|Possible time of origin||50,000 - 60,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Asia|
|Descendants||D-M15, D-M55, D-P99|
|Defining mutations||M174, IMS-JST021355, PAGES00003|
In human genetics, Haplogroup D-M174 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. Both D-M174 and E lineages also exhibit the single-nucleotide polymorphism M168 which is present in all Y-chromosome haplogroups except A and B, as well as the YAP unique-event polymorphism, which is unique to Haplogroup DE.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Overview
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Phylogenetics
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Haplogroup D-M174 is believed to have originated in Asia some 60,000 years before present. While haplogroup D-M174 along with haplogroup E contains the distinctive YAP polymorphism (which indicates their common ancestry), no haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes have been found anywhere outside of Asia.
It is found today at high frequency among populations in Tibet, the Japanese archipelago, and the Andaman Islands, though curiously not in India. The Ainu of Japan are notable for possessing almost exclusively Haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes, although Haplogroup C-M217 chromosomes also have been found in 15% (3/20) of sampled Ainu males. Haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes are also found at low to moderate frequencies among populations of Central Asia and northern East Asia as well as the Han and Miao–Yao peoples of China and among several minority populations of Sichuan and Yunnan that speak Tibeto-Burman languages and reside in close proximity to the Tibetans.
Unlike haplogroup C-M217, Haplogroup D-M174 is not found in the New World; it is not present in any modern Native American (North, Central or South) populations. While it is possible that it traveled to the New World like Haplogroup C-M217, those lineages apparently became extinct.
Haplogroup D-M174 is also remarkable for its rather extreme geographic differentiation, with a distinct subset of Haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes being found exclusively in each of the populations that contains a large percentage of individuals whose Y-chromosomes belong to Haplogroup D-M174: Haplogroup D-M15 among the Tibetans (as well as among the mainland East Asian populations that display very low frequencies of Haplogroup D-M174 Y-chromosomes), Haplogroup D-M55 among the various populations of the Japanese Archipelago, Haplogroup D-P99 among the inhabitants of Tibet, Tajikistan and other parts of mountainous southern Central Asia, and paragroup D-M174 without tested positive subclades (probably another monophyletic branch of Haplogroup D) among the Andaman Islanders. Another type (or types) of paragroup D-M174 without tested positive subclades is found at a very low frequency among the Turkic and Mongolic populations of Central Asia, amounting to no more than 1% in total. This apparently ancient diversification of Haplogroup D-M174 suggests that it may perhaps be better characterized as a "super-haplogroup" or "macro-haplogroup." In one study, the frequency of Haplogroup D-M174 without tested positive subclades found among Thais was 10%.
The Haplogroup D-M174 Y-chromosomes that are found among populations of the Japanese Archipelago (haplogroup D-M55 a.k.a. haplogroup D2) are particularly distinctive, bearing a complex of at least five individual mutations along an internal branch of the Haplogroup D-M174 phylogeny, thus distinguishing them clearly from the Haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes that are found among the Tibetans and Andaman Islanders and providing evidence that Y-chromosome Haplogroup D-M5 was the modal haplogroup in the ancestral population that developed the prehistoric Jōmon culture in the Japanese islands.
D-M174 (without positive-tested subclades)
This paragroup is found with high frequency among Andaman Islanders and 0%-65% in Northeast India Tibetan tribes. D-M174(xD-M15, D-P37, D-P47) has been found in approximately 5% of Altayans. Kharkov et al. have found haplogroup D-M174(xD-M15) in 6.3% (6/96) of a pool of samples of Southern Altaians from three different localities, particularly in Kulada (5/46 = 10.9%) and Kosh-Agach (1/7 = 14%), though they have not tested for any marker of the subclade D-M55 or D-P99. Kharkov et al. also have reported finding haplogroup DE-M1(xD-M174) Y-DNA in one Southern Altaian individual from Beshpeltir (1/43 = 2.3%).
D-M15 was first reported to have been found in a sample from Cambodia and Laos (1/18 = 5.6%) and in a sample from Japan (1/23 = 4.3%) in a preliminary worldwide survey of Y-DNA variation in extant human populations.
