Haplogroup A (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup A

Map-of-human-migrations.jpg

Possible time of origin 50,000 YBP
Possible place of origin Asia
Ancestor N
Descendants A3, A4, A5, A7, A8
Defining mutations 152, 235, 523-524d, 663, 1736, 4248, 4824, 8794, 16290, 16319[1]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Origin[edit]

mtDNA-based chart of possible large human migrations.

Haplogroup A is believed to have arisen in Asia some 30,000–50,000 years before present. Its ancestral haplogroup was Haplogroup N.

Its highest frequencies are among Indigenous peoples of the Americas, its largest overall population is in East Asia, and its greatest variety (which suggests its origin point) is in East Asia. Thus, it might have originated in and spread from the Far East.[2]

Distribution[edit]

Its subgroup A2 (actually a subclade of A4, which is widespread in Asia) is found in ChukotkoKamchatka[3] and is also one of five mtDNA haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the others being B, C, D, and X.[2]

Haplogroup A2 is the most common haplogroup among the Inuit, Na-Denes, and many Amerind ethnic groups of North and Central America. Lineages belonging to haplogroup A2 also comprise the majority of the mtDNA pool of the Inuit and their neighbors, the Chukchis, in northeasternmost Siberia.[3][4][5]

Other branches of haplogroup A are less frequent but widespread among other populations of Asia.[6][7] In particular, haplogroup A4(xA2) is ubiquitous in populations from Siberia in the north to Iran and Vietnam in the south. Haplogroup A5, on the other hand, is rather limited to populations from Korea and Japan southward, though it has been detected as singletons in a pair of large samples of Khamnigans (1/99 = 1.0%) and Buryats (1/295 = 0.3%) from the Buryat Republic.[4]

In Asia, A(xA2) is especially frequent in Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations of Southwest China, such as Tibetans (6/65 = 9.2%,[3] 25/216 = 11.6%,[8] 11/73 = 15.1%[8]). Approximately 7% to 15% of Koreans belong to haplogroup A.[4][9][10] Approximately 5% to 12% of the Japanese belong to haplogroup A (including A4, A5, and A(xA4, A5)).[3][11][12][13] Approximately 4% to 13% of Mongols belong to haplogroup A, almost all of whom are contained within the A4 subclade (2/47 = 4.3% Mongolians from Ulan Bator in haplogroup A4,[9] 4/48 = 8.3% Mongols from New Barag Left Banner in haplogroup A(xA5),[10] 6/47 = 12.8% Mongolians from Ulan Bator in haplogroup A4[4]). Approximately 3% to 9% of Chinese people belong to haplogroup A.[11] Haplogroup A also has been found in Vietnamese (2/42 = 4.8%, including one A4 and one A5(xA5a)).[9] Approximately 4% (3/71) of Tatars from Aznakayevo,[14] 3% (4/126) of Tatars from Buinsk,[14] and 2% of Turkish people belong to haplogroup A.[15] Haplogroup A4 has been found in 2.4% (2/82) of a sample of Persians from eastern Iran and in 2.3% (1/44) of a sample of Tajiks from Tajikistan.[4] Haplogroup A is not found in Austronesians.[16]

