|Possible time of origin||60,000-65,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Unknown|
|Defining mutations||M60, M181/Page32, P85, P90, V62, V75, V78, V83, V84, V85, V90, V93, V94, V185, V197, V217, V227, V234, V237, and V44|
|Highest frequencies||Baka 63% (Gabon & Cameroon) - 72% (CAR), Hadzabe (Tanzania) 52%-60%, Nuer (South Sudan) 50%, Mbuti (DRC) 33%-60%, Biaka (CAR) 35%-55%, Central Africa 32%, Tsumkwe San (Namibia) 31%, Khoisan 28%, Shilluk (South Sudan) 27%, Burunge (Tanzania) 25%, Dinka (South Sudan) 23%, Ngumba (Cameroon) 23%-33%, Eviya (Gabon) 21%, Fali (Cameroon) 18%, Sotho–Tswana (South Africa) 18%, Zulu (South Africa) 17%, Eshira (Gabon) 17%, Shake (Gabon) 16%, Hausa (Sudan) 16%, Sukuma (Tanzania) 16%, Bakola (Cameroon) 15%-36%, Copts (Sudan) 15%, Sudan 15%, Kunama (Eritrea) 15%, Tutsi (Rwanda) 15%, Sandawe (Tanzania) 15%, Uldeme (Cameroon) 5%-31%, Nuba (Sudan) 14%, Makina (Gabon) 14%, Southern Africa 13%, Mali 11%, Ewondo (Cameroon) 10%, Ethiopia 10%, Shona (Zimbabwe) 10% Qeshmi (Iran) 8,2%, Bandari (Iran) 2,3%, Hazara (Afghanistan) 5,1%,|
In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor. Haplogroup B-M60 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup common to paternal lineages in Africa, in Arabian Peninsula, in Eurasia and in United Kingdom.
- 1 Origin
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Subclades
- 4 Phylogenetics
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
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Haplogroup B-M60 is found in sub-Saharan Africa, especially to tropical forests of West-Central Africa. After Y-haplogroup A, it is the second oldest and one of the most diverse human Y-haplogroups. It was the ancestral haplogroup of not only modern Pygmies like the Baka and Mbuti, but also Hadzabe from Tanzania, who often have been considered, in large part because of some typological features of their language, to be a remnant of Khoisan people in East Africa.
According to one study of the Y-DNA of populations in Sudan, haplogroup B-M60 is found in approximately 30% (16/53) of Southern Sudanese, 16% (5/32) of local Hausa people, 14% (4/28) of the Nuba of central Sudan, 3.7% (8/216) of Northern Sudanese (but only among Copts and Nubians), and 2.2% (2/90) of Western Sudanese. According to another study, haplogroup B is found in approximately 15% of Sudanese males, including 12.5% (5/40) B2a1a-M109/M152 and 2.5% (1/40) B-M60(xM146, M150, M112).
Haplogroup B-M182 has been found in 6% (3/47) of a sample of Mbuti males from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 6% (2/33) of a sample of Bakola males from southern Cameroon, 6% (1/18) of a sample of Dama males from Namibia, and 3% (1/31) of a sample of Biaka males from Central African Republic.
Haplogroup B-M150(xM152) has been observed in 11% (5/47) of a sample of Mbuti from Democratic Republic of the Congo, 11% (1/9) of a sample of Tupuri from northern Cameroon, 11% (1/9) of a sample of Luo from Kenya, 7% (4/55) of a sample of Dogon from Mali, 6% (1/18) of a sample of Baka from Central African Republic, and 2% (1/42) of a sample of Kikuyu and Kamba from Kenya.
Haplogroup B-M150(xM109/M152, M108.1) has been found in 3% (1/37) of a sample from Central Africa, 2% (1/44) of a sample from Mali, and 1% (1/88) of a sample from Ethiopia.
Without testing for any downstream mutation, haplogroup B-M150 has been found in 33.3% (8/24) of a sample of Ngumba from Cameroon, 20.8% (5/24) of a sample of Eviya from Gabon, 18.2% (4/22) of a sample of Bakola from Cameroon, 14.3% (6/42) of a sample of Eshira from Gabon, 14.0% (6/43) of a sample of Makina from Gabon, 14.0% (6/43) of a sample of Shake from Gabon, 8.6% (5/58) of a sample of Punu from Gabon, 8.3% (5/60) of a sample of Tsogo from Gabon, 7.0% (4/57) of a sample of Nzebi from Gabon, 6.7% (1/15) of a sample of Mbugwe from Tanzania, 4.3% (2/46) of a sample of Duma from Gabon, 4.3% (2/47) of a sample of Obamba from Gabon, 4.2% (2/48) of a sample of Benga from Gabon, 3.8% (2/53) of a sample of Kota from Gabon, 2.8% (1/36) of a sample of Ndumu from Gabon, 2.1% (1/47) of a sample of Galoa from Gabon, 2.0% (1/50) of a sample of Akele from Gabon, 1.7% (1/60) of a sample of Fang from Gabon, 1.5% (1/68) of a sample of Sandawe from Tanzania, 1.4% (1/72) of a sample from Qatar, and 0.64% (1/157) of a sample from Saudi Arabia.
Haplogroup B-M218 has been found in 17% (20/118) of a mixed sample of Nilotic ethnic groups of Karamojong, Jie and Dodos from Karamoja region in Uganda. This haplogroup has also been found by FTDNA in 1 individual from Qatar, 3 individuals from Saudi Arabia, 1 individual from Syria, 1 individual from Tunisia, 1 individual from United Kingdom.
Haplogroup B2a1a (M109, M152, P32, P50) is the most commonly observed subclade of haplogroup B.
In Central Africa, haplogroup B2a1a Y-DNA has been found in 23% (7/31) of Ngumba males from southern Cameroon, 18% (7/39) of Fali males from northern Cameroon, 5% (1/21) to 31% (4/13) of Uldeme males from northern Cameroon, 10% (3/29) of Ewondo males from southern Cameroon, 7% (1/15) of a mixed sample of speakers of various Chadic languages from northern Cameroon, 6% (1/18) of a mixed sample of speakers of various Adamawa languages from northern Cameroon, 6% (2/33) of Bakola males from southern Cameroon, 4% (1/28) of Mandara males from northern Cameroon, and 3% (1/31) to 5% (1/20) of Biaka males from Central African Republic.
In East Africa, haplogroup B2a1a Y-DNA has been found in 11% (1/9) of a small sample of Iraqw males from Tanzania, 11% (1/9) of a small sample of Luo males from Kenya, 8% (2/26) of Massai males from Kenya, and 4.5% (4/88) of a sample of Ethiopians.
In Southern Africa, haplogroup B2a1a Y-DNA has been found in 18% (5/28) of Sotho–Tswana males from South Africa, 14% (4/29) of Zulu males from South Africa, 13% (7/53) of an ethnically mixed sample of non-Khoisan Southern Africans, 10% (5/49) of Shona males from Zimbabwe, and 5% (4/80) of Xhosa males from South Africa.
Haplogroup B-M108.1 (M108.1) has been found in 3% (3/88) of a sample from Ethiopia.
Haplogroup B-M43 (M43, P111) has been found in 7% (3/44) of a sample from Mali.
Haplogroup B-M112 (M112, M192, 50f2(P)) has been found mainly among pygmy populations in Central Africa, Juu (Northern Khoisan) populations in Southern Africa, and the Hadzabe in East Africa. It also has been found occasionally in samples of groups who neighbor the aforementioned populations.
Specifically, haplogroup B2b has been observed in 67% (12/18) of a sample of Baka from Central African Republic, 52% (12/23) or 51% (29/57) of a sample of Hadzabe from Tanzania, 48% (15/31) of a sample of Biaka from Central African Republic, 43% (20/47) of a sample of Mbuti from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 31% (9/29) of a sample of Tsumkwe San from Namibia, 28% (11/39) of a sample of the Northern Khoisan-speaking Ju|’hoansi and Sekele peoples, 25% (6/24) of a sample of Burunge from Tanzania, 14% (13/94) of a sample of Tutsi from Rwanda, 13% (9/68) of a sample of Sandawe from Tanzania, 9% (3/32) of a sample of !Kung/Sekele from Namibia, 5% (1/20) of a sample of Turu from Tanzania, 5% (2/43) of a sample of Wairak from Tanzania, 3% (1/29) of a sample of Zulu from South Africa, 3% (1/33) of a sample of Bakola from southern Cameroon, 3% (1/35) of a sample of Datog from Tanzania, 3% (1/35) of a sample of Malagasy, 1.4% (1/69) of a sample of Hutu from Rwanda, 1.4% (1/72) of a sample from Qatar, and 1.3% (2/157) of a sample from Saudi Arabia.
Haplogroup B-P6 has been found in Khoisan populations of Namibia, including 24% (7/29) of a sample of Tsumkwe San and 3% (1/32) of a sample of !Kung/Sekele.
Haplogroup B-M30 has been found in 22% (2/9) of a mixed sample of speakers of Central Sudanic and Saharan languages from northern Cameroon and in 5% (1/20) of a sample of Biaka from Central African Republic.
Haplogroup B-P7 has been observed most frequently in samples of some populations of pygmies from Central Africa: 67% (12/18) Baka from Central African Republic, 45% (14/31) Biaka from Central African Republic, 21% (10/47) Mbuti from Democratic Republic of the Congo. This haplogroup also has been found in an Iraqw (South Cushitic) individual from Tanzania (1/9 = 11%) and in some samples of Khoisan from Namibia (2/32 = 6% !Kung/Sekele, 2/29 = 7% Tsumkwe San).
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
Original research publications
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.
The phylogenetic tree of haplogroup B subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research.
- B-M60 (M60, M181, P85, P90)
- B-M236 (M236, M288)
- B-M236 (M236)
- B-M182 (M182)
- B-M150 (M150)
- B-M218 (M218)
- B-M109 (M109, M152, P32, P50)
- B-G1 (G1)
- B-M108.1 (M108.1)
- B-P111 (P111, M43)
- B-M218 (M218)
- B-M112 (M112, M192, 50f2(P))
- B-P6 (P6)
- B-M115 (M115, M169)
- B-M30 (M30, M129)
- B-M108.2 (M108.2)
- B-P7 (P7)
- B-P8 (P8, P70)
- B-MSY2.1 (MSY2.1, M211)
- B-P112 (P112)
- B-M150 (M150)
- B-M236 (M236, M288)
- B-M60 (M60, M181, P85, P90)
Y-DNA B subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
- Gemma Berniell-Lee, Francesc Calafell, Elena Bosch et al., "Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages," Molecular Biology and Evolution Advance Access published April 15, 2009
- Elizabeth T Wood, Daryn A Stover, Christopher Ehret et al., "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes," European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 867–876. (cf. Appendix A: Y Chromosome Haplotype Frequencies)
- Alec Knight, Peter A. Underhill, Holly M. Mortensen et al., "African Y Chromosome and mtDNA Divergence Provides Insight into the History of Click Languages," Current Biology, Vol. 13, 464–473 (March 18, 2003).
- Sarah A. Tishkoff, Mary Katherine Gonder, Brenna M. Henn et al. (2007), "History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation," Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (10) : 2180–2195. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm155
- Hisham Y. Hassan, Peter A. Underhill, Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza, and Muntaser E. Ibrahim, "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History," American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2008).
- Fulvio Cruciani, Piero Santolamazza, Peidong Shen et al., "A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes," American Journal of Human Genetics 70:1197–1214, 2002.
- Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, et al. (November 2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nat. Genet. 26 (3): 358–61. doi:10.1038/81685. PMID 11062480.
- Fulvio Cruciani, Beniamino Trombetta, Daniele Sellitto et al., "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages," European Journal of Human Genetics (2010), 1–8
- J. R. Luis, D. J. Rowold, M. Regueiro et al., "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations," American Journal of Human Genetics 74:532–544, 2004.
- Viola Grugni, Vincenza Battaglia, Baharak Hooshiar Kashani, Silvia Parolo, Nadia Al-Zahery, et al. "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East : New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians" (2012)
- Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, et al. "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events" (2012)
- Matthew E. Hurles, Bryan C. Sykes, Mark A. Jobling, and Peter Forster, "The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages," American Journal of Human Genetics 76:894–901, 2005
- Viola Grugni, Vincenza Battaglia, Baharak Hooshiar Kashani, Silvia Parolo, Nadia Al-Zahery, et al. "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East : New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians", 2012
- Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, et al. "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events", 2012
- Alicia M Cadenas, Lev A Zhivotovsky, Luca L Cavalli-Sforza et al., "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 374–386
- Khaled K. Abu-Amero, Ali Hellani, Ana M. Gonzalez et al., "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions," BMC Genetics 2009, 10:59 doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59 PMID 19772609
- Veronica Gomes, Paula Sanchez-Diz, Antonio Amorim, Angel Carracedo and Leonor Gusmao, "Digging deeper into East African human Y chromosome lineages"
- Middle East DNA Project
- Regueiro M., Cadenas A.M., Gayden T., Underhill P.A., Herrera R.J. (2006). "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration". Human Heredity 61: 132–143. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078.
- Gomes, Verónica; Paula Sánchez-Diz, António Amorim, Ángel Carracedo and Leonor Gusmão (6 Mar 2010). "Digging deeper into East African human Y chromosome lineages". Human Genetics 127 (5): 603–613. doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0808-5. PMID 20213473.
- Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
- van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.