Haplogroup CT

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Haplogroup CT

CT (DECF).png

Possible time of origin 68,500 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin East Africa[2]
Ancestor BT
Descendants CF and DE
Defining mutations P9.1, M168, M294, V9, V41, V54, V189, and V226

In human genetics, Haplogroup CT is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, defining one of the major lines of common ancestry of humanity along father-to-son male lines.

Men within this haplogroup have Y chromosomes with the SNP mutation M168, along with P9.1 and M294. These mutations are present in all modern human male lines except A and B, which are both found almost exclusively in Africa.

General[edit]

The most recent common male line ancestor (MRCA) of all CT men today probably pre-dated the "Out of Africa" migration of anatomically modern humans, a migration in which some of his descendants participated. He is therefore thought to have lived in Africa before this proposed migration.[1][2][3]

In keeping with the concept of the "Y Chromosome Adam" (the most recent common male line ancestor (MRCA) of all living men), CT-M168 has been referred to in popularized accounts as being the lineage of "Y Chromosome Noah or "Eurasian Adam" (the most recent common male ancestor of all non-Africans).

No male in paragroup CT* has yet been discovered, which means in other words that all men in this haplogroup are also defined as being in one of the several major branch clades. All known surviving descendant lineages of CT are in one of two major sub-clades, CF and DE. Both of these appear to have arisen only a few thousand years after the original common ancestor of CT.[citation needed] In turn, DE is divided into an Asian haplogroup D and a predominantly Africa-distributed haplogroup E, while CF is divided into an East Asian, American, and Oceanian haplogroup C and haplogroup F, which dominates most non-African populations.[1]

Y-DNA tree

Haplogroup CT is therefore the common ancestral male lineage of most men alive today, including most Africans, among whom haplogroup E is predominant, and most non-Africans, among whom haplogroup F is predominant.

Subclades[edit]

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA C subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 
  2. ^ a b Stone, Linda; Paul F. Lurquin, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (2007). "Voyages, Prehistoric Human Expansions". Genes, Culture, and Human Evolution. p. 187. ISBN 1-4051-5089-0. 
  3. ^ Underhill and Kivisild; Kivisild, T (2007). "Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41 (1): 539–64. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407. PMID 18076332. 
  4. ^ Pereira et al. (2010), Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel, European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 915–923; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21