Subsequently, Y-DNA that belongs to Haplogroup D-M15 has been found frequently among Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations of Southwestern China (including approximately 23% of Qiang, approximately 12.5% of Tibetans, and approximately 9% of Yi) and among Yao people inhabiting northeastern Guangxi (6/31 = 19.4% Lowland Yao, 5/41 = 12.2% Native Mien, 3/41 = 7.3% Lowland Kimmun) with a moderate distribution throughout Central Asia, East Asia, and continental Southeast Asia (Indochina).
Found with high frequency among Ainu, Japanese, and Ryukyuans. Also found with low frequency (approx. 2%) among Koreans and sporadically among Han Chinese, Micronesians, and Timorese.
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Latter, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup D-M174 subclades is based on the ISOGG 2014 tree(ver.9.72).
- D (M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355)
- D* - Jarawa (Andaman Islands),
- D1 (CTS11577)
- D1a (M15) - Mostly in Tibet and other parts of Southwest China and South Central China, but also lightly distributed throughout East Asia and Indochina
- D1a1 (N1)
- D1b (M55, M57, M64.1/Page44.1, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2) - Japanese archipelago
- D1b1 (M116.1)
- D1b1a (M125)
- D1b1a1 (P42)
- D1b1a1a (P12_1, P12_2, P12_3)
- D1b1a2 (IMS-JST022457)
- D1b1a2a (P53.2)
- D1b1a2b (IMS-JST006841/Page3)
- D1b1a2b1 (CTS3397)
- D1b1a2b1a (Z1500)
- D1b1a2b1a1 (Z1504)
- D1b1a2b1a1a (CTS5406)
- D1b1b (M151)
- D1b1c (P120)
- D1b1d (CTS6609)
- D1b1d1 (CTS1897/Z1574)
- D1b1d1a (CTS218/Z1527, IMS-JST022456)
- D1b1d1a1 (CTS6909)
- D1b1d1b (CTS1964)
- D1b2 (CTS583/Z1516)
- D1b2a (CTS220)
- D1b2a1 (CTS10495)
- D1b2a2 (CTS11285)
- D1c (P99) - Altai Mountains, Tibet
- D2 (L1366, L1378, M226.2) - Philippines
- D (M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355)
Y-DNA D subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
|L||T||MPS (K2b)||X (K2a)|
- "Y-DNA Haplogroup D-M174 and its Subclades - 2014".
- Shi H, Zhong H, Peng Y et al. (2008). "Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations". BMC Biol. 6: 45. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-45. PMC 2605740. PMID 18959782.
- Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274.
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- Kharkov, V. N.; Stepanov, V. A.; Medvedeva, O. F.; Spiridonova, M. G.; Voevoda, M. I.; Tadinova, V. N.; Puzyrev, V. P. (2007). "Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups". Russian Journal of Genetics 43 (5): 551. doi:10.1134/S1022795407050110.
- Peter A. Underhill, Peidong Shen, Alice A. Lin et al., "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations," Nature Genetics • Volume 26 • November 2000
- Xue, Y.; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S et al. (2005). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics 172 (4): 2431–9. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223.
- Wang, Chuan-Chao, Ling-Xiang Wang, Rukesh Shrestha, Manfei Zhang, Xiu-Yuan Huang, Kang Hu, Li Jin, and Hui Li. "Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor." PloS one,2014 9(8): e103772.
- Wen Bo, Xie Xuanhua, Gao Song et al. "Analyses of Genetic Structure of Tibeto-Burman Populations Reveals Sex-Biased Admixture in Southern Tibeto-Burmans". American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (856–865): 2004. doi:10.1086/386292.
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- Lan, Hai (2008). "Distribution of Y chromosome Haplogroup D in East Asia and its Anthropological Implications". COMMUNICATION on CONTEMPORARY ANTHROPOLOGY 02. doi:10.4236/coca.2008.21011.[dead link]
- Di Cristofaro J, Pennarun E, Mazières S, Myres NM, Lin AA, et al. (2013) "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge." PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748
- Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2014
- Underhill PA, Kivisild T (2007). "Use of y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA population structure in tracing human migrations". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41: 539–64. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407. PMID 18076332.
- Atlas of the Human Journey: Genetic Markers, Haplogroup D-M174 (M174), from The Genographic Project at National Geographic