Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi
|Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi|
The Hànyǔ Shuǐpíng Kǎoshì (HSK), (Chinese: 汉语水平考试), translated as Chinese Proficiency Test, is China's only standardized test of Standard Chinese language proficiency for non-native speakers such as foreign students, overseas Chinese, and members of ethnic minority groups in China.
The test is administered by Hanban, a non-government organization affiliated with the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China.
Background, purpose and use
Development began in 1984 at Beijing Language and Culture University and in 1992 the HSK was officially made a national standardized test. By 2005, over 120 countries had participated as regular host sites and the tests had been taken around 100 million times (including by domestic ethnic minority candidates). The general count outside of China is stated as being around 1.9 million. In 2011 Beijing International Chinese College became the first HSK testing center to conduct online HSK test.
The HSK test approximates the English TOEFL, and an HSK certificate is valid without any limitation in China. The test aims to be a certificate of language proficiency for higher educational and professional purposes.
Each year HSK certificates are issued to those who meet required scores. Unlike the Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language offered in Taiwan and administered in traditional Chinese characters, the HSK is administered in Simplified Chinese. In addition test takers with outstanding results can win a scholarship for short-term language study in China.
Current structure (since 2010, revised in 2012)
The current format was introduced in 2012, with a philosophy of testing "comprehensive language and communication ability". Most notable is the inclusion of spoken and written segments at all levels (not just Advanced), reformation of the ranking system, and use of new question structures.
The HSK consists of a written test and an oral test, which are taken separately:
|Level||Vocabulary||Written test||Oral test||Description|
(cumulative / new)
(cumulative / new)
|1||150||150||176||176||20 questions, 15 min||20 questions, 17 min||Not tested||17 min||Designed for learners who can understand and use some simple Chinese characters and sentences to communicate, and prepares them for continuing their Chinese studies. In HSK 1 all characters are provided along with Pinyin.|
|2||300||150||352||176||35 questions, 25 min||25 questions, 22 min||Designed for learners who can use Chinese in a simple and direct manner, applying it in a basic fashion to their daily lives. In HSK 2 all characters are provided along with Pinyin as well.|
|3||600||300||621||269||40 questions||30 questions||10 items||21 min||Designed for learners who can use Chinese to serve the demands of their personal lives, studies and work, and are capable of completing most of the communicative tasks they experience during their Chinese tour.|
|4||1200||600||1067||446||45 questions||40 questions||15 items||Designed for learners who can discuss a relatively wide range of topics in Chinese and are capable of communicating with Chinese speakers at a high standard.|
|5||2500||1300||1687||620||45 questions||45 questions||10 items||24 min||Designed for learners who can read Chinese newspapers and magazines, watch Chinese films and are capable of writing and delivering a lengthy speech in Chinese.|
|6||5000||2500||2663||976||50 questions||50 questions||1 composition||Designed for learners who can easily understand any information communicated in Chinese and are capable of smoothly expressing themselves in written or oral form.|
Listening, Reading and Writing each have a maximum score of 100. HSK 1 and 2 therefore have a maximum score of 200 with 120 points required to pass. The higher levels have a maximum of 300 points with 180 points required to pass. There is no minimum amount of points required for each of the sections as long as the sum is over 120 or 180 points respectively.
Hanban claims that the HSK's six levels correspond on a one-to-one basis with the six levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). However, an assessment by the Association of Chinese Teachers in German Speaking Countries concluded that this was a significant overestimation of the competences acquired for these HSK levels, and that the sixth and highest HSK level was in fact equivalent to the fourth CEFR level (B2).
Hanban provides examples of the exam for the different levels together with a list of words that need to be known for each level. These examples are also available (together with the audio for the Listening Test) on the website of the Confucius Institute at QUT.
Former structure (before 2010)
|Test Rank (等第)||Chars/Words
|*Generally signifies a professional level.
**Generally required for non-language academic programs.
Formerly, there were 11 possible ranks (1-11) and 3 test formats (Basic, Elementary/Intermediate, and Advanced). A rank of between 3 and 8 was needed to enroll in a Chinese university, depending on the subject being studied. A score of 9 or higher was a common business standard.
A student taking the Basic test (基础HSK) could attain a rank of 1 through 3 (1级-3级), or fail to meet requirements and thus not receive a rank. The Elementary/Intermediate test (初中等HSK) covered ranks 3-8 (3级-8级), with ranks below 3 not considered. Likewise, the Advanced test (高等HSK) covered ranks 9-11 (9级-11级), with scores below 9 not considered.
It is not uncommon to simply refer to a standard or level of proficiency by the HSK level number, or "score." For example, a job description might ask for foreign applicants with "HSK5 or better."
