Haplogroup D (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup D

Peopling of eurasia.jpg

Possible time of origin 40,000 - 60,000 YBP
Possible place of origin East Asia
Ancestor M
Descendants D4, 16189
Defining mutations 4883 5178A 16362[1]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Origin[edit]

Haplogroup D is believed to have arisen in Asia some 48,000 years before present.[2] It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup M.

Distribution[edit]

It is found in Northeast Asia (including Siberia).[3] Its subclade D1 (along with D2, D3, and D4h3a) is one of five haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the others being A, B, C, and X.

Haplogroup D is also found quite frequently in Central Asia,[4] where it makes up the second most common mtDNA clade (after H). Haplogroup D also appears at a low frequency in eastern Europe and southwestern Asia.

Subclades[edit]

There are two principal branches, D4 and D5'6. D1 is a basal branch of D4 that is widespread and diverse in the Americas. D2, which occurs with high frequency in some arctic and subarctic populations (especially Aleuts), is a subclade of D4e1 parallel to D4e1a and D4e1c, so it properly should be termed D4e1b. D3, which has been found mainly in some Siberian populations and in Inuit of Canada and Greenland,[5] is a branch of D4b1c.

Table of Frequencies of MtDNA Haplogroup D[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source Subtypes
Aleut (Commander Islands) 1.000 36 Volodko 2008 D2a1a=36
Orok (Sakhalin) 0.689 61 Bermisheva 2005 D(xD5)=41, D5=1
Aleut (Aleutian Islands) 0.656 163 Volodko 2008 D2a1a=107
Tibetan (Deqin, Yunnan) 0.550 40 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=20, D5(xD5a)=2
Northern Paiute/Shoshoni 0.479 94 Malhi 2003 D=45
Uyghur (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.438 16 Comas 2004 D(xD4c)=5, D4c=2
Oroqen (Oroqen Autonomous Banner) 0.432 44 Kong 2003 D(xD5)=14, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Japanese (Hokkaidō) 0.415 217 Asari 2007 D4a=24, D4b=21, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=21, D4e=11, D5=10, D4g=2, D4j=1
Japanese (northern Kyūshū) 0.414 256 Umetsu 2005 D4b=26, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=24, D4a=19, D4e=16, D5=10, D4g(xD4g1)=8, D4j=3
Japanese 0.412 211 Maruyama 2003 D4(xD4b)=75, D5(xD5a)=10, D5a=1, D4b=1
Japanese (Tōkai) 0.411 282 Umetsu 2005 D4b=34, D4a=26, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=24, D5=14, D4e=13, D4j=3, D4g(xD4g1)=2
Northern Paiute 0.408 98 Malhi 2004 D=40
Japanese (Tōhoku) 0.399 336 Umetsu 2005 D4a=31, D4b=30, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=29, D4e=17, D4g(xD4g1)=11, D5=10, D4j=4, D4g1=2
Korean (South Korea) 0.398 103 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=33, D5=8
Mongol (New Barag Left Banner) 0.396 48 Kong 2003 D(xD5)=16, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=1
Dolgan (Anabarsky, Volochanka, Ust-Avam, and Dudinka) 0.390 154 Fedorova 2013 D4l2=35, D3=8, D4e4a1=5, D4b1(xD3)=4, D4i2=2, D4j2=2, D4a=1, D2b1=1, D4m2=1, D5a2a2=1
Okinawa 0.383 326 Umetsu 2005 D4a=28, D4b=23, D4e=21, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=18, D4j=12, D4g(xD4g1)=12, D5=7, D4g1=4
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.375 24 Ji 2012 D=9
Korean (South Korea) 0.364 261 Kim 2008 D4(xD4a, D4b)=36, D4b=20, D4a=18, D5=14, D(xD4, D5)=7
Japanese (Tokyo) 0.356 118 Zheng 2011 D4=39, D5=3
Barghut (Hulunbuir) 0.356 149 Derenko 2012 D4(xD2, D3)=47, D2=3, D3=2, D5=1
Buryat (Buryatia) 0.349 295 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=86?, D5=8, D3=7, D2=2
Buryat 0.348 419 Derenko 2010 D4(xD2)=134, D5=9, D2=3
Korean (South Korea) 0.340 203 Umetsu 2005 D5=15, D4b=14, D4a=10, D4j=9, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=8, D4e=7, D4g(xD4g1)=6
Khamnigan (Buryatia) 0.333 99 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=25, D3=5, D5=2, D2=1
Korean (northern China) 0.333 51 Jin 2009 D4(xD4a, D4b)=11, D4a=3, D5(xD5a)=2, D(xD4, D5)=1
Korean (Arun Banner) 0.333 48 Kong 2003 D(xD5)=11, D5(xD5a)=5