Table of Frequencies of MtDNA Haplogroup A[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source Subtypes
Eskimo (Greenland) 0.961 385 Volodko 2008 A2b=196, A2a=174
Eskimo (Chaplin) 0.900 50 Volodko 2008 A2a=36, A2b=9
Eskimo (Canada) 0.875 96 Volodko 2008 A2b=68, A2a=16
Siberian Eskimo 0.772 79 Starikovskaya 2005 A2=61 (41/46 Chaplin, 17/25 Sireniki, 3/8 Naukan)
Eskimo (Naukan) 0.744 39 Volodko 2008 A2b=16, A2a=13
Chukchi (Anadyr, Chukotka) 0.733 15 Derenko 2007 A2=11
Eskimo (Sireniki) 0.703 37 Volodko 2008 A2a=16, A2b=10
Chukchi 0.682 66 Starikovskaya 2005 A2=45
Bella Coola 0.655 84 Malhi 2004 A=55
Apache 0.632 38 Malhi 2003 A=24
Nahua (Cuetzalan, Mexico) 0.613 31 Malhi 2003 A=19
Navajo 0.516 64 Malhi 2003 A=33
Nuu-Chah-Nulth 0.451 102 Malhi 2004 A=46
Aleut (Aleutian Islands) 0.344 163 Volodko 2008 A2a=56
Nu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.300 30 Wen 2004 A=9
Lisu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.297 37 Wen 2004 A=11
Chuvantsi (Markovo, Chukotka) 0.250 32 Volodko 2008 A2a=6, A2b=2
Tibetan (Diqing, Yunnan) 0.250 24 Wen 2004 A=6
Yi (Hezhang County, Guizhou) 0.250 20 Li 2007 A=5
Tibetan (Nagchu, Tibet) 0.229 35 Ji 2012 A=8
Tibetan (Qinghai) 0.214 56 Wen 2004 A=12
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.211 19 Ji 2012 A=4
Yi (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.188 16 Wen 2004 A=3
Tibetan (Chamdo, Tibet) 0.172 29 Ji 2012 A1=5
Zuni 0.154 26 Malhi 2003 A=4
Korean (Arun Banner) 0.146 48 Kong 2003 A5=4, A(xA5)=3
Tujia (Western Hunan) 0.141 64 Wen 2004 A=9
Pumi (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.139 36 Wen 2004 A=5
Tujia (Yanhe County, Guizhou) 0.138 29 Li 2007 A=4
Tibetan (Lhasa, Tibet) 0.136 44 Ji 2012 A1=6
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.128 47 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=6
Hani (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.121 33 Wen 2004 A=4
Japanese (Miyazaki) 0.120 100 Uchiyama 2007 A4=4, A5=4, A(xA4,A5)=4
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.118 102 Liu 2011 A=12
Tibetan (Zhongdian, Yunnan) 0.114 35 Wen 2004 A=4
Tubalar (Turochak & Choysky) 0.111 72 Starikovskaya 2005 A(xA2)=8
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.109 55 Ji 2012 A1=6
Tibetan (Shigatse, Tibet) 0.103 29 Ji 2012 A1=3
Yi (Shuangbai, Yunnan) 0.100 40 Wen 2004 A=4
Manchurian 0.100 40 Jin 2009 A(xA4,A5)=3, A4=1
Korean (northern China) 0.098 51 Jin 2009 A4=4, A5(xA5a)=1
Yi (Luxi, Yunnan) 0.097 31 Wen 2004 A=3
Han (Denver) 0.096 73 Zheng 2011 A=7
Japanese 0.090 211 Maruyama 2003 A5=11, A(xA5)=8
Naxi (Lijiang, Yunnan) 0.089 45 Wen 2004 A=4
Korean (South Korea) 0.089 203 Umetsu 2005 A=18
Chinese (Shenyang, Liaoning) 0.088 160 Umetsu 2005 A=14
Hmong (Jishou, Hunan) 0.087 103 Wen 2005 A(xA6)=7, A6=2
