Hanzhong

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Hanzhong
汉中市
Prefecture-level city
Night view of the city
Night view of the city
Location of Hanzhong
Coordinates: 33°04′N 107°01′E / 33.067°N 107.017°E / 33.067; 107.017Coordinates: 33°04′N 107°01′E / 33.067°N 107.017°E / 33.067; 107.017
Country People's Republic of China
Province Shaanxi
Government
 • Mayor Hu Runze (胡润泽)
 • Party Secretary Zhang Huimin (张会民)
Area
 • Total 27,246 km2 (10,520 sq mi)
Elevation 511 m (1,677 ft)
Highest elevation 2,038 m (6,686 ft)
Population (2004)
 • Total 3,700,000
 • Density 140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 723000
Area code(s) 0916
Licence plates 陕F
Website http://www.hanzhong.gov.cn

Hanzhong (simplified Chinese: 汉中; traditional Chinese: 漢中; pinyin: Hànzhōng; Wade–Giles: Hanchung) is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Shaanxi province, occupying a historically significant valley in the mountains between the Xi'an area, home to many Chinese capitals, and the fertile but isolated Sichuan Basin. The total population in 2006 was approximately 3.74 million, residing in a municipal territory of 27,246 square kilometres (10,520 sq mi).[1]

History[edit]

Pre-Qin (before 220 BC)[edit]

There are few references to Hanzhong before the Qin Dynasty's unification of China in 221 BC. The Book of History refers to an area called Liangzhou (梁州), while Sima Qian's book Records of the Grand Historian speaks of a "Bao [River] Kingdom" (褒國), both of which are believed to refer to the area now called Hanzhong.

The name Nanzheng (Chinese: 南鄭; literally: "Southern Zheng") was used to refer to the area from the 8th century BC throughout much of its history. The ancient geographical treatise Shui Jing Zhu records that Lord Huan of Zheng, a local lord from the Western Zhou Dynasty, was slain in a battle with non-Chinese Rong people, and the citizens fled south to found a new settlement, giving rise to the area's name.[2] Several Chinese scholars have expressed doubts about the story's accuracy, however.[3]

Bao River (褒河)

Qin and Han (220 BC - 200 AD)[edit]

Gilded Bronze Ruler - 1 chi = 231 cm. Western Han (206 BCE - CE 8). Hanzhong City, China

The Qin Dynasty organized the area as Hanzhong Commandery, with a capital in what is now Nanzheng County, located just south of the modern Hanzhong urban area.[4] After the Qin collapse in 207 BC, Liu Bang, who would later become the founding Emperor Gaozu of Han, was made lord of Hanzhong during the chaotic times of Xiang Yu, and spent several years there biding his time before later challenging Xiang for rule of China. After his eventual victory in 206 BC, Liu Bang followed Chinese custom in naming his dynasty after his native district, except that he chose Hanzhong instead of his actual home near modern-day Xuzhou in Jiangsu province.[5] Hanzhong thus lent its name to the new Han Dynasty established in 206 BC.

As the Han Dynasty gradually weakened in the 2nd century, non-Chinese peoples from the Ba region began attacking the Hanzhong area as they had in the past. The Han Dynasty lost control of the area, and Zhang Lu, supported by followers of the Taoist sect Way of the Celestial Masters, set up a de facto independent theocratic government that was active in the late 2nd century.[6] After 30 years, Zhang Lu surrendered Hanzhong to the warlord Cao Cao after the Battle of Yangping.

Hanzhong played an important role during the Three Kingdoms period and its prelude. Liu Bei fled to the Sichuan Basin - which would later become the base of the state of Shu Han - and captured Hanzhong from Cao Cao's armies in the Hanzhong Campaign. Hanzhong controlled the main route for an army to invade the Sichuan Basin from the Central Plain, and thus saw many battles during the period. Much of this period of Hanzhong's history is retold in the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Ruins and landmarks of the Three Kingdoms era can still be found in Hanzhong, most notably the tomb of Shu Han chancellor Zhuge Liang.

Tang, Song, and Yuan (618 - 1368)[edit]

The city continued to operate during the next 400 years of often-chaotic politics between the end of the Han and the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, though its name and bureaucratic designation changed often. In 784, Emperor Dezong of Tang fled to Hanzhong amid a rebellion that temporarily seized control of the capital Chang'an (modern Xi'an). During the Northern Song Dynasty (960 - 1127), Hanzhong's tax revenue trailed only regional capitals like Kaifeng and Chengdu, a testament to its economic status.

Ming, Qing, and Present (1368 - present)[edit]

In 1331, during the reign of Emperor Hongwu of Ming, extensive renovations were undertaken on Hanzhong's basic infrastructure, bringing the city largely into its present layout and form. Emperor Wanli (reigned 1572 - 1620) set his fifth son Zhu Changhao (Chinese: 朱常浩) as a local king of Hanzhong. Changhao built a large, luxurious palace in what is now the Children's Park, and remnants of the palace can be found in the vicinity.[7] The palace's Radiant Glass Wall (Chinese: 玻璃照壁) was demolished during road construction in 1935, though a 13.6-meter section has since been rebuilt on the eastern end of Sanpu Street (Chinese: 伞铺街; pinyin: Sǎnpù Jīe).

Zhu Changhao fled south to Sichuan in 1643 ahead of the army of Li Zicheng, abandoning his palace in Hanzhong which was quickly looted of anything of value by local residents. Conquering Qing Dynasty leaders later commented in writing of the stark contrast in the massive but empty palace.

Hanzhong was captured by the People's Liberation Army in December 1949 during the Communist Party of China's victory over the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War.

Administration[edit]

The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary are in Hantai District (汉台区), together with the CPC and Public Security bureaux.

Map
Hanzhong mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2004 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Hantai District 汉台区 Hàntái Qū 530,000 556 954
2 Nanzheng County 南郑县 Nánzhèng Xiàn 550,000 2,849 193
3 Chenggu County 城固县 Chénggù Xiàn 510,000 2,265 225
4 Yang County 洋县 Yáng Xiàn 440,000 3,206 137
5 Xixiang County 西乡县 Xīxiāng Xiàn 400,000 3,204 125
6 Mian County 勉县 Miǎn Xiàn 420,000 2,406 175
7 Ningqiang County 宁强县 Níngqiáng Xiàn 330,000 3,243 102
8 Lueyang County 略阳县 Lüèyáng Xiàn 200,000 2,831 71
9 Zhenba County 镇巴县 Zhènbā Xiàn 280,000 3,437 81
10 Liuba County 留坝县 Liúbà Xiàn 50,000 1,970 25
11 Foping County 佛坪县 Fópíng Xiàn 30,000 1,279 23

Economy[edit]

Hanzhong is a major agricultural and trade center, with some sawmilling and light industry.

Military-industrial[edit]

As a military program, 012 base have established since 1960s,is responsible for military transport aircraft and Air-to-air missile.

Further information: Shaanxi Y-8 and Vympel K-13

Geography[edit]

Hanzhong
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
8.7
 
7
−1
 
 
10
 
10
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32
 
14
6
 
 
57
 
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11
 
 
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25
15
 
 
98
 
28
19
 
 
175
 
30
22
 
 
125
 
30
21
 
 
140
 
24
17
 
 
74
 
19
12
 
 
32
 
13
6
 
 
8.2
 
8
1
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA [8]

Hanzhong is located in southwestern Shaanxi, near the border with Gansu and Sichuan Provinces, and is a part of the Shannan region. It sits in the centre of the Hanzhong Basin (汉中盆地), on the Han River (Hanshui). The Daba Mountains are perched to the south of the city; to the north lie the Qin Mountains, and for this reason, Hanzhong is geographically considered to be part of southern China. However, on administrative terms, as Shaanxi is officially part of the northwest, it is too.[9][10] For more on the divisions between northern and southern China, see Northern and southern China.

The city's administrative area (prefecture) ranges in latitude from 33° 02' to 33° 22' N and in longitude from 106° 51' to 107° 10' E, and is 27,246 square kilometres (10,520 sq mi).[11] The northern part of the prefecture is high while the southern part is generally low. Elevations range from around 500 metres (1,600 ft) in the urban area to 2,038 metres (6,686 ft) in the Qin Mountains.

Climate[edit]

Hanzhong has a temperate and generally humid climate that is classified as humid subtropical (Köppen Cwa), with cool, damp winters and hot, humid summers. The Qin Mountains to the north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter, making the winter here warmer than it is in locations at a similar latitude east of Shannan, despite the elevation and inland location. In contrast, because of the elevation, summers are tempered, with average highs in July and August of around 30 °C (86 °F). The area is far more humid than central and northern Shaanxi, with 853 mm (33.6 in) of precipitation annually, as compared to 553 mm (21.8 in) for Xi'an, the provincial capital.[8] The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 2.4 °C (36.3 °F) in January to 25.2 °C (77.4 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 14.33 °C (57.8 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 26% in November and December to 50% in August, the city receives 1,569 hours of bright sunshine annually, with spring and summer sunnier than autumn and winter.

Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of southeastern Hanzhong.
Panorama of northern Hanzhong.

Transport[edit]

Hanzhong is served by the Hanzhong Airport and Yangpingguan–Ankang Railway.

Education[edit]

Sights[edit]

  • Baijiang Platform
  • Ancient Hutou Bridge

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ http://baike.baidu.com/view/15882.htm
  2. ^ Shui Jing Zhu, juan 27, Mian River. Chinese: 《水經注·沔水》、卷二十七。
  3. ^ Chen Xianyuan 陈显远, Tang Mengjie 唐孟杰, 2005. Hanzhong Diqu Zhi 汉中地区志, vol. 4, San Qin Chu Ban She 三秦出版社, 2161-2162.
  4. ^ Records of the Grand Historian, juan 5.
  5. ^ Hu A-xiang 胡阿祥, "Liu Bang Han Guo Hao Kao Yuan" 刘邦汉国号考原, in Shi Xue Yue Kan 史学月刊. link (Chinese)
  6. ^ Sima Guang 司馬光, Zi Zhi Tong Jian 資治通鑒, juan 58. link (Chinese)
  7. ^ History of Ming, juan 42.
  8. ^ a b c "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)". China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-31. 
  9. ^ "驳:"我们陕南不是西北" "汉中在地理上属于西南"之说" (in Simplified Chinese). Shaanxi CnWest.com. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  10. ^ "陕西汉中属于西南方向吗?". Baidu (in Simplified Chinese). Baidu Zhidao. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  11. ^ (Chinese) Profile of Hanzhong, Accessed 2008-05-27.

External links[edit]