japa

Devanagari
बुद्धिहीन तनु जानिकै सुमिरौं पवनकुमार।
बल बुधि बिद्या देहु मोहिं हरहु कलेस बिकार॥

Hunterian
buddhihīna tanu jānikai sumirau pavanakumāra।
bala budhi bidyā dehu mohi harahu kalesa bikāra॥

Knowing my body to be devoid of intelligence, I remember Hanuman, the son of Vāyu. Give me strength, intelligence and knowledge and remove all ailments (kalesa) and impurities (bikāra).[28][34][35][37]

Gita Press interprets kalesa as bodily ailments and bikāra as mental maladies.[34] Rambhadracharya comments that kalesa (Sanskrit kleśa) refers to the five afflictions (Avidyā, Asmitā, Rāga, Dveṣa, and Abhiniveśa) as described in the Yoga Sutras, and bikāra (Sanskrit vikāra) refers to the six impurities of the mind (Kāma, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada, and Mātsarya).[37] Rambhadracharya adds that these five afflictions and six impurities are the eleven enemies, and Hanuman is capable of removing them as he is the incarnation of the eleven Rudras.[37]

The Chalisa[edit]

Devanagari
जय हनुमान ज्ञान गुन सागर।
जय कपीस तिहुँ लोक उजागर॥ १ ॥

Hunterian
jaya hanumāna gyāna guna sāgara।
jaya kapīsa tihu loka ujāgara॥ 1 ॥

O Hanuman, the ocean of knowledge and virtues, may you be victorious. O the chief amongst Vanaras famous across the three Lokas (Pātāla, Prithvi (earth) and Svarga), may you be victorious.[29][34][38]

Rambhadracharya comments that Hanuman is called ocean of knowledge by Tulsidas as the Valmiki Ramayana describes him as one who knows the three Vedas (Ṛgveda, Yajurveda, and Sāmaveda) and Sanskrit grammar.[38]

Devanagari
राम दूत अतुलित बल धामा।
अंजनि पुत्र पवनसुत नामा॥ २ ॥

Hunterian
rāma dūta atulita bala dhāmā।
anjani putra pavanasuta nāmā॥ 2 ॥

You are the trusted messenger of Rama and you are the abode of incomparable strength. You are known by the names of Anjaniputra (son of Anjana) and Pavanasuta (son of Vāyu).[28][29][39]

Hanuman is called Anjaniputra as he was born from the womb of Anjana, who was an Apsara with the name Puñjikasthalā and was born as a Vanara by the curse of Agastya.[39] Hanuman is called Pavanasuta since Vāyu carried the divine power of Shiva into Anjana's womb, and since the Valmiki Ramayana calls Hanuman as Vāyu's own son (mārutasyaurasaḥ putraḥ).[39][40]

Devanagari
महाबीर बिक्रम बजरंगी।
कुमति निवार सुमति के संगी॥ ३ ॥

Hunterian
mahābīra bikrama bajarangī।
kumati nivāra sumati ke sangī॥ 3 ॥

You are the great hero, you are endowed with valour, your body is as strong as Indra's Vajra. You are the destroyer of vile intellect, and you are the companion of one whose intellect is pure.[28][29][41]

Rambhadracharya explains the word bajarangī to come from Sanskrit Vajrāṅgī and gives two meanings of the word bikrama based on the root kram in Sanskrit and usage of the verb form vikramasva in Valmiki Ramayana –[41]

  1. Hanuman is endowed with special progression of sādhanā (penance).
  2. Hanuman is endowed with the special action of going over or across, i.e. the crossing of the ocean

Devanagari
कंचन बरन बिराज सुबेसा।
कानन कुंडल कुंचित केसा॥ ४ ॥

Hunterian
kanchana barana birāja subesā।
kānana kundala kunchita kesā॥ 4 ॥

Your complexion is that of molten gold, and you are resplendent in your handsome form. You wear Kundalas (small earrings worn in old times by Hindus) in your ears and your hair is curly.[42]

Noting that in the Ramcharitmanas Tulsidas calls Hanuman as Subeṣa (one with an handsome form), Rambhadracharya comments that this verse describes the form of Hanuman when he took the appearance of a Brahmin, which happens three times in the Ramcharitmanas.[42]

Devanagari
हाथ बज्र औ ध्वजा बिराजै।
काँधे मूँज जनेऊ साजै॥ ५ ॥

Hunterian
hātha bajra au dhvajā birājai।
kādhe mūnja janeū sājai॥ 5 ॥

You have the Vajra and the flag in your hands, and the sacred-thread (Yajnopavita) made of the Munja grass adorns your shoulder.[43]