Japanese (Tōhoku) 0.086 336 Umetsu 2005 A=29
Mongol (New Barag Left Banner) 0.083 48 Kong 2003 A(xA5)=4
Korean (South Korea) 0.081 185 Jin 2009 A4=6, A5(xA5a)=5, A(xA4,A5)=3, A5a=1
Ket 0.079 38 Starikovskaya 2005 A(xA2)=3
Cochimí 0.077 13 Malhi 2003 A=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.077 261 Kim 2008 A=20
Han (Beijing Normal University) 0.074 121 Zheng 2011 A=9
Pai Yuman 0.074 27 Malhi 2003 A=2
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.074 54 Ji 2012 A1=4
Han (Southwest China, pool of 44 Sichuan, 34 Chongqing, 33 Yunnan, and 26 Guizhou) 0.073 137 Ji 2012 A=10
Han (Hunan and Fujian) 0.073 55 Zheng 2011 A=4
Telengit 0.073 55 Dulik 2012 A=4
Korean (Seoul National University Hospital) 0.073 633 Fuku 2007 A=46
Buryat 0.071 126 Kong 2003 A(xA5)=9
Han (southern California) 0.069 390 Ji 2012 A=27
Korean (South Korea) 0.068 103 Derenko 2007 A5=4, A4(xA2)=3
Japanese (Tokyo) 0.068 118 Zheng 2011 A=8
Okinawa 0.067 326 Umetsu 2005 A=22
Japanese (northern Kyūshū) 0.066 256 Umetsu 2005 A=17
Itelmen 0.064 47 Starikovskaya 2005 A(xA2)=3
Japanese (Gifu) 0.063 1617 Fuku 2007 A=102
Barghut (Hulun Buir) 0.060 149 Derenko 2012 A4=8, A8=1
Japanese (Hokkaidō) 0.060 217 Asari 2007 A=13
Bai (Dali, Yunnan) 0.059 68 Wen 2004 A=4
Evenk (Siberia) 0.056 71 Starikovskaya 2005 A(xA2)=4
Telenghit (Altai Republic) 0.056 71 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=4
Jino (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.056 18 Wen 2004 A=1
Bai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.053 19 Wen 2004 A=1
Koryak 0.052 155 Starikovskaya 2005 A2=4, A(xA2)=4
Buryat (Buryatia) 0.051 295 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=13, A5=1, A8=1
Khamnigan (Buryatia) 0.051 99 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=4, A5=1
Tibetan (Deqin, Yunnan) 0.050 40 Wen 2004 A=2
Han (Beijing) 0.050 40 Jin 2009 A4=1, A(xA4,A5)=1
Japanese (Tōkai) 0.050 282 Umetsu 2005 A=14
Dai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.049 41 Yao 2002 A=2
Vietnamese 0.048 42 Jin 2009 A4=1, A5(xA5a)=1
Yakama 0.048 42 Malhi 2004 A=2
Akimal O’odham 0.047 43 Malhi 2003 A=2
Han (Kunming, Yunnan) 0.047 43 Yao 2002 A=2
Dolgan (Anabarsky, Volochanka, Ust-Avam, & Dudinka) 0.045 154 Fedorova 2013 A10=3, A8=2, A4(xA4b)=2
Oroqen (Oroqen Autonomous Banner) 0.045 44 Kong 2003 A(xA5)=2
Va (Simao, Yunnan) 0.045 22 Qian 2001 A=1
Evenk (New Barag Left Banner) 0.043 47 Kong 2003 A(xA5)=2
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.043 47 Jin 2009 A4=2
Tatar (Aznakayevo) 0.042 71 Malyarchuk 2010 A(xA8b)=2, A8b=1
Altai-kizhi 0.042 48 Dulik 2012 A=2
Guoshan Yao (Jianghua, Hunan) 0.042 24 Wen 2005 A(xA6)=1
Evenk (Krasnoyarsk) 0.041 73 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=3