The previous format for both Basic and Elementary/Intermediate HSK included four sections: listening comprehension, grammar structures, reading comprehension, and written expressions. Aside from written expressions portion (which requires writing of chinese characters), these two tests were completely multiple-choice. The Advanced HSK however, added an additional two portions: spoken and written.
Complete vocabulary lists, previous tests, and simulated tests are available as preparation materials.
Test dates and locations
The HSK is held at designated test centers in China and abroad. A list of test centers can be found at the HSK website. Test dates are published annually and written tests are more frequently held than spoken ones, generally around once a month, depending on the test center. Test registration is usually open until 30 days prior to the actual test date for the paper-based test or around 10 days prior the actual test date for the computer-based test. Results are generally available around 30 days after completion (but no definite date is given for results).
- TOP (test) - an HSK-like test in use in Taiwan
- JLPT - an HSK-like test in use in Japan
- ZHC (test) - a professional Chinese language ability exam for People's Republic of China citizens
- List of language proficiency tests - a list of proficiency tests in other languages
- 汉语水平考试2007年起将增加口语写作, 2006-12-26 www.eol.cn, "The 2007 HSK Revision Will Add Spoken and Writing Portions."
- Official HSK Center Introduction, HSK Center
- , China Education center
- Introduction on New HSK Test
- Character lists are not published separately, but can be derived from the published word lists.