Rambhadracharya gives two meanings for the first half of the verse –[43]

  1. The flag signifying the victory of Rama shines forth in Hanuman's Vajra-like powerful hand
  2. The Vajra-like powerful Gadā and the victory flag of Rama shine forth in Hanuman's hands

He also gives the variant reading chhājai (छाजै) instead of sājai (साजै) in the second half.[43]

Devanagari
शंकर सुवन केसरी नंदन।
तेज प्रताप महा जग बंदन॥ ६ ॥

Hunterian
shankara suvana kesarī nandana।
teja pratāpa mahā jaga bandana॥ 6 ॥

O son of Shiva (or son of Vāyu carrying the power of Shiva), the delighter of Kesari, your aura and majesty is great and is revered by the whole world.[28][29][40]

Rao and Mehta explain the first half as Hanuman is the son of Kesari and Shiva.[28][29] Rambhadracharya gives two variant readings for the first part–[40]

  1. shankara svayam which is explained as Hanuman is Shiva himself, as Vāyu carried the power of Shiva himself in Anjana's womb from which Hanuman was born. Tulsidas mentions Hanuman as an Avatar of Shiva in the Vinayapatrika.
  2. shankara suvana which is explained as Hanuman is the son of Vāyu, who is one of the eight manifestations of Shiva as per Kalidasa. An alternate explanation is that the word suvana is used in the sense of Aṃśa as per the Puranic narrative of Vāyu carrying Shivas power to Anjana's womb.

Rambhadracharya explains kesarī nandana as the Kṣetraja son of Kesari, which is one of the twelve kinds of offspring recognized in the ancient Hindu law.[40]

Devanagari
बिद्यावान गुनी अति चातुर।
राम काज करिबे को आतुर॥ ७ ॥

Hunterian
bidyāvāna gunī ati chātura।
rāma kāja jaribe ko ātura॥ 7 ॥

You are the praiseworthy abode of the eighteen types of Vidyā (knowledge), all virtues reside in you, and you are exceedingly clever.[44] You are ever eager to perform tasks for Rama.[44]

Devanagari
प्रभु चरित्र सुनिबे को रसिया।
राम लखन सीता मन बसिया॥ ८ ॥

Hunterian
prabhu charitra sunibe ko rasiyā।
rāma lakhana sītā mana basiyā॥ 8 ॥

You delight in listening to the acts of Rama (Ramayana).[45] Rama, Lakshmana and Sita reside in your mind.[45] Alternately, you reside in the minds of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita [owing to their affection towards you].[45]

Devanagari
सूक्ष्म रूप धरी सियहिं दिखावा।
बिकट रूप धरि लंक जरावा॥ ९ ॥

Hunterian
sūkshma rūpa dhari siyahi dikhāvā।
bikata rūpa dhari lanka jarāvā॥ 9 ॥

You assumed an extremely minute form and saw Sita in the Ashok Vatika. You assumed a very large and scary form and burnt the city of Lanka.[46]

Devanagari
भीम रूप धरि असुर सँहारे।
रामचन्द्र के काज सँवारे॥ १० ॥

Hunterian
bhīma rūpa dhari asura sahāre।
rāmachandra ke kāja savāre॥ 10 ॥

You assumed a frightening form and destroyed the demons in the army of Ravana. You carried out all the tasks of Rama.[47]

Rambhadracharya comments that the word bhīma is an allusion to the event in the Mahabharata when Hanuman showed the same frightening form to Bhima.[47]

Hanuman fetches the herb-bearing Sanjivini mountain

Devanagari
लाय सँजीवनि लखन जियाए।
श्रीरघुबीर हरषि उर लाए॥ ११ ॥

Hunterian
lāya sajīvani lakhana jiyāe।
shrī raghubīra harashi ura lāe॥ 11 ॥

You brought the Sanjivini, the life saving herb from Dronagiri in Himalayas, and revitalized Lakshman. Out of elation, Rama embraced you.[28][48][49]

Devanagari
रघुपति कीन्हीं बहुत बड़ाई।
तुम मम प्रिय भरतहि सम भाई॥ १२ ॥

Hunterian
raghupati kīnhī bahut barāī।
tuma mama priya bharatahi sama bhāī॥ 12 ॥

Rama, the chief among Raghu's descendants, praised you profusely saying "You are dear to me like my brother Bharata.[28][48][50]

Rambhadracharya associates the term bhāī with bharata.[50] In contrast, Rao and Mehta interpret the second half as Rama said that you (Hanuman) are my dear brother, like Bharata.[28][48]