Evenk (Ust-Maysky, Oleneksky, Zhigansky) 0.040 125 Fedorova 2013 A4(xA4b)=3, A4b=2
Ainu 0.039 51 Sato 2009[17] A=2
Kalmyk (Kalmykia) 0.036 110 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=3, A8=1
Han (Taiwanese) 0.036 111 Chen 2013 A4e1=2, A5b=2
Yakut (Vilyuy River basin) 0.036 111 Fedorova 2013 A4(xA4b)=2, A4b=1, A8=1
Han (Taiwan) 0.036 1117 Ji 2012 A=40
Dong (Tianzhu County, Guizhou) 0.036 28 Li 2007 A=1
Shor 0.036 28 Dulik 2012 A=1
Khakassian (Khakassia) 0.035 57 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=2
Altay Kizhi 0.033 90 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=3
Taiwanese (Taipei, Taiwan) 0.033 91 Umetsu 2005 A=3
Wuzhou Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.032 31 Wen 2005 A(xA6)=1
Tatar (Buinsk) 0.032 126 Malyarchuk 2010 A8b=4
Pan Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.031 32 Wen 2005 A6=1
Kazakh (Kosh-Agach District) 0.031 98 Derenko 2012 A4=3
Mansi 0.031 98 Starikovskaya 2005 A(xA2)=3
Altai-kizhi (Altai Republic) 0.029 276 Dulik 2012 A=8
Bapai Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.029 35 Wen 2005 A6=1
Guangdong 0.026 546 Peng 2011 A=14
Kim Mun (Malipo, Yunnan) 0.025 40 Wen 2005 A6=1
Persian (eastern Iran) 0.024 82 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=2
Tu Yao (Hezhou, Guangxi) 0.024 41 Wen 2005 A6=1
Yakut (vicinity of Yakutsk) 0.024 164 Fedorova 2013 A4b=2, A4(xA4b)=1, A8=1
Lowland Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.024 42 Wen 2005 A(xA6)=1
Tajik (Tajikistan) 0.023 44 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=1
Daur (Evenk Autonomous Banner) 0.022 45 Kong 2003 A(xA5)=1
Evenk (Buryatia) 0.022 45 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=1
Tuvan 0.021 95 Starikovskaya 2005 A(xA2)=2
Aini (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.020 50 Wen 2004 A=1
Kumandin (Turochak District) 0.019 52 Dulik 2012 A=1
Guangxi 0.017 1111 Peng 2011 A=19
Yakut 0.017 117 Kong 2003 A(xA5)=2
Shor (Kemerovo) 0.012 82 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=1
Tuvinian (Tuva) 0.010 105 Derenko 2007 A4(xA2)=1
Khanty 0.009 106 Pimenoff 2008 A=1
Vietnam 0.008 392 Peng 2011 A=3
Southeast Yunnan 0.006 158 Peng 2011 A=1
Li (Hainan) 0.003 346 Peng 2011 A=1
Kiliwa 0.000 7 Malhi 2003
Seri 0.000 8 Malhi 2003
Dingban Yao (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.000 10 Wen 2005
Xiban Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.000 11 Wen 2005
Lahu (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.000 15 Wen 2004
Yukaghir (Upper Kolyma) 0.000 18 Volodko 2008
Huatou Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.000 19 Wen 2005
Filipino (Palawan) 0.000 20 Scholes 2011
Dai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.000 21 Qian 2001
