Haplogroup D-M15

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Haplogroup D-M15
Possible time of origin
Possible place of origin
Ancestor D-M174
Descendants D1a
Defining mutations M15

In human genetics, Haplogroup D-M15 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup D-M15 is a descendant branch of the greater Haplogroup D-M174.

Its phylogenetically closest relatives are found among the peoples of Japan, Central Asia, and the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. It is more distantly related to the Haplogroup E-M96, whose sub-clades are common throughout Africa, West Asia, and Europe.

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup D-M15 is widely distributed throughout populations that dwell to the northwest, north, northeast, east, and southeast of the Himalaya. It is not found among the populations of India to the south and southwest. The distribution of Haplogroup D1 in Southeast Asia is also very limited, as it is found there only at low frequency and only among populations that speak Tibeto-Burman or Miao–Yao languages, which have ancestral ties to the north.

The distribution of Haplogroup D-M15 is much more regular in the north, as it is found among nearly all the populations of Central Asia and Northeast Asia south of the Russian border, although generally at a low frequency of 2% or less. A dramatic spike in the frequency of Haplogroup D-M15 occurs as one approaches the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of western China: among some local populations in Qinghai, it has been found to reach as high as 100%. Its frequency gradually fades as one travels south through the territory of the Tibetan peoples, as Haplogroup O3, which is the most common haplogroup among the Han Chinese and also generally found among Southeast Asian populations, becomes dominant. Haplogroup D-M15 continues to occur at an overall very low frequency among the Han people to the east; however, there are some indications that the frequency of D-M15 among the Hans may vary significantly between localities. A secondary, minor spike in the frequency of Haplogroup D-M15 occurs again in Korea, where it may reach as high as 5% to 8%; this somewhat heightened frequency does not stretch into Manchuria to the north or Japan to the east, which may corroborate historical accounts of immigration from the country of Qin in the far west of ancient China to the country of Jinhan, which is believed to have been located somewhere in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. Ancient Chinese historians are known for their habit of drawing what often seem to be forced connections between contemporary peoples and putative ancestors of misty antiquity, and the comments about immigration from Qin to Jinhan might have been motivated by the similarity that the ancient central Chinese perceived between the languages of Qin and Jinhan. Nevertheless, on this occasion the genetic evidence seems to provide the story with some independent corroboration.

As for the ultimate origin of Haplogroup D-M15, one can only speculate that it might share a recent common ancestor with other members of the greater D-M174 lineage who have not tested as part of another branch. Such are found at a low frequency among modern populations of Central Asia.

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
D-M174 * * * * * * * * D D D D D D D D D D
D-M15 4 IV 3G 12 Eu5 H3 B D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1 D1
D-M55 * * * * * * * * D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2 D2
D-P12 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2a D2a D2a1a1 D2a1a1 D2 D2 D2a1a1 D2a1a1 D2a1a1 removed removed
D-M116.1 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2b* D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a D2a removed removed
D-M125 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2b1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1 D2a1
D-M151 4 IV 3G 11 Eu5 H2 B D2b2 D2a1 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2 D2a2

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup D-M174 subclades is based on the ISOGG 2010 tree.[1]

  • DE
    • D (M174, IMS-JST021355, Page3)
      • D1 (M15)
        • D1a (N1)
          • D1a1 (N2)
      • D2 (M55, M57, M64.1, M179, P37.1, P41.1, P190, 12f2b)
        • D2a (M116.1)
          • D2a1 (M125)
            • D2a1a (P42)
              • D2a1a1 (P12)
            • D2a1b (IMS-JST022457)
              • D2a1b1 (P53.2)
          • D2a2 (M151)
          • D2a3 (P120)
      • D3 (P99)
        • D3a (P47)

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA D subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]