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Level 2: 丈两为乐也事介从以件休但体便公共准别到副务动助千卖可右司吧告员咖哥唱啡因场备外夫奶妹妻始姓孩它完宜室容宾就左已希帮常床弟形往得忙快思息您情意慢懂房所手找报教新旁旅日早晚晴最望条次歌正步每比汽泳洗游火然牛玩班球瓜男病白百真眼着睛知票离穿站笑笔第等篮累红纸绍经给羊考肉舞色药虽蛋表要让诉试课贵走足跑路跳踢身边过运近还进远送道铅错长门问间阴雪零非题颜馆鱼鸡黑
Level 3: 万且世业主久乎于伞位信借假健像元其典冒冬冰决净刚刮刷刻力办加努包化半单南卡历参又双发叔变口句只史向周响哭啊啤嘴园图地坏城境声复夏头奇如姨婚季安定实害层居山差己市带帽干平应康张当心必忘怕急怪总惯感愿戏成或才扫把护担择拿换据接提搬放故数文料斤方旧易春更末朵李束板极查树根梯检楚楼段求河法注清渴满澡灯炼烧照熊爬爷片牙物特环理瓶甜用画界留疼瘦皮盘目直相短矮碗礼秋种空突答筷简算箱糕级练终结绩绿网者而耳聊聪育胖脚脸腿自舒般船节花草蓝蕉行街衫衬被裙裤角解议记讲该调赛超越趣跟轻较辆迎迟选遇邮邻酒重量铁银锻闻阳阿附除难需静鞋音须顾风饮饱饿香马骑鲜鸟黄鼻
Level 4: 丑丝临义乏乖乙乡亏产享亿代令仿企伟伴伸似余佛佩依促俊俗俱倡偷偿傍催傻兄充兑兔兵兼册军农冠冲冻凌凭击创初删制刺剪劝劣劲劳势勤勿匀匆匹升华卧卷厂厘厢厦县叉叙古召吐吓吨含启吵吹吻呆咨咬品哈哎哲唉唯善喊喷嗓嗯嘉器嚏团固圆圈土均坦型域培堆塘墙壁壶夕夜夸夹奈套妇妙妨姑委姥姻姿威娘娱娶婆媒嫁嫩孕孝宁守官宝宠宣宴宽宿寂寓寞寻寿射尘尚尺尾屈屉届屋属屿岛岸巨巴币布帘席幅幕幻幼庆库府废庭延弯弱强归录彻彼征待德忍念忽怨恋恢恨恭恳恶悄悠悲惠惭愁愧慌慎慧慰憾戒战扇托执扩扶承抄抓投抖抢披押拆拍拐拥拦括拳拼挑挡挣挤挥振捐损捡掌控措描插握搜搞摄摆摇摔摘摩摸撕撞操政敌敏救敬斗斜施旦旬昆映显晒晕智暗曾替朗朝木未杀权村构析枪架某柔柜柴核桃桔档梨梳棋椒模欠欣欧歇武歪殊毒毫毯氛汇池沉沟治泛泪洒洞派浅浇测浏浓涂润涨淘淡渐湿源滑滚滩滴漏漠潮灰灵灾炒炭炮炸烂烈烫煤煮熬燃燥版状犹狂狡独狮猪献猴猾率玉王玻珍璃甩甲略疗疯疲痒痛皂盆益盖盼盾眉眠睁瞎瞧矛矩石砍硬碍碎碰神私秘秩称移税稳窄立竹筑类粘粮糊糙糟素索紫繁纯纲纳纷组织绕络统绪绳维绸综缓编缩罚置群翅耽肃肌肠股肩胁胃胆背胜胡胶胸脆脖腐腰膀臭致舅舍良艰艳苗英范荐荣营蔬薄藏虚虫虹蛇蜂蜜蝴蝶血衡补裁装裔裹览触订训讽设访诊诗询谓谦谨豆豪豫贝贡财账贴贷贸赏赔赞趁趋跃践踩蹲躲轮软载辅辈辑辞辩达迅返违迫述迹追退逃透逐递途逗造逻遗遵避配酱醉醋采钓铃链销锁锅闪闭闯闲防阵阶阻陆陌限隔雄集雷雾震霉青靠革鞭顶项顿领频颗飘食饰馒驶驾骂骤骨髦鬼魅麦鼠齐齿龙
Level 5: 丁丑丙丝临义乏乖乙乡亏产享付令仿企伙伟伴伸似余佛佣佩依侵促俊俗俱倒倡偷偿傍催傻兄充兔兵册军冠冲冻凡凭击创初删刺剪劝劣劲劳势勤勺匀匆匹升华协占卧卫卷厂厅厕厘厢县叉叙古召吐吓吨含启吹吻呆呼咐咨咬哈哲唉唯善喊喷嗓嘉嘱器嚏嚷团固圈土均坦型域培堆塔壁壶夕夜夸夹奈套妇妙妨姑委姥姻姿威娘娱娶嫁嫩存孝宁宇守宗官宙宝宠宣宴宿寂寓寞寺寻寿封射尖尘尚尺尾局屈屉届屋属岛岸巨巴布帘帝席幅幕幻幼庆库庙府废庭延建弯弱强录形彻彼征待德忍念怒怖恋恢恨恳恶悄悠悲惠惭愁愤愧慌慎慧慰憾戒战扇托执扶承抄抓投抖抗抢披拆拍拐拜拥拦拳挑挡挣挤挥振捐损捡控措描插搞摄摆摇摔摘摩摸撕操政敌敏救敬斗斜施旦旬显晒晕智曾朝木未朴杀权构析枕枪架某柔柜柴核桃桔档梨梳棉棋棒椒模横橡欠欣款歇武歪殊残毒毫毯氛汇池沉沟治泉泛洒洞派浅浇测浏浓涂涨液淡源滑滚滩滴漏漠灭灰灵灾炒炭炮炸烂烈烛烤烫煎煤煮燃版牌牵犯状犹狂狡独狼献猾率玉王玻珍璃甩田甲略疗疯疲疾痒痛登皂皇盆益盖盼盾眉眠睁瞎瞧矛矩石矿砍碍碎碰磁祖私秒秘秩称移税稳立竹筑策籍类粒粘粮糊糟素紫繁纯纲纷线绕统绪绳维绸综缓编缘缩罐罚罪置翅耽聚肃肌股肩肺胁胃胆背胜胡胳胶胸脆脖腐腰膀膊臭致舅舌舍良艰艳苗英荐荣营落蔬薄藏虚虹蛇蜂蜜蜡蝴蝶融衡补裁装裔裹览触誉订训讯讽设诊诗询谓谜谦谨豆豪豫贝贡财账贴贷贸赏赔赞赶趁趋跃践踩蹲躲转轮载辅辈辑辞辩迅返违迫述迷迹追退逃透递途逗逻遗遵避郊配酱醉醋采野钓铃铜链销锁锅锐闪闭闯闲队防阵阶阻陆陌隔雄雇雷雾震霉露青靠革鞭顶项领频颗飘餐饰馒驶驾骂骤骨髦鬼魅鸭鸽麦鼠龙