Devanagari
सहस बदन तुम्हरो जस गावैं।
अस कहि श्रीपति कंठ लगावैं॥ १३ ॥

Hunterian
sahasa badana tumharo jasa gāvai।
asa kahi shrīpati kantha lagāvai॥ 13 ॥

Rao and Mehta's translation – Rama also added that a thousand people will praise Hanuman's glory and embraced him again.[28][48]

Rambhadracharya interprets sahasa badana as the thousand-hooded serpent Shesha.[51] His translation is The serpent Shesha, who has a thousand mouths, sings and will sing your glory, saying thus Rama embraces Hanuman again and again.[51]

Devanagari
सनकादिक ब्रह्मादि मुनीसा।
नारद सारद सहित अहीसा॥ १४ ॥
जम कुबेर दिक्पाल जहाँ ते।
कबी कोबिद कहि सकैं कहाँ ते॥ १५ ॥

Hunterian
sanakādika brahmādi munīsā।
nārada sārada sahita ahīsā॥ 14 ॥
jama kubera dikpāla jahā te।
kabi kobida kahi sakai kahā te॥ 15 ॥

Rao and Mehta translate the two verses as Saints like Sanka, Bramha, Munisa, Narad, Sarad, Sahit and Ahisa have blessed Hanuman; Yama (God of death), Kubera (God of wealth), Dikpala (Gods of eight directions), Kavis (poets), Kovidas (folk singers) cannot describe Hanuman's reputation.[28][48] Rambhadracharya associates the verb gāvai in verse 13 with verse 14 and first half of verse 15 also, interprets ahīsā as standing for both Shiva and Vishnu, and kovida as one who knows Vedas.[27] His translation reads The celibate Rishis like Sanaka, the Devatas like Brahma, Narada the best among Munis (sages), Saraswati with Shiva and Vishnu, the eight Dikpalas including Yama and Kubera – all these will sing your glory. To what extent can the mortal poets and scholars of Vedas speak about your infinite glory?[27]

Devanagari
तुम उपकार सुग्रीवहिं कीन्हा।
राम मिलाय राजपद दीन्हा॥ १६ ॥

Hunterian
tuma upakāra sugrīvahi kīnhā।
rāam milāya rājapada dīnhā॥ 16 ॥

You did Sugriva a great favour by making him meet Rama and bestowing on him the kingdom of Kishkindha.[28][48][52]

Devanagari
तुम्हरो मन्त्र बिभीषन माना।
लंकेश्वर भए सब जग जाना॥ १७ ॥

Hunterian
tumharo mantra bibhīshana mānā।
lankeshvara bhae saba jaga jānā॥ 17 ॥

Your Mantra was accepted by Vibishana, as a result of which he became the king of Lanka.[28][48][53] The whole world knows this.[53]

Devanagari
जुग सहस्र जोजन पर भानू।
लील्यो ताहि मधुर फल जानू॥ १८ ॥

Hunterian
juga sahasra jojana para bhānū।
līlyo tāhi madhura phala jānū॥ 18 ॥

The Surya, situated many thousands of Yojanas from the earth, was swallowed by you after you assumed him to be a sweet fruit.[54] The meaning of Yuga word here should not be confused by the unit of time. In the Awadhi language used by Tulsidas, Yuga also means 'pair' or two. For example: "Siya Ram maya sab jag jaani; Karaun pranaam jori jug paani." (jug pani= both hands) Hence, by juga sahastra jojana, he means two thousand yojana which equals to 24000 kms. Although it's nowhere close to the actual distance between earth and sun but as a poet he didn't mean to convey the exact distance in the first place.

Though Hanuman does not end up swallowing the Surya in Valmiki's Ramayana, the narrative is referred to by Tulsidas in the Vinayapatrika.[54] Rambhadracharya ascribes the differences in the narration by Valmiki and Tulsidas to the difference in the Kalpas.[54]

Devanagari
प्रभु मुद्रिका मेलि मुख माहीं।
जलधि लाँघि गये अचरज नाहीं॥ १९ ॥

Hunterian
prabhu mudrikā meli mukha māhī।
jaladhi lāghi gaye acharaja nāhī॥ 19 ॥

O Lord, placing the ring given by Rama in your mouth, you leaped across the ocean – there is no wonder here.[55]

Devanagari
दुर्गम काज जगत के जेते ।
सुगम अनुग्रह तुम्हरे तेते॥ २० ॥

Hunterian
durgama kāja jagata ke jete।
sugama anugraha tumhare tete॥ 20 ॥

All the unattainable tasks in the world become easily attainable with your grace.[30]