Yakut (vicinity of Yakutsk) 0.329 164 Fedorova 2013 D5a2a2=28, D4i2=9, D4c2=5, D4o2=4, D4j5=3, D4b1(xD3)=2, D4a=1, D4j8=1, D4l2=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.324 185 Jin 2009 D4(xD4a, D4b)=44, D5(xD5a)=6, D5a=3, D4a=3, D4b=3, D(xD4, D5)=1
Yi (Luxi, Yunnan) 0.323 31 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=8, D5(xD5a)=2
Evenk (New Barag Left Banner) 0.319 47 Kong 2003 D(xD5)=12, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=1
Evenk (Krasnoyarsk) 0.301 73 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=13, D5=5, D3=4
Han (Beijing) 0.300 40 Jin 2009 D4(xD4a, D4b)=5, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2, D4a=2
Japanese (Miyazaki) 0.300 100 Uchiyama 2007 D4(xD4a,D4b1,D4b2b)=16, D4a=5, D4b2b=3, D5a(xD5a2)=3, D4b1=1, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a2=1
Turkmen (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.300 20 Comas 2004 D4c=5, D(xD4c)=1
Yakut 0.299 117 Kong 2003 D(xD5)=17, D5a=17, D5(xD5a)=1
Yakut (Vilyuy River basin) 0.297 111 Fedorova 2013 D5a2a2=20, D4i2=4, D4c2=2, D2b1=2, D4b1(xD3)=1, D4e4a(xD4e4a1)=1, D4j2=1, D4j4a=1, D4o2=1
Iu Mien (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.296 27 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=7, D5(xD5a)=1
Han (Southwest China; pool of 44 Sichuan, 34 Chongqing, 33 Yunnan, and 26 Guizhou) 0.292 137 Ji 2012 D4(xD4a)=29, D5a=6, D4a=5
Nganasan 0.292 24 Starikovskaya 2005 D3=4, D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=3
Kalmyk (Kalmykia) 0.291 110 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=24, D5=6, D2=2
Nivkh (northern Sakhalin) 0.286 56 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=16
Tibetan (Nagchu, Tibet) 0.286 35 Ji 2012 D=10
Evenk (Ust-Maysky, Oleneksky, and Zhigansky) 0.280 125 Fedorova 2013 D5a2a2=10, D4l2=8, D2b1=3, D4b1(xD3)=2, D3=2, D4c2=2, D4e4a1=2, D4j4a=2, D4j5=2, D4j8=1, D4o2=1
Chinese (Shenyang, Liaoning) 0.275 160 Umetsu 2005 D5=16, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=6, D4b=5, D4e=5, D4g(xD4g1)=5, D4j=4, D6=2, D4a=1
Hani (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.273 33 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=6, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=1
Lahu (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.267 15 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=4
Kazakh (Kosh-Agach, Altai Republic) 0.265 98 Derenko 2012 D4(xD2, D3)=22, D5=4
Yakut (northern Yakutia) 0.257 148 Fedorova 2013 D5a2a2=9, D4e4a(xD4e4a1)=6, D4j2=5, D4l2=4, D4i2=3, D5b1d=3, D4c2=2, D4j5=2, D3=1, D2b1=1, D4m2=1, D4o2=1
Nganasan (Ust-Avam, Volochanka, and Novaya) 0.256 39 Volodko 2008 D3a1=7, D6=2, D4a=1
Han (Xinjiang) 0.255 47 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=9, D5a=2, D5(xD5a)=1
Kyrgyz (Sary-Tash) 0.255 47 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=12
Nuu-Chah-Nulth 0.255 102 Malhi 2004 D=26
Han (southern California) 0.254 390 Ji 2012 D(xD4a, D5)=53, D5=28, D4a=18
Manchurian 0.250 40 Jin 2009 D4(xD4a, D4b)=8, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Even (Eveno-Bytantaysky & Momsky) 0.248 105 Fedorova 2013 D4c2=5, D4l2=5, D4i2=3, D4j5=3, D5a2a2=3, D4m2=2, D4a=1, D3=1, D2b1=1, D4j4(xD4j4a)=1, D4o2=1
Teleut (Kemerovo) 0.245 53 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=12, D5=1
Daur (Evenk Autonomous Banner) 0.244 45 Kong 2003 D(xD5)=7, D5(xD5a)=2, D5a=2
Evenk (Buryatia) 0.244 45 Derenko 2007 D3=6, D4(xD2, D3)=4, D2=1
Han (Taiwan) 0.243 1117 Ji 2012 D=271
Negidal 0.242 33 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=8
Aini (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.240 50 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=7, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Ainu 0.235 51 Sato 2009 D(xD5,D6)=8, D5=4
Taiwanese (Taipei, Taiwan) 0.231 91 Umetsu 2005 D5=11, D4a=5, D4b=2, D4(xD4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4j)=2, D4g(xD4g1)=1
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.226 31 Li 2007 D(xD4b, D5)=6, D4b=1
Uzbek (Xinjiang) 0.224 58 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=11, D5(xD5a)=2
Yakut (Yakutia) 0.222 36 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=5, D2=1, D3=1, D5=1
Yukaghir (Upper Kolyma) 0.222 18 Volