Haplogroup B (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup B

Peopling of eurasia.jpg

Possible time of origin 50,000 YBP
Possible place of origin Southeastern Asia
Ancestor R11'B
Descendants B4, B5, B7
Defining mutations 8281-8289d[1]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Origin[edit]

Haplogroup B is believed to have arisen in Asia some 50,000 years before present. Its ancestral haplogroup was Haplogroup R.

Its greater variety is in China. It is conspicuous that haplogroup B may have its earliest diversification in southern China and/or Southeast Asia.[2]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup B is found frequently in southeastern Asia.[3] A subclade of B4b that is labelled irregularly as B2 is one of five haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the others being A, C, D, and X.

Because the migration to the Americas by the ancestors of Indigenous Americans is generally believed to have been from northeastern Siberia via Beringia, it is surprising that Haplogroup B and Haplogroup X have not been found in Paleo-Siberian tribes of northeastern Siberia.[4] However, Haplogroup B has been found among Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic populations of Siberia, such as Tuvans, Altays, Shors, Khakassians, Yakuts, Buryats, Khamnigans, Negidals, and Evenks.[5] This haplogroup is also found among populations in China, Indonesia, Iran,[5] Iraq,[6] Japan, Korea, Laos,[7] Madagascar, Malaysia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Polynesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, and Vietnam.[8][9]

Although haplogroup B in general has been found in many samples of Altaic-speaking populations of Siberia, the subclade that is phylogenetically closest to American B2, namely B4b1, has been found mainly in populations of southern China and Southeast Asia, especially Filipinos and Austronesian speakers of eastern Indonesia (approx. 8%) and the aborigines of Taiwan and Hainan (approx. 7%).[10][11][12] However, B4b1 has been observed in populations as far north as Turochak and Choya districts in the north of Altai Republic (3/72 = 4.2% Tubalar),[13] Miyazaki and Tokyo, Japan (approx. 3%),[14] South Korea (4/185 = 2.2%),[9] Tuva (1/95 = 1.1% Tuvan),[13] and Hulunbuir (1/149 = 0.7% Barghut).[15]

Table of Frequencies of MtDNA Haplogroup B[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source Subtypes
Carolinian (Saipan) 1.000 17 Vilar 2013 B4a1a1a=15, B4a1a(xB4a1a1a)=2
Dingban Yao (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.600 10 Wen 2005 B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4e, B4f)=3, B4a=1, B4e=1, B4f=1
Iu Mien (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.481 27 Wen 2005 B4a=7, B4b1=5, B5a=1
Bapai Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.429 35 Wen 2005 B5a=7, B4e=3, B4b1=2, B4a=1, B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4e, B4f)=1, B(xB4, B5)=1
Filipino 0.422 64 Tabbada 2010 B4a1a(xB4a1a1)=8, B5b=7, B4b1=6, B4c1b=4, B4a1a1=1, B5a=1
Tu Yao (Hezhou, Guangxi) 0.390 41 Wen 2005 B5a=7, B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4e, B4f)=6, B4a=3
Guoshan Yao (Jianghua, Hunan) 0.375 24 Wen 2005 B5a=7, B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4e, B4f)=2
Cham (Bình Thuận, Vietnam) 0.369 168 Peng 2010 B5a=27, B4c2=18, B4c1b2=3, B4h=3, B4a1(xB4a1a)=2, B4g=2, B5b2a=2, B4a(xB4a1)=1, B4a1a=1, B4b1=1, B4c1b(xB4c1b2)=1, B5b1=1
Huatou Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.368 19 Wen 2005 B5a=3, B4a=2, B4b1=1, B4e=1
Filipino (Luzon) 0.367 177 Tabbada 2010 B4a1a(xB4a1a1)=20, B5b=18, B4b1=13, B4c1b=10, B5a=2, B4a(xB4a1a)=1, B7=1
Hmong (Wenshan, Yunnan) 0.333 39 Wen 2005 B5a=8, B4a=5
Dong (Tianzhu County, Guizhou) 0.321 28 Li 2007 B4a=6, B5a=2, B4c=1
Kinh (Vietnamese) 0.317 139 He 2012 B4=24, B5=19, B6=1
Mien (Shangsi, Guangxi) 0.313 32 Wen 2005 B4a=5, B5a=3, B4e=2
Kim Mun (Malipo, Yunnan) 0.300 40 Wen 2005 B5a=5, B4a=3, B4e=2, B4b1=1, B5(xB5a, B5b)=1
Dai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.293 41 Yao 2002 B5a=4, B(xB4, B5a, B5b)=4, B4a=3, B4(xB4a)=1
Bunu (Dahua & Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.280 25 Wen 2005 B4a=5, B5a=2
Filipino (Visayas) 0.277 112 Tabbada 2010 B4a1a(xB4a1a1)=11, B4b1=8, B4c1b=7, B5b=5
Lanten Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.269 26 Wen 2005 B4a=3, B5a=2, B4b1=1, B4f=1
Laos 0.262 214 Bodner 2011 B5a=26, B4g=7, B4c2=6, B4a'g*=3, B4a1*=3, B4b1a2a=2, B4e=2, B4*=1, B4a1b=1, B4b1*=1, B4b1a1'2*=1, B4c1b=1, B5b=1, B6=1
Wuzhou Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.258 31 Wen 2005 B4a=4, B5a=3, B4b1=1
Lahu (Simao, Yunnan) 0.250 32 Wen 2004 B4a=5, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=3
Pan Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.250 32 Wen 2005 B5a=4, B4a=2, B4f=1, B5b=1
Yi (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.250 16 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1, B4a=1, B5(xB5a, B5b)=1, B5a=1
Naxi (Lijiang, Yunnan) 0.244 45 Wen 2004 B4a=5, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=3, B5a=3
Filipino (Mindanao) 0.243 70 Tabbada 2010 B4a1a(xB4a1a1)=7, B4b1=5, B5b=3, B4a(xB4a1a)=1, B4a1a1=1
Lowland Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.238 42 Wen 2005 B4a=3, B4b1=3, B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4e, B4f)=2, B5a=1, B5b=1
Han (Taiwanese) 0.234 111 Chen 2013 B4+C16261T+G16129A!=6, B5a1=3, B4+C16261T=2, B4b1a2=2, B4b1b'c=2, B4c1b2a(xB4c1b2a2)=2, B4g=2, B4a1a(xB4a1a1a)=1, B4a4=1, B4b1a3=1, B4c1b+A16335G=1, B4c1c=1, B5b(xB5b2a)=1, B5b2a=1
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.226 31 Li 2007 B4a=3, B4(xB4a, B4b, B4c)=2, B4b=1, B5a=1
Bai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.211 19 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=2, B4a=1, B5a=1
Taiwanese (Taipei, Taiwan) 0.209 91 Umetsu 2005 B4(xB4f)=13, B5=6
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.206 102 Liu 2011 B4a=5, B4b1=5, B5a=5, B4(xB4a, B4b, B4c, B4e, B4f, B4g)=3, B5b=2, B4c=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.204 103 Derenko 2007 B4=13, B5=8
CHS (Han from Hunan & Fujian) 0.200 55 Zheng 2011 B5=6, B4=5
Lahu (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.200 15 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1, B4a=1, B4b1=1
Han (Southern California) 0.192 390 Ji 2012 B=75
Dai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.190 21 Qian 2001 B4a=2, B4(xB4a)=1, B5b=1
Han (Southwest China; pool of 44 Sichuan, 34 Chongqing, 33 Yunnan, and 26 Guizhou) 0.190 137 Ji 2012 B4b'd=9, B4a=6, B5a=4, B4c=3, B(xB4a, B4b'd, B4c, B5a, B5b, B6)=2, B5b=1, B6=1
Tujia (western Hunan) 0.188 64 Wen 2004 B4a=5, B5b=3, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=2, B5a=2
Hmong (Jishou, Hunan) 0.184 103 Wen 2005 B5a=6, B4a=5, B4b1=3, B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4e, B4f)=2, B4e=1, B4f=1, B5b=1
Hani (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.182 33 Wen 2004 B5a=2, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1, B4a=1, B4b1=1, B5b=1
Xiban Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.182 11 Wen 2005 B4a=1, B4b1=1
Korean (Seoul & Daejeon, South Korea) 0.180 261 Kim 2008 B(xB5)=32, B5=15
Han (Taiwan) 0.179 1117 Ji 2012 B=200
CHD (Han from Denver, Colorado) 0.178 73 Zheng 2011 B4=12, B5=1
Hui (Xinjiang) 0.178 45 Yao 2004 B4a=4, B5a=2, B4b1=1, B6=1
Yi (Shuangbai, Yunnan) 0.175 40 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=5, B4a=1, B4b1=1
Tujia (Yanhe County, Guizhou) 0.172 29 Li 2007 B4b=3, B5a=2
Thailand 0.171 105 Kaewsutthi 2011 B(xB5a1)=13, B5a1=5
Tibetan (Zhongdian, Yunnan) 0.171 35 Wen 2004 B5a=4, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=2
Aini (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.160 50 Wen 2004 B4a=4, B(xB4, B5)=2, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1, B5a=1
Chinese (Shenyang, Liaoning) 0.156 160 Umetsu 2005 B4(xB4f)=15, B5=10
Daur (Evenk Autonomous Banner) 0.156 45 Kong 2003 B4(xB4a, B4b)=4, B4a=3
Korean (Seoul National University Hospital) 0.155 633 Fuku 2007 B=98
Yi (Hezhang County, Guizhou) 0.150 20 Li 2007 B4b=1, B4(xB4a, B4b, B4c)=1, B6=1
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.149 47 Derenko 2007 B4=5, B5=2
Korean (South Korea) 0.148 203 Umetsu 2005 B4(xB4f)=24, B5=6
Korean (South Korea) 0.146 185 Jin 2009 B4a=11, B4(xB4a, B4b, B4c)=7, B4b1=4, B5a=2, B5b=2, B4c=1
Vietnamese 0.143 42 Jin 2009 B4(xB4a, B4b, B4c)=3, B4a=1, B4b(xB4b1)=1, B5a=1
Okinawa 0.141 326 Umetsu 2005 B4(xB4f)=28, B4f=10, B5=8
CHB (Han from Beijing Normal University) 0.140 121 Zheng 2011 B4=14, B5=3
JPT (Japanese from Tokyo) 0.136 118 Zheng 2011 B4=11, B5=5
Tujia (Yongshun, Hunan) 0.133 30 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=2, B5a=2
Japanese (Hokkaidō) 0.129 217 Asari 2007 B4(xB4f)=18, B4f=5, B5=5
Japanese (Tōkai) 0.124 282 Umetsu 2005 B4(xB4f)=26, B5=9
Japanese (Gifu) 0.121 1617 Fuku 2007 B=196
Negidal 0.121 33 Starikovskaya 2005 B5b2=4
Japanese (Tōhoku) 0.119 336 Umetsu 2005 B4(xB4f)=24, B5=15, B4f=1
Korean (northern China) 0.118 51 Jin 2009 B4a=2, B4b(xB4b1)=2, B5a=1, B5b=1
Telengit (Altai Republic) 0.113 71 Derenko 2007 B4=8
Jino (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.111 18 Wen 2004 B4a=1, B5a=1
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.111 54 Ji 2012 B4a=5, B5b=1
Japanese (northern Kyūshū) 0.109 256 Umetsu 2005 B4(xB4f)=19, B5=8, B4f=1
Japanese 0.109 211 Maruyama 2003 B4b1=14, B5b=4, B5a=2, B4a=1, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1, B5(xB5a, B5b)=1
Evenk (New Barag Left Banner) 0.106 47 Kong 2003 B4b=4, B5b=1
Korean (Arun Banner) 0.104 48 Kong 2003 B4b=2, B5b=2, B4(xB4a, B4b)=1
Mongol (New Barag Left Banner) 0.104 48 Kong 2003 B4b=3, B4a=1, B5a=1
Han (Beijing) 0.100 40 Jin 2009 B(xB4, B5a, B5b)=2, B4b(xB4b1)=2
Nu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.100 30 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=3
Thai 0.100 40 Jin 2009 B5a=3, B(xB4, B5a, B5b)=1
Yi (Luxi, Yunnan) 0.097 31 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=2, B(xB4, B5)=1
Japanese (Miyazaki) 0.090 100 Uchiyama 2007 B4b1a1=3, B4(xB4a, B4b1)=2, B4a=2, B5b=2
Khakassian (Khakassia) 0.088 57 Derenko 2007 B4=5
Han (Xinjiang) 0.085 47 Yao 2004 B5a=2, B4b1=1, B5b=1
Kyrgyz (Sary-Tash, Kyrgyzstan) 0.085 47 Yao 2004 B5a=2, B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4c)=1, B4a=1
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.085 47 Jin 2009 B4(xB4a, B4b, B4c)=2, B4a=1, B5b=1
Tuvan 0.084 95 Starikovskaya 2005 B4a1c2=4, B5=2, B4(xB4a1c2, B4b1a, B4d1a)=1, B4b1a=1
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.083 24 Ji 2012 B=2
Barghut (Hulunbuir) 0.081 149 Derenko 2012 B4c1a2(xB4c1a2a)=4, B4f1=2, B5b(xB5b2)=2, B4c1a2a=1, B4b1a3a1a=1, B4d1=1, B5b2=1
Chamorro (85 Guam, 14 Saipan, & 6 Rota) 0.076 105 Vilar 2013 B4a1a1a=7, B4b1=1
Manchurian 0.075 40 Jin 2009 B4(xB4a, B4b, B4c)=2, B4a=1
Uzbek (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.075 40 Comas 2004 B=3
Uyghur (Penjim, Panfilov District, Almaty Province, Kazakhstan) 0.073 55 Yao 2004 B5a=3, B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4c)=1
Buryat 0.071 126 Kong 2003 B4(xB4a, B4b)=5, B5b=2, B(xB4, B5a, B5b)=1, B4b=1
Khamnigan (Buryatia) 0.071 99 Derenko 2007 B4=5, B5=2
Dungan (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.063 16 Comas 2004 B=1
Persian (eastern Iran) 0.061 82 Derenko 2007 B4=4, B5=1
Nogai (Dagestan) 0.061 33 Marchani 2008 B=2
Tibetan (Nagchu, Tibet) 0.057 35 Ji 2012 B=2
Kazakh (Kegen Valley, Almaty Province, Kazakhstan) 0.055 55 Yao 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4c)=1, B4a=1, B5b=1
Lisu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.054 37 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1, B5(xB5a, B5b)=1
Tharu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.053 133 Fornarino 2009 B5a=7
Uzbek (Xinjiang) 0.052 58 Yao 2004 B4b1=2, B4c=1
Bukharan Arab (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 B=1
Filipino (Palawan) 0.050 20 Scholes 2011 B4a1a=1
Tajik (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 B=1
Turkmen (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 B=1
Shor (Kemerovo Oblast) 0.049 82 Derenko 2007 B4=4
Va (Simao, Yunnan) 0.045 22 Qian 2001 B4(xB4a)=1
Altai Kizhi 0.044 90 Derenko 2007 B4=3, B5=1
Bai (Dali, Yunnan) 0.044 68 Wen 2004 B5a=2, B4b1=1
Tofalar 0.043 46 Starikovskaya 2005 B4a1c2=2
Kyrgyz (Bakay-Ata, Kyrgyzstan) 0.042 48 Yao 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1, B4c)=1, B5b=1
Tubalar 0.042 72 Starikovskaya 2005 B4b1a=3
Evenk (Krasnoyarsk Krai) 0.041 73 Derenko 2007 B4=3
Kazakh (Kosh-Agach, Altai Republic) 0.041 98 Derenko 2012 B5b2=3, B4c1b=1
Buryat (Kushun, Nizhneudinsky, Irkutsk Oblast) 0.040 25 Starikovskaya 2005 B4d1a=1
Kazakh (Xinjiang) 0.038 53 Yao 2004 B4a=2
Teleut (Kemerovo Oblast) 0.038 53 Derenko 2007 B4=2
Kalmyk (Kalmykia) 0.036 110 Derenko 2007 B4=3, B5=1
Tibetan (Chamdo, Tibet) 0.034 29 Ji 2012 B4a=1
Buryat (Buryatia) 0.034 295 Derenko 2007 B4=9, B5=1
Lahu (Lancang, Yunnan) 0.029 35 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1
Pumi (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.028 36 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1
Va (Ximeng & Gengma, Yunnan) 0.028 36 Yao 2002 B5a=1
Yakut (Yakutia) 0.028 36 Derenko 2007 B4=1
Tharu (Morang, Nepal) 0.025 40 Fornarino 2009 B5a=1
Tibetan (Deqin, Yunnan) 0.025 40 Wen 2004 B4(xB4a, B4b1)=1
Oroqen (Oroqen Autonomous Banner) 0.023 44 Kong 2003 B4(xB4a, B4b)=1
Uyghur (Xinjiang) 0.021 47 Yao 2004 B(xB4, B5, B6)=1
Oirat Mongol (Xinjiang) 0.020 49 Yao 2004 B4b1=1
Ainu 0.020 51 Sato 2009
Tajima 2004
B4f1=1
Tuvinian (Tuva) 0.019 105 Derenko 2007 B4=2
Tibetan (Qinghai) 0.018 56 Wen 2004 B4a=1
Nogai (Nogaysky, Dagestan & Adyge-Khabalsky, Karachay-Cherkessia) 0.015 206 Bermisheva 2004 B=3
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.014 74 Ji 2012 B4a=1
Bashkir 0.009 221 Bermisheva 2002 B=2
Chukchi (Anadyr) 0.000 15 Derenko 2007 -
Uyghur (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 16 Comas 2004 -
Crimean Tatar (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Iranian (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Karakalpak (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Kazakh (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Kyrgyz (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.000 20 Comas 2004 -
Hindu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.000 24 Fornarino 2009 -
Nganasan 0.000 24 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Tibetan (Diqing, Yunnan) 0.000 24 Wen 2004 -
Kurd (northwestern Iran) 0.000 25 Derenko 2007 -
Andhra Pradesh (tribal) 0.000 29 Fornarino 2009 -
Tibetan (Shigatse, Tibet) 0.000 29 Ji 2012 -
Batak (Palawan) 0.000 31 Scholes 2011 -
Ket 0.000 38 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Tajik (Tajikistan) 0.000 44 Derenko 2007 -
Tibetan (Lhasa, Tibet) 0.000 44 Ji 2012 -
Evenk (Buryatia) 0.000 45 Derenko 2007 -
Udege (Gvasiugi, Imeni Lazo, Khabarovsk Krai) 0.000 46 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Itelmen 0.000 47 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Chuvash 0.000 55 Bermisheva 2002 -
Nivkh (northern Sakhalin) 0.000 56 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Komi-Zyryans 0.000 62 Bermisheva 2002 -
Mansi 0.000 63 Pimenoff 2008 -
Chukchi 0.000 66 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Evenk (53 Stony Tunguska basin & 18 Tuguro-Chumikan) 0.000 71 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Tatar (Aznakayevo) 0.000 71 Malyarchuk 2010 -
Komi-Permyaks 0.000 74 Bermisheva 2002 -
Siberian Eskimo 0.000 79 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Ulchi 0.000 87 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Mansi 0.000 98 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Udmurt 0.000 101 Bermisheva 2002 -
Mordvinian 0.000 102 Bermisheva 2002 -
Khanty 0.000 106 Pimenoff 2008 -
Yakut 0.000 117 Kong 2003 -
Tatar (Buinsk) 0.000 126 Malyarchuk 2010 -
Mari 0.000 136 Bermisheva 2002 -
Koryak 0.000 155 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Tatar 0.000 228 Bermisheva 2002 -

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup B subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

  • B
    • B4
      • B4a
        • B4a1
          • B4a1a
            • B4a1a1 (14022)[16] the Polynesian motif,[17][18][19][20] or "PM" (though sometimes referred to as its immediate precursor)
              • B4a1a1a (16247) (also sometimes referred to as "the Polynesian motif")
                • B4a1a1a1
                • B4a1a1a2 (Malagasy motif - a Polynesian motif found only among the Malagasy people)
              • B4a1a1b
            • B4a1a2
            • B4a1b
              • B4a1b1
                • B4a1b1a
          • B4a1c
            • B4a1c1
              • B4a1c2
              • B4a1c4
            • B4a1c3
              • B4a1c3a
        • B4a2
        • B4a2a
      • B4g
      • B4b'd'e
        • B4b
          • B2
            • B2a
              • B2a1
                • B2a1a
            • B2b
            • B2c
              • B2c1
            • B2d
            • B2e
          • B4b1
            • B4b1a
                • B4b1a1
                  • B4b1a1a
                • B4b1a2
                  • B4b1a2a
            • B4b1b'c
              • B4b1b
              • B4b1c
        • B4d
          • B4d1'2'3
            • B4d1
            • B4d2
            • B4d3
        • B4e
      • B4c
        • B4c1
          • B4c1a'b
            • B4c1a
              • B4c1a1
                • B4c1a1a
              • B4c1a2
            • B4c1b
              • B4c1b1
                • B4c1b1a
              • B4c1b2
          • B4c1c
            • B4c1c1
        • B4c2
          • B4c2a
      • B4f
        • B4f1
    • B5
      • B5a
        • B5a1
          • B5a1a
        • B5a2
          • B5a2a
      • B5b
        • B5b1
          • B5b1a'b
            • B5b1a
            • B5b1b
        • B5b2
          • B5b2a'b
            • B5b2a
            • B5b2b
              • B5b2b1
          • B5b2c
        • B5b3
    • B7 or B6

Popular culture[edit]

In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Ina.

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. 
  2. ^ Yong-Gang Yao et al. 2001, Phylogeographic Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese Am J Hum Genet. 2002 March; 70(3): 635–651
  3. ^ Haplogroup B.
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