|Possible time of origin||50,000 years|
|Possible place of origin||Asia|
|Descendants||C-M216, C-M8, C-M38, C-M217, C4, C5, C6|
|Defining mutations||M130/RPS4Y711, P184, P255, P260|
In human genetics, Haplogroup C is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, defined by UEPs M130/RPS4Y711, P184, P255, and P260, which are all SNP mutations. It is a sibling clade of Haplogroup F, within the more ancient grouping of Haplogroup CF. Unlike some other human Y-DNA clades of a similar age depth, all clades of Haplogroup CF are non-African; that is, they do not occur exclusively in Africa, unlike A and B. Haplogroup C-M130 in particular appears to be one of the Y-DNA clades which dispersed especially early towards the east; its phylogeographic distribution supports a single coastal Out-of-Africa route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia.
Haplogroup C-M130 seems to have come into existence shortly after SNP mutation M168 occurred for the first time, bringing the modern Haplogroup CT into existence, from which Haplogroup CF, and in turn Haplogroup C, derived. This was probably at least 60,000 years before present. Although Haplogroup C-M130 attains its highest frequencies among the indigenous populations of Mongolia, the Russian Far East, Polynesia, Australia, and at moderate frequency in the Korean Peninsula and among the Manchus, it displays high diversity among modern populations of India. It is hypothesized that Haplogroup C-M130 either originated or underwent its longest period of evolution within India or the greater South Asian coastal region. The highest diversity is observed in Southeast Asia, and its northward expansion in East Asia started approximately 40,000 years ago.
It represents a great coastal migration along Southern Asia, into Southeast Asia and Australia, and up the East Asian coast. It is believed to have migrated to the Americas some 6,000-8,000 years before present, and was carried by Na-Dené-speaking peoples into the northwest Pacific coast of North America. Some have hypothesized that Haplogroups C-M130 and D were brought together to East Asia by a single population that became the first successful modern human colonizers of that region, but at present the distributions of Haplogroups C-M130 and D are different, with various subtypes of Haplogroup C-M130 being found at high frequency among the Australian aborigines, Polynesians, Vietnamese, Kazakhs, Mongolians, Manchurians, Koreans, and indigenous inhabitants of the Russian Far East; and at moderate frequencies elsewhere throughout Asia and Oceania, including India and Southeast Asia; whereas Haplogroup D is found at high frequencies only among the Tibetans, Japanese peoples, and Andaman Islanders, and has been found neither in India nor among the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas or Oceania.
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The distribution of Haplogroup C-M130 is generally limited to populations of northern Asia, eastern Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. There is a tendency for Haplogroup C-M130 to appear as the minor component of Y-chromosome diversity among a population in which the major component is accounted for by subclades of Haplogroup K (M9). Haplogroup C-M130 also rarely co-occurs with Haplogroup D among populations of northern Eurasia.
Due to the tremendous age of this macro-haplogroup, numerous mutations have had time to accumulate on the background of a Haplogroup C-M130 Y-chromosome, and several regionally important subbranches of Haplogroup C-M130 have been identified. Haplogroup C-M217 is probably the most important of these, as the geographic extent of its dispersal is without compare, stretching longitudinally from Central Europe all the way to the Wayuu people in northern Colombia and northwest Venezuela, and latitudinally from the Evens and Koryaks of the Russian Far East and the Athabaskan peoples of Alaska and western Canada all the way to Turkey, Pakistan, Vietnam, and the Malay Archipelago. The highest frequencies of Haplogroup C-M217 are found among the populations of Mongolia and the Russian Far East, where it is generally the modal haplogroup. Haplogroup C-M217 is the only variety of Haplogroup C-M130 to be found among Native Americans, among whom it reaches its highest frequency in Na-Dené populations.
Other distinctive subbranches of Haplogroup C-M130 have been found to be specific to certain populations within restricted geographical territories, and even where these other branches are found, they tend to appear as a very low-frequency, minor component of the palette of Y-chromosome diversity within those territories. Haplogroup C-M8, an ancient but at present extremely rare lineage, is specific to the Japanese and Ryukyuan populations of Japan, among whom it occurs with a frequency of about 5% or less. Haplogroup C-M38 is found among certain local populations within Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia; among the populations of some islands of Polynesia, Haplogroup C-M38 has become the modal haplogroup, probably due to severe founder effects and genetic drift. Haplogroup C4 is the most common haplogroup among indigenous Australians, and it has not been found outside of that continent. Haplogroup C5 has been detected with low frequency in samples from India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Arabia, and northern China.