Level 6: 丁丐丘丙丛丧串丸乌乞乳予井亡亦亭仁仇仓仗仙仪仰伍伏伐伦伪伯伶伺佣佳侃侄侈侠侣侥侦侧侨侮侵俐俘俭俯倔倘倦债倾偏储僵僻儒兆党兜兢兽冤凄凑凝凡凶凸凹刊刑券刹剂削剑剔剖剥割劈劫勃勉勘勾协卑卓卸叛叠叨叭叮叼吁吉吊君吝吞吟吩吼呈呕呵呻咀咋咐咙咽哀哄哆哇哑哗哦哨哺哼唆唇唐唠唤唾啃啥啦啬啰啸喇喉喘喧喻嗅嗦嗨嘈嘛嘱嘲嘿噪嚷嚼圣坑坛坝坟坠坡垂垄垫埋堂堕堡堤堪塌塔塞墅墓墟墨壤壮壳央夺奉奏奔奠奢奥奴妄妆妒妥姆娃娇婪婴媳嫂嫉嫌孔孤宅宇宏宗宙审宪宫宰宵寝寸寺尖尬尴尸屁屏屑屡履岂岔岗岩岳峡峭峰峻崇崖崩崭嵌川州巡巢巩巷帆帐帖帜帝幢庄庇庙庞庸廉廊廓异弊弥弦彰役径徊徒徘徙御循忌忠忧怒怖怠怯恍恒恕恩恰悟患悦悬悼惋惑惕惦惧惨惩惫惮惰惹愈愚愣愤慈慨慷憋截扁扎扑扒扛扣扭扯抑抒抗抚抛抵抹拄拌拓拔拖拘拙拟拢拣拧拨拽挎挖挚挠挨挪挫挽捆捉捍捎捏捕捞捣捧捷掀掏掐掘掠探掩掰掷揉揍揭援搀搁搂搅搏搓搭携摊摧撇撑撒撤撼擅擎攀攒攻敞敷斑斟斥斩斯旋旗旨旱旷旺昂昌昏昔昧昼晃晋晓晤晨晰晶晾暄暧暴曝曲朴朽杆杖杜杠杰枉枕枚枝枯柬柱栋栏株栽框桑桨梁梢械棉棍棕椎椭榜榨横橙欲欺歧歹殃残殖殴殿毁毅氏氓氧汰汹沃沐沛沧沫沮沸沼沾沿泄泊泌泡波泣泥泰泻泽洁津洪洽浊浑浮浴浸涉涌涕涛涩涮液涵淀淆淋混淹添渔渗渠渡渣港渺湖湾溃溅溉溜溪溶滋滔滞滤滥滨漆潇潜澄澈濒瀑灌灭灶灿炉炊炎炫烁烘烛烹焦焰煌煎熄熏熨爆爽牢牧牲牵牺犬犯狈狠狭狱狼猎猛珠琢瓣瓦瓷甘甭田畅畏畔畜番畴疆疏疙疤疫疾症痕痪痹瘤瘩瘫瘸瘾癌皆皇皱盈监盗盛盟盯盲眨眯眶督睦睬睹瞄瞒瞩瞪瞬瞻砖砸碌碑碳磁磅磋磕磨祖祥祸禽秃秤稀稚稠稻稼稿穴窃窍窜窝竖竭端笼筋筐筒策筛筹箭篷簸粉粒粥粹紊纠纤纬纵纹纺纽绅绎绑绒绘绣缀缉缔缘缚缝缠缴罐罕罢罩罪署翔翘翼耀耍耕耗耸耻聋肆肖肢肪肴肺肿胀胎胞脂脉腔腥腹腻腾膛膜膝膨臂臣舆舌舔舟舰舱舶艇艘芒芽苍苏苟若茂茎茫荒荡荤莫菌萌萎董葬蒂蒙蒸蓄蓬蔑蔓蔚蔼蔽蕴蕾薪藐虏虐蚀蚁蚂蛮蜡融蠢衅衍衔衰衷袍袖袭袱裂裕裳覆觅誉誓譬讥讯讳讶讼诈诞诧诫诬诱诵诸诺诽谋谍谎谐谜谣谤谬谱谴谷贤贩贪贫贬贯贼贿赁赂赋赌赖赠赤赴趴跌跨跪踊踏踪蹈蹋蹦蹬躁躬轨轰辉辐辕辖辙辜辟辨辫辰辱辽迁迄迈迸逆逊逝逢逮逼遏遣遥遭遮郁郎郑鄙酌酗酝酬酷酿野鉴钉钙钝钞钦钩钻铜铭铸铺锈锋锐锤锦锲镇镶闷阂阐阔阱陈陋陡陵陶陷隆隐隘隙障隧隶雀雅雇雌雕雹霍霜霞露霸鞠韧顽颁颂颇颈颖额颠颤饥饪饲饶馅馈馋驰驱驳驻骚魂魄魔鲁鸣鸦鸽黎
- Detailled information about HSK 1
- Detailled information about HSK 2
- Detailled information about HSK 3
- Detailled information about HSK 4
- Detailled information about HSK 5
- Detailled information about HSK 6
- Statement of the German Association of Chinese Teachers on the new HSK structure and its equivalent levels in the European CEFR (in German, Chinese and English)
- Examples for the different levels for the new HSK at QUT
- Map of HSK Test Center locations outside of China
- Test dates for written and spoken test
- Test Regulations
- Official site for Chinese Language Tests
- Official HSK Website at Hanban
- Map with Contact Details of HSK Test Centers outside of China