Devanagari
राम दुआरे तुम रखवारे।
होत न आज्ञा बिनु पैसारे॥ २१ ॥

Hunterian
rāma duāre tuma rakahvāre।
hota na āgyā binu paisāre॥ 21 ॥

You are the doorkeeper and protector of the door to Rama's court. Without your command, nobody can enter the abode of Rama.[56]

Rambhadracharya explains paisāre as the Tadbhava form of Sanskrit padasāra.[56]

Depiction of Bharata (Lord Rama's Youngest Brother) meeting Lord Rama watched by Hanuman, Sita and Lakshman.... From Left – Hanuman, Bharata, Lord Rama, Sita and Lakshman

Devanagari
सब सुख लहै तुम्हारी शरना।
तुम रक्षक काहू को डर ना॥ २२ ॥

Hunterian
saba sukha lahai tumhārī saranā।
tuma rakshaka kāhū ko daranā॥ 22 ॥

Once in your refuge, a Sādhaka obtains all the pleasures. You are the protector, and there is nothing to be afraid of.[57]

Devanagari
आपन तेज सम्हारो आपै।
तीनौं लोक हाँक ते काँपे॥ २३ ॥

Hunterian
āpana teja samhāro āpai।
tinau loka hāka te kāpai॥ 23 ॥

When you roar, after remembering your powers, the three worlds tremble with fear.[58]

Rambhadracharya comments that this verse refers to the narrative of Jambavan reminding Hanuman of his powers in the Kishkindha Kanda of Ramayana.[58]

Devanagari
भूत पिशाच निकट नहिं आवै।
महाबीर जब नाम सुनावै॥ २४ ॥

Hunterian
bhūta pishācha nikata nahi āvai।
mahābīra jaba nāma sunāvai॥ 24 ॥

Evil spirits (bhūta) and meat-eating ghosts (pishācha) do not come near those chant the Mahāvira name of yours.[59]

Devanagari
नासै रोग हरै सब पीरा।
जपत निरंतर हनुमत बीरा॥ २५ ॥

Hunterian
nāsai roga harai saba pīrā।
japata nirantara hanumata bīrā॥ 25 ॥

The brave Hanuman, when invoked incessantly by the means of Japa, destroys all ailments and removes all sufferings.[60]

Devanagari
संकट तें हनुमान छुड़ावै।
मन क्रम बचन ध्यान जो लावै॥ २६ ॥

Hunterian
sankata se hanumāna chhudāvai।
mana krama bachana dhyāna jo lāvai॥ 26 ॥

Hanuman extricates those from all adversities who remember him (or contemplate upon him) in their heart, by their actions and by their words.[28][61][62]

Devanagari
सब पर राम तपस्वी राजा।
तिन के काज सकल तुम साजा॥ २७ ॥

Hunterian
saba para rāma tapasvī rājā।
tina ke kāja sakala tuma sājā॥ 27 ॥

Rama is the supreme God and a king with Tapas, and yet you executed all his tasks.[28][61][63]

Rambhadracharya explains that the word saba para is from Sanskrit sarvapara, meaning supreme. A variant reading of this verse is saba para rāma rāya siratājā, on which Rambhadracharya's commentary says Rama is the supreme God and king of kings.[63]

Devanagari
और मनोरथ जो कोई लावै।
तासु अमित जीवन फल पावै॥ २८ ॥

Hunterian
aura manoratha jo koī lāvai।
tāsu amita jīvana phala pāvai॥ 28 ॥

And whoever comes to you with any wish, that wish is fulfilled beyond limits (literally, "they obtain the unlimited fruit of the wish") in this very birth.[28][61][64]

A variant reading is soī amita jīvana phala pāvai.[64]

Devanagari
चारों जुग परताप तुम्हारा।
है परसिद्ध जगत उजियारा॥ २९ ॥

Hunterian
chāro juga para tāpa tumhārā।
hai parasiddha jagata ujiyyārā॥ 29 ॥

Your glory is famous in all the four Yugas, and illuminates the whole world.[28][65][66]

Rambharacharya adds that this verse refers to the immortality of Hanuman, as four cycles of the four Yugas are believed to have passed since the Avatar of Rama.

Devanagari
साधु संत के तुम रखवारे।
असुर निकंदन राम दुलारे॥ ३० ॥

Hunterian
sādhu santa ke tuma rakhavāre।
asura nikandana rāma dulāre॥ 30 ॥

You are the protector of Sadhus (mendicants) and Sants (saints). You are the destroyer of demons and dear as a son to Rama.[67]

Rambhadracharya interprets the word sādhu as Bhaktas who are performing sādhanā and the word santa as Bhaktas whose sādhanā is complete.[67]

Devanagari
अष्ट सिद्धि नौ निधि के दाता।
अस बर दीन्ह जानकी माता॥ ३१ ॥

Hunterian
ashta siddhi nau nidhi ke dātā।
asa bara dīnha jānakī mātā॥ 31 ॥

You are the bestower the eight Siddhis (supernatural powers named Aṇimā, Garimā, Mahimā, Laghimā, Prāpti, Prākāmya, Īśitva, and Vaśitva) and the nine Nidhis (divine treasures named Mahāpadma, Padma, Śaṅkha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, Nīla and Kharva). Mother Sita, the daughter of Janaka, has granted you this boon.[68]

Devanagari
राम रसायन तुम्हरे पासा।
सादर हो रघुपति के दासा॥ ३२ ॥

Hunterian
rāma rasāyana tumhare pāsā।
sādar ho raghupati ke dāsā॥ 32 ॥

You have the treasure of Rama's Bhakti (rāma rasāyana) with you. You are, respectfully, the servant of Raghupati (Shri Raam).[69]

Rambhadracharya explains the term rāma rasāyana in two ways –[69]

  1. The treasure of love (Bhakti) towards Rama, with rasa meaning devotion and āyana meaning repository
  2. The abode of devotion to Rama (i.e. Ramāyana), with rasa meaning devotion and āyana meaning a house or edifice

Some variant readings are sadā raho and "sādar tum" instead of sādar ho.

Devanagari
तुम्हरे भजन राम को पावै।
जनम जनम के दुख बिसरावै॥ ३३ ॥

Hunterian
tumhare bhajana rāma ko pāvai।
janama janama ke dukha bisarāvai॥ 33 ॥

Singing of you (Hanuman), a Bhakta obtains Rama and forgets the adversities and afflictions of many births.[70]

Rambhadracharya explains using verses from Ramcharitmanas and Kavitavali, that as per Tulsidas Jñāna and Vairāgya are the two means to obtain Rama, and Hanuman is both Jñāna and Vairāgya incarnate.[70] Hence serving Hanuman leads to Rama.[70]

Devanagari
अंत काल रघुबर पुर जाई।
जहाँ जन्म हरिभक्त कहाई॥ ३४ ॥

Hunterian
anta kāla raghubara pura jāī।
jahā janma hari bhakta kahāī॥ 34 ॥

As a result of devotion to you, a Bhakta goes to Sāketa Loka (raghubara pura) at the time of their end (physical death). Once the Bhakta reaches Sāketa, wherever they take birth, they are known as the Bhaktas of Hari.[71]

Rambhadracharya interprets this verse to mean that the Bhakta, even discards the blissful Moksha to take birth again in this world as a devotee of Hari, as Tulsidas says in the fourth book of Ramcharitmanas.[71]

Devanagari
और देवता चित्त न धरई।
हनुमत सेइ सर्व सुख करई॥ ३५ ॥

Hunterian
aura devatā chitta na dharaī।
hanumata sei sarba sukha karaī॥ 35 ॥

Even one who does not contemplate on any other Devatas in their mind and only serves Hanuman, achieves all favourable bliss in this world and the next.[72]

Rambhadracharya explains that as per Bhagavad Gita, only Devatas can grant the desired results of actions, but even if one serves Hanuman and no other Devata, they obtain all worldly and other-worldly bliss.[72]

Devanagari
संकट कटै मिटै सब पीरा।
जो सुमिरै हनुमत बलबीरा॥ ३६ ॥

Hunterian
sankata katai mitai saba pīrā।
jo sumirai hanumata balabīrā॥ 36 ॥

Whoever remembers the brave and mighty Hanuman gets free of all adversities and relief from all pains.[28][61][73]

Devanagari
जय जय जय हनुमान गोसाईं।
कृपा करहु गुरुदेव की नाईं॥ ३७ ॥

Hunterian
jaya jaya jaya hanumāna gusāī।
kripā karahu gurudeva kī nāī॥ 37 ॥

O Hanuman, the master of senses, may you be victorious, may you be victorious, may you be victorious. May you shower your grace lovingly, as a Guru does, and reveal to me the knowledge of devotion to Rama.[28][31][61]

Rambhadracharya interprets the three utterances of jaya to mean that Hanuman is sat-cit-ānanda.[31]

Devanagari
जो शत बार पाठ कर कोई।
छूटहि बंदि महा सुख होई॥ ३८ ॥

Hunterian
jo shata bāra pātha kara koī।
chhūtahi bandi mahā sukha hoī॥ 38 ॥

One who recites Hanuman Chalisa a hundred times (or for hundred days) is released from bondage and obtains great bliss".[28][74][75]

Rambhadracharya interprets shata as standing for the number 108 and bāra (Sanskrit vāra) to mean a day.[75] He explains the words to mean that one who recites the Hanuman Chalisa 108 times daily for 108 days will be released from of bondages of this world and the next, and will obtain great bliss.[75]

Devanagari
जो यह पढ़ै हनुमान चालीसा।
होय सिद्धि साखी गौरीसा॥ ३९ ॥

Hunterian
jo yaha parhai hanumāna chālīsā।
hoya siddha sākhī gaurīsā॥ 39 ॥

One who reads this Hanuman Chalisa obtains Siddhi (accomplishment or liberation). Shiva himself bears witness to this statement.[76]

Rao and Mehta explain this as "One who reads Hanuman Chalisa attains siddhis of God Shiva and becomes his friend."[28][74]

Devanagari
तुलसीदास सदा हरि चेरा।
कीजै नाथ हृदय महँ डेरा॥ ४० ॥

Hunterian
tulasīdāsa sadā hari cherā।
kījai nātha hridaya mama derā॥ 40 ॥

Tulsidas is always a devotee of Hari. O Lord, make my heart your abode.[28][74]

Rambhadracharya offers three explanations for this verse in accordance with three different Anvayas (connection of words)[32] -

  1. O Hanuman, the lord of Vanaras, you are always in the service of Hari (Rama), may you reside in the heart of Tulsidas.
  2. Tulsidas says O Lord Hanuman, may you ever reside in the heart of the devotees who serve Hari (Rama).
  3. Tulsidas is ever the servant of Hari (Hanuman, as Hari also means Vanara in Sanskrit), may you reside in my heart.

Concluding Doha[edit]

Devanagari

पवनतनय संकट हरन मंगल मूरति रूप।
राम लखन सीता सहित हृदय बसहु सुर भूप॥

Hunterian
pavanatanaya sankata harana mangala mūrati rūpa।
rāma lakhana sītā sahita hridaya basahu sura bhūpa॥

O Son of Vāyu, remover of adversities, one with an auspicious form, and the chief among all Devas, may you reside in our hearts along with Ram, Lakshman and Sita.[28][33][74]

Rambhadracharya explains that Tulsidas addresses Hanuman with four adjectives in this final verse to indicate that Hanuman helps cleanse the mind (Manas), intellect (Buddhi), heart (Citta) and ego (Ahaṅkāra), and by asking him to reside in the heart of the devotee, Tulsidas ends the work by implying that the refuge of Hanuman is the supreme pursuit.[33]

Commentaries[edit]

Till the 1980s, no commentary had been composed on the Hanuman Chalisa, which Rambhadracharya attributes to the work not being included in printed editions of collected works of Tulsidas.[1] Indubhushan Ramayani authored the first brief commentary on Hanuman Chalisa.[1] Rambhadracharya's Mahaviri commentary in Hindi, authored in 1983,[1] was called the best commentary on Hanuman Chalisa by Ram Chandra Prasad.[77] Prasad's own commentaries in Hindi and English were published in 1991 along with his bilingual Hindi and English translations of Ramcharitmanas.[77]

Review[edit]

Swami Karpatri considered Hanuman Chalisa to be a supreme Pramana, omnipotent and capable of fulfilling all wishes, like the Vedic Mantras.[1] Rambhadracharya called it full of auspiciousness and a jewel amongst Stotras, and said that he had witnessed and heard of many instances where the wishes of people reciting the Chalisa with faith were granted.[1]

In popular culture[edit]

Classical and folk music[edit]

The Hanuman Chalisa is one of the best selling Hindu religious books and also has been sung by many popular classical and folk singers. The rendition of Hanuman Chalisa by Hari Om Sharan is one of the most popular, and is regularly played at temples across Northern India.[78] The renditions by Mahendra Kapoor, M.S. Subbulakshmi, S.P.Balasubramaniam, Udit Narayan, Unni Krishnan, Gulshan Kumar, Nithyasree Mahadevan, Shankar Mahadevan, Pandit Bhimsen Joshi, and Morari Bapu are also popular.[citation needed]

Bollywood[edit]