Haplogroup C-RPS4Y711(xC-M8, C-M217) Y-DNA has been found in 6/35 = 17% of a sample of Yao from Bama, Guangxi in south-central China, 4/35 = 11% of a sample of Hui and 2/70 = 3% of a pair of samples of Uyghur from northwestern China, and 3/45 = 7% of a sample of Hezhe and 1/26 = 4% of a sample of Ewenki from northeastern China. Haplogroup C-RPS4Y711(xM8, M38, M217) has been found in 48.5% (16/33) of a sample of Australian aboriginal people, 20% (12/60) of a sample of Yao, 6.1% (3/49) of a sample of Tujia, 5.9% (1/17) of a sample of Micronesians, 5.5% (3/55) of a sample of eastern Indonesians, 4.0% (1/25) of a sample of western Indonesians, 3.3% (3/91) of a sample of Sri Lankans, 3.1% (1/32) of a sample of Malays, 2.5% (10/405) of a sample of Indians, 2.2% (1/46) of a sample of Papua New Guineans, 1.7% (1/58) of a sample of Miao, and 1.5% (1/67) of a sample of Uyghurs. Haplogroup C-M216(xM8, M38, M217, M210, M356) has been found in 3.9% (3/77) of a sample of the general population of Kathmandu, Nepal.
In 2009, C-RPS4Y(xM38) Y-DNA was found to be quite common among populations of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara and independent East Timor: 13/31 = 41.9% Lembata, 16/71 = 22.5% Flores, 5/43 = 11.6% Solor, 10/96 = 10.4% Adonara, 3/39 = 7.7% East Timor, 1/26 = 3.8% Alor, 1/38 = 2.6% Pantar. All C-RPS4Y(xM38) individuals except the singleton from Alor were described as Austronesian speakers. According to a study published in 2010, C-RPS4Y(xM38, M217) Y-DNA occurs with rather high frequency in most populations of central Indonesia (115/394 = 29.2% Flores, 21/92 = 22.8% Lembata, 19/86 = 22.1% Borneo, 6/54 = 11.1% Mandar, 1/9 = 11.1% Timor, but only 1/350 = 0.3% Sumba). C-RPS4Y(xM38, M217) Y-DNA generally becomes rare toward the west (2/61 = 3.3% Java, 1/32 = 3.1% Malaysia, 9/641 = 1.4% Balinese, 0/38 Batak Toba, 0/60 Nias, but 10/74 = 13.5% Mentawai) and toward the east (1/28 = 3.6% Alor, 0/30 Moluccas, 1/15 = 6.7% PNG Coast, 0/33 PNG Highland, 0/10 Nasioi, 0/44 Maewo (Vanuatu), 1/16 = 6.3% Micronesia, 0/64 Polynesia).
|Possible time of origin||11,650 (95% CI 8,460–18,690) years before present or 10,000 [ s.e. ±3,500] years before present|
|Possible place of origin||probably the Japanese Archipelago|
|Defining mutations||M8, M105, M131, P122|
|Highest frequencies||Tokushima 10%, Okinawa 6.8% [4.4%-8%], Honshū 4.9% (Aomori 7.7%, Shizuoka 4.9%), Kyūshū 0%-3.8%|
|Possible time of origin||10,600 [4,500–30,300], or 49,600 [42,000–61,000] years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Maritime Southeast Asia or Melanesia|
|Highest frequencies||Lani 100%, Dani 92%, Cook Islands 78%-82%, Samoa 62%-72%, Tahiti 64%, Sumba 57%, Māori 43%, Tonga 34%, East Futuna 30%, Maewo 23%, Moluccas 15%-28%, Fiji 22%, Asmat 20%, New Guinea coast 14%-23%, Flores 17%, Tuvalu 17%, Tolai 12.5%-21%, Nusa Tenggara 16%, Admiralty Islands 16%, West Sulawesi 12.5%|
|Possible time of origin||11,900 ± 4,800 years before present|
|Possible place of origin||Probably Central Asia or Siberia|
|Defining mutations||M217, P44, PK2|
|Highest frequencies||Oroqen 61%-91%, Evens 5%-74%, Evenks 44%-71%, Buryats 60%-84%, Mongolians 52%-54%, Tanana 42%, Kazakhs 40%, Hazaras 40%, Nivkhs 38%, Koryaks 33%, Daur 31%, Yukaghir 31%, Sibe 27%, Manchu 26%-27%, Altai 22%-24%, Hezhe 22%, Uzbeks 20%, Tujia 18%, Hani 18%, Cheyenne 16%, Apache 15%, Tuvans 15%, Ainu 12.5%-25%, Koreans 12%-16%,18% Hui 11%, Sioux 11%, Han Chinese 5%-20%|
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup C-M130 subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research.