Yukaghir (Verkhnekolymsky & Nizhnekolymsky) 0.000 22 Fedorova 2013
River Yuman 0.000 22 Malhi 2003
Delta Yuman 0.000 23 Malhi 2003
Hindu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.000 24 Fornarino 2009
Nganasan 0.000 24 Starikovskaya 2005
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.000 24 Ji 2012
Buryat (Kushun, Nizhneudinsk, Irkutsk) 0.000 25 Starikovskaya 2005
Bunu (Dahua & Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.000 25 Wen 2005
Kurd (northwestern Iran) 0.000 25 Derenko 2007
Lanten Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.000 26 Wen 2005
Iu Mien (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.000 27 Wen 2005
Andhra Pradesh (tribal) 0.000 29 Fornarino 2009
Batek (Malaysia) 0.000 29 Hill 2006
Cun (Hainan) 0.000 30 Peng 2011
Tujia (Yongshun, Hunan) 0.000 30 Wen 2004
Batak (Palawan) 0.000 31 Scholes 2011
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.000 31 Li 2007
Lingao (Hainan) 0.000 31 Peng 2011
Lahu (Simao, Yunnan) 0.000 32 Wen 2004
Mendriq (Malaysia) 0.000 32 Hill 2006
Mien (Shangsi, Guangxi) 0.000 32 Wen 2005
Negidal 0.000 33 Starikovskaya 2005
Teleut 0.000 33 Dulik 2012
Temuan (Malaysia) 0.000 33 Hill 2006
Lahu (Lancang, Yunnan) 0.000 35 Wen 2004
Aleut (Commander Islands) 0.000 36 Volodko 2008
Jemez 0.000 36 Malhi 2003
Va (Ximeng & Gengma, Yunnan) 0.000 36 Yao 2002
Yakut (Yakutia) 0.000 36 Derenko 2007
Taono O’odham 0.000 37 Malhi 2003
Hmong (Wenshan, Yunnan) 0.000 39 Wen 2005
Nganasan 0.000 39 Volodko 2008
Thai 0.000 40 Jin 2009
Tharu (Morang, Nepal) 0.000 40 Fornarino 2009
Ambon 0.000 43 Hill 2007
Lombok (Mataram) 0.000 44 Hill 2007
Alor 0.000 45 Hill 2007
Tofalar 0.000 46 Starikovskaya 2005
Udegey 0.000 46 Starikovskaya 2005
Hindu (New Delhi, India) 0.000 48 Fornarino 2009
Sumba (Waingapu) 0.000 50 Hill 2007
Jahai (Malaysia) 0.000 51 Hill 2006
Senoi (Malaysia) 0.000 52 Hill 2006
Teleut (Kemerovo) 0.000 53 Derenko 2007
Nivkh (northern Sakhalin) 0.000 56 Starikovskaya 2005
Filipino 0.000 61 Hill 2007
Semelai (Malaysia) 0.000 61 Hill 2006
Mansi 0.000 63 Pimenoff 2008
Filipino 0.000 64 Tabbada 2010
Filipino (Mindanao) 0.000 70 Tabbada 2010
Tubalar (Turochak District) 0.000 71 Dulik 2012
Bali 0.000 82 Hill 2007
Yukaghir (Lower Kolyma-Indigirka) 0.000 82 Volodko 2008
Ulchi 0.000 87 Starikovskaya 2005
Chelkan (Turochak District) 0.000 91 Dulik 2012
N. Paiute/Shoshoni 0.000 94 Malhi 2003
Northern Paiute 0.000 98 Malhi 2004
Even (Eveno-Bytantaysky & Momsky) 0.000 105 Fedorova 2013
Tharu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.000 133 Fornarino 2009
Yakut (northern Yakutia) 0.000 148 Fedorova 2013
Cham (Bình Thuận, Vietnam) 0.000 168 Peng 2010
Filipino (Luzon) 0.000 177 Tabbada 2010
Sumatra 0.000 180 Hill 2006
Sulawesi 0.000 237 Hill 2007
Taiwan aborigine 0.000 640 Peng 2011

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup A subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

  • A
    • A3
    • A4
      • A4a
        • A4a1
          • A4a1a
      • A4b
      • A4c
        • A4c1
      • A2
        • A2a
          • A2a2
        • A2b
          • A2b1
        • A2c
        • A2d
          • A2d1
            • A2d1a
          • A2d2
          • A2e
          • A2f
            • A2f1
              • A2f1a
          • A2g
          • A2h
          • A2i
          • A2j
            • A2j1
          • A2k
            • A2k1
          • A2n
          • A2p
        • A2q
      • A6
    • A5
      • A5a
        • A5a1
          • A5a1a
            • A5a1a1
              • A5a1a1a
              • A5a1a1b
            • A5a1a2
          • A5a1b
        • A5a2
      • A5b
      • A5c
    • A7
    • A8
    • A9

Popular culture[edit]

The mummy "Juanita" of Peru, also called the "Ice Maiden", has been shown to belong to mitochondrial haplogroup A.[18][19]

In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Aiyana.

Eva Longoria, an American actress of Mexican descent is Haplogroup A2.

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1-6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  2. ^ a b Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Ricardo Kanitz, Roberta Eckert, Ana C.S. Valls, Mauricio R. Bogo, Francisco M. Salzano, David Glenn Smith, Wilson A. Silva, Marco A. Zago, Andrea K. Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Sidney E.B. Santos, Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler, and Sandro L.Bonatto (2008). "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas" (pdf). American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (3): 583–592. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013. PMC 2427228. PMID 18313026. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  3. ^ a b c d Tanaka, Masashi; et al. (2004). "Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan". Genome Research 14 (10A): 1832–1850. doi:10.1101/gr.2286304. PMC 524407. PMID 15466285. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Tomasz Grzybowski et al., "Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007;81:1025–1041. DOI: 10.1086/522933
  5. ^ Natalia V. Volodko, Elena B. Starikovskaya, Ilya O. Mazunin et al., "Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Arctic Siberians, with Particular Reference to the Evolutionary History of Beringia and Pleistocenic Peopling of the Americas", The American Journal of Human Genetics 82, 1084–1100, May 2008. DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.03.019.
  6. ^ Ville N Pimenoff, David Comas, Jukka U Palo et al., "Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers", European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 1254–1264; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.101
  7. ^ Noriyuki Fuku, Kyong Soo Park, Yoshiji Yamada et al., "Mitochondrial Haplogroup N9a Confers Resistance against Type 2 Diabetes in Asians", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007; 80:407–415. DOI: 10.1086/512202
  8. ^ a b Fuyun Ji, Mark S. Sharpley, Olga Derbeneva et al., "Mitochondrial DNA variant associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and high-altitude Tibetans", PNAS (May 8, 2012), vol. 109, no. 19, 7391–7396. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1202484109
  9. ^ a b c Han-Jun Jin, Chris Tyler-Smith and Wook Kim, "The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers" PLoS ONE (2009)
  10. ^ a b Qing-Peng Kong, Yong-Gang Yao, Mu Liu et al., "Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms of five ethnic populations from northern China", Hum Genet (2003) 113 : 391–405. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1004-7
  11. ^ a b Kazuo Umetsu, Masashi Tanaka, Isao Yuasa et al., "Multiplex amplified product-length polymorphism analysis of 36 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms for haplogrouping of East Asian populations", Electrophoresis (2005), 26, 91–98. DOI 10.1002/elps.200406129
  12. ^ Asari M et al., "Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population", Leg Med (2007), doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.007
  13. ^ Zheng H-X, Yan S, Qin Z-D, Wang Y, Tan J-Z, et al. 2011 Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes. PLoS ONE 6(10): e25835. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025835
  14. ^ a b Boris Malyarchuk, Miroslava Derenko, Galina Denisova, and Olga Kravtsova, "Mitogenomic Diversity in Tatars from the Volga-Ural Region of Russia", Mol. Biol. Evol. 27(10):2220–2226. (2010) doi:10.1093/molbev/msq065
  15. ^ Marchani, EE; Watkins, WS; Bulayeva, K; Harpending, HC; Jorde, LB (2008). "Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan". BMC genetics 9: 47. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-47. PMC 2488347. PMID 18637195. 
  16. ^ Kristina A. Tabbada, Jean Trejaut, Jun-Hun Loo et al., "Philippine Mitochondrial DNA Diversity: A Populated Viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia?", Mol. Biol. Evol. 27(1):21–31. (2010) doi:10.1093/molbev/msp215
  17. ^ Takehiro SATO, Tetsuya AMANO, Hiroko ONO et al., "Mitochondrial DNA haplogrouping of the Okhotsk people based on analysis of ancient DNA: an intermediate of gene flow from the continental Sakhalin people to the Ainu", Anthropological Science Vol. 117(3), 171–180, 2009.
  18. ^ "The peopling of the Americas: Genetic ancestry influences health". Scientific American. 
  19. ^ "First Americans Endured 20,000-Year Layover – Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News". Retrieved 2009-11-18. 

External links[edit]