A song from a Bollywood movie London Dreams, starring Salman Khan and Ajay Devgan, and movie Vaah! Life Ho Toh Aisi! starring Shahid Kapoor, Amrita Rao, Sanjay Dutt and Arshad Warsi. It is also used in Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gam as a short song. In the movie 1920 (directed by Vikram Bhatt), Hanuman Chalisa is frequently used in different scenes. These movies have a part/or the entirety of the Hanuman Chalisa. The "Shri Hanuman Chalisa" album, features one song by Amitabh Bachchan and 20 other leading music artistes, received an unprecedented response by the releasing music label during November 2011.[79]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 1–8.
  2. ^ "Hanuman Chalisa in digital version". The Hindu Business Line. 2003-02-26. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  3. ^ "Book Review / Language Books : Epic of Tulasidas". The Hindu. 2006-01-03. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Lineage shows". The Hindu. 2002-11-29. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  5. ^ a b Peebles 1986, p. 100
  6. ^ Peebles 1986, p. 99
  7. ^ a b de Bruyn 2010, p. 471
  8. ^ Lutgendorf 2007, p. 293.
  9. ^ Prasad 2008, p. 857, quoting Mata Prasad Gupta: Although he paid occasional visits to several places of pilgrimage associated with Rama, his permanent residence was in Kashi.
  10. ^ Callewaert 2000, p. 90
  11. ^ a b Handoo 1964, p. 128: ... this book ... is also a drama, because Goswami Tulasidasa started his Ram Lila on the basis of this book, which even now is performed in the same manner everywhere.
  12. ^ Prasad 2008, p. xii: He is not only the supreme poet, but the unofficial poet-laureate of India.
  13. ^ Prasad 2008, p. xix: Of Tulasidasa's place among the major Indian poets there can be no question: he is as sublime as Valmiki and as elegant as Kalidasa in his handling of the theme.
  14. ^ Jones 2007, p. 456
  15. ^ Sahni 2000, pp. 78–80
  16. ^ Lutgendorf 1991, p. 11: ... – scores of lines from the Rāmcaritmānas have entered folk speech as proverbs – ...
  17. ^ Mitra 2002, p. 216
  18. ^ Subramanian 2008, p. inside cover
  19. ^ Chaturvedi 2004, p. 11
  20. ^ Mehta 2007, p. xxv
  21. ^ Mehta 2007, p. xxvii
  22. ^ Mehta 2007, p. xxxi
  23. ^ Mehta 2007, p. xxxvix
  24. ^ Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies. 2007, page 537
  25. ^ Rosen, Steven. Essential Hinduism. 2006, page 67-8
  26. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 11–14
  27. ^ a b c d Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 46–47, 48–49
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Rao 2009, pp. 393–397
  29. ^ a b c d e f Mehta 2007, p. xv
  30. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 56–57
  31. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 78–79
  32. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 81–82
  33. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 83–84
  34. ^ a b c d e f Śrī Hanumānacālīsā. Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: Gita Press. Retrieved June 4, 2013. 
  35. ^ a b Mehta 2007, p. xiii
  36. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 17–82
  37. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 15–16
  38. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 17–19
  39. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 20–21
  40. ^ a b c d Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 29–31
  41. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 22–25
  42. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 26–27
  43. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, p. 28
  44. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 32–34
  45. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 34–36
  46. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 37–38
  47. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 39–42
  48. ^ a b c d e f g Mehta 2007, p. xvi
  49. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, p. 43
  50. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 44–45
  51. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 45–46
  52. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 49–50
  53. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 51–52
  54. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 52–54
  55. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, p. 55
  56. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 57–60
  57. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, p. 61
  58. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, p. 62–63
  59. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 63–64
  60. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, p. 64
  61. ^ a b c d e Mehta 2007, p. xix
  62. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, p. 65
  63. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 66–67
  64. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 67–68
  65. ^ Mehta 2007, p. xxi
  66. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 68–69
  67. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, p. 70
  68. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 71–72
  69. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 72–73
  70. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 73–74
  71. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 74–75
  72. ^ a b Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 76–77
  73. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 77–78
  74. ^ a b c d Mehta 2007, p. xxiii
  75. ^ a b c Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 79–80
  76. ^ Rambhadradas 1984, pp. 80–81
  77. ^ a b Prasad, Ram Chandra (1999) [First published 1991]. Sri Ramacaritamanasa The Holy Lake Of The Acts Of Rama (Illustrated, reprint ed.). Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0443-2. Retrieved June 7, 2013. "श्रीहनुमानचालीसा की सर्वश्रेष्ठ व्याख्या के लिए देखें महावीरी व्याख्या, जिसके लेखक हैं प्रज्ञाचक्षु आचार्य श्रीरामभद्रदासजी। श्रीहनुमानचालीसा के प्रस्तुत भाष्य का आधार श्रीरामभद्रदासजी की ही वैदुष्यमंडित टीका है। इसके लिए मैं आचार्यप्रवर का ऋणी हूँ। [For the best explanation of Śrīhanumānacālīsā, refer the Mahāvīrī commentary, whose author is the visually-disabled Ācārya Śrīrāmabhadradāsa. The base for the commentary on Śrīhanumānacālīsā being presented is the commentary by Śrīrāmabhadradāsa, which is adorned with erudition. For this, I am indebted to the eminent Ācārya.]" 
  78. ^ Manuel, Peter (1993). Cassette Culture: Popular Music and Technology in North India - Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology (2, illustrated ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780226504018. 
  79. ^ "All in praise of the Almighty". The Times of India. 06-11-2011. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