C*-M130 The paragroup is found with low frequency in Asia and Oceania Patrilines that belong to Haplogroup C-M130 but did not belong to any of its subgroups that were identified at the time of the testing are labeled as Haplogroup C*, which are found at low frequencies along the southern coast of Asia from India to Vietnam and into the interior of Yunnan province in southwestern China, Indonesia, and Micronesia. Haplogroup C* Y-chromosomes have also been detected, but only at even lower frequencies, among populations of coastal New Guinea and island Melanesia; this suggests that, within Oceania, Haplogroup C* is associated with populations of Austronesian cultural affiliation, despite the fact that the derived haplogroup C4 is predominant among the indigenous inhabitants of Australia. Several examples of Haplogroup C*, which appear to be closely related to a scatter of modern South Asian C* haplotypes, have also been found at vanishingly low frequency among the Turkic peoples of Central Asia. Some researchers have also reported finding a Haplogroup C-RPS4Y Y-chromosome in a Lebanese man with a sample size of only 31 individuals (i.e., 1/31 or approximately 3.2%), but it is not clear whether this was really a C* chromosome, in which case descent from a South Asian immigrant might be indicated, or whether it belonged to an identified subclade of Haplogroup C, such as C-M217, which would make it more likely that this particular Lebanese man descended from a Turco-Mongol or Turk invader. 1 person in Southeast Asia was found to lack M216.
- C-M8 Found with low frequency in Japan
C-M217 -Found with high frequency in Buryats, Daurs, Hazaras, Itelmens, Kalmyks, Koryaks, Manchus, Mongolians, Oroqens, and Sibes, with a moderate distribution among other Tungusic peoples, Koreans, Ainus, Nivkhs, Altaians, Tuvinians, Uzbeks, Han Chinese, Tujia, Hani, and Hui
- C-MP39 Found in several indigenous peoples of North America, including some Na-Dené-, Algonquian-, or Siouan-speaking populations
- C-M48 Found with high frequency in Northern Tungusic peoples, Kazakhs, Oirats, Kalmyks, Outer Mongolians, Yukaghirs, Nivkhs, Koryaks, Itelmens, and Udegeys, with a moderate distribution among other Southern Tungusic peoples, Inner Mongolians, Buryats, Tuvinians, Yakuts, Chukchi, Kyrgyz, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, and Tajiks
- C-M407 Found with low frequency in Bai, Cambodian, Han Chinese, Manchu, Tujia, Uyghur, and Yakut populations
- C-P53.1 Found in about 10% of Xinjiang Sibe and with low frequency in Inner Mongolian Mongol and Evenk, Ningxia Hui, Xizang Tibetan, Xinjiang Uyghur, and Gansu Han
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.
- African admixture in Europe
- genetic genealogy
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- molecular phylogeny
- Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups
- Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of East and Southeast Asia
- Y-DNA haplogroups in Oceanian populations
Y-DNA C Subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
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- Gayden, Tenzin, Cadenas, Alicia M., Regueiro, Maria, Singh, NB, Zhivotovsky, LA, Underhill, PA, Cavalli-Sforza, LL, Herrera, RJ (2007). "The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow". American Journal of Human Genetics 80 (5): 884–894. doi:10.1086/516757. PMC 1852741. PMID 17436243.
- Simona Fornarino, Maria Pala, Vincenza Battaglia et al., Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation, BMC Evolutionary Biology (2009), 9:154 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154 PMID 19573232
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- Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; Gonz�lez, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955. PMID 19772609.
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- Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- Stefano Mona, Katharina E. Grunz, Silke Brauer et al. (2009), "Genetic Admixture History of Eastern Indonesia as Revealed by Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis." Mol. Biol. Evol. 26(8):1865–1877. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp097
- Karafet Tatiana M., Hallmark Brian, Cox Murray P. et al. (2010). "Major East–West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification across Indonesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 27 (8): 1833–1844. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq063. PMID 20207712.
- Tajima, Atsushi, Hayami, Masanori, Tokunaga, Katsushi, Juji, T, Matsuo, M, Marzuki, S, Omoto, K, Horai, S (2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human Genetics 49 (4): 187–193. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. PMID 14997363.
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- Kayser M, Brauer S, Weiss G, et al. (February 2003). "Reduced Y-chromosome, but not mitochondrial DNA, diversity in human populations from West New Guinea". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72 (2): 281–302. doi:10.1086/346065. PMC 379223. PMID 12532283.
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- Kayser M, Choi Y, van Oven M, et al. (July 2008). "The impact of the Austronesian expansion: evidence from mtDNA and Y chromosome diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 25 (7): 1362–74. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn078. PMID 18390477.
- Cox MP, Redd AJ, Karafet TM, et al. (October 2007). "A Polynesian motif on the Y chromosome: population structure in remote Oceania". Hum. Biol. 79 (5): 525–35. PMID 18478968.
- Underhill PA, Passarino G, Lin AA, et al. (April 2001). "Maori origins, Y-chromosome haplotypes and implications for human history in the Pacific". Hum. Mutat. 17 (4): 271–80. doi:10.1002/humu.23. PMID 11295824.
- Tatiana M. Karafet, Ludmila P. Osipova, Marina A. Gubina et al., High Levels of Y-Chromosome Differentiation among Native Siberian Populations and the Genetic Signature of a Boreal Hunter-Gatherer Way of Life, Human Biology, December 2002, v. 74, no. 6, pp. 761–789.
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|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|