References[edit]

  • Rambhadradas (June 8, 1984). श्रीहनुमानचालीसा (महावीरी व्याख्या सहित) [Shri Hanuman Chalisa (with the Mahaviri commentary)] (in Hindi). New Delhi, India: Krishnadas Charitable Trust. Retrieved May 29, 2013. .
  • Callewaert, Winand M.; Schilder, Robert (2000). Banaras: Vision of a Living Ancient Tradition. New Delhi, India: Hemkunt Press. p. 90. ISBN 9788170103028. .
  • Chaturvedi, B.K. (1994), Shri Hanuman Chalisa, India: Diamond Pocket Books, ISBN 81-288-0865-6 .
  • Chaturvedi, B.K. (1994), Shri Hanuman Chalisa (Roman), New Delhi: Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd, ISBN 81-7182-395-5 .
  • de Bruyn, Pippa; Bain, Dr. Keith; Allardice, David; Joshi, Shonar (2010). Frommer's India. Hoboken, New Jersey, United States of America: John Wiley and Sons. p. 471. ISBN 9780470602645. .
  • Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Encyclopedia of World Religions) (Hardbound, Illustrated ed.). New York, New York, United States of America: Infobase Publishing. p. 456. ISBN 9780816054589. "It can be said without reservation that Tulsidas is the greatest poet to write in the Hindi language. Tulsidas was a Brahmin by birth and was believed to be a reincarnation of the author of the Sanskrit Ramayana, Valmiki." 
  • Mehta, Pt. Vijay Shankar (2007), Kripa Karahu Guru Dev Ki Naain, New Delhi: Radhakrishnan Prakashan (P) Ltd, ISBN 978-81-8361-041-4 (Second edition).
  • Mitra, Swati (May 5, 2002). Good Earth Varanasi City Guide. New Delhi, India: Eicher Goodearth Limited. p. 216. ISBN 9788187780045. 
  • Peebles, Patrick (1986). Voices of South Asia: Essential Readings from Antiquity to the Present. USA: M.E. Sharpe Inc. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-7656-3480-1. 
  • Rao, Cheeni (2009), In Hanuman's Hands: A Memoir, USA: Harper Collins Publishers, ISBN 978-0-06-073662-0 (First edition).
  • Sahni, Bhisham (2000). Nilu, Nilima, Nilofara (in Hindi). New Delhi, India: Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd. pp. 78–80. ISBN 9788171789603. "हिन्दी का सौभाग्य है कि उसके काव्यकुंज की तुलसी-मंजरी की जैसी सुगंध संसार की साहित्य वाटिका में शायद कहीं नहीं। ... आकर्षण दोनों में अत्यधिक है अपने-अपने ढंग पर दोनों ही बहुत बड़े हैं, पर फिर भी सब तरफ़ से केवल काव्य के सौंदर्य पर विचार करने पर तुलसीदास ही बड़े ठहरते हैं – भाषा साहित्य में रवीन्द्रनाथ के संबंध में कहना पड़ता है कि भ्रम त्रुटियाँ मिल सकती हैं पर तुलसीदास के संबंध में कोई शायद ही मिले। ... और यही कारण है निराला जी तुलसीदास को कालिदास, व्यास, वाल्मीकि, होमर, गेटे और शेक्सपियर के समकक्ष रखकर उनके महत्त्व का आकलन करते हैं।" 
  • Subramanian, Vadakaymadam Krishnier (2008). Hymns of Tulsidas. New Delhi, India: Abhinav Publications. p. Inside Cover. ISBN 9788170174967. "Famous classical singers like Paluskar, Anoop Jalota and MS Subbulakshmi have popularised Tulsidas's hymns among the people of India." 

External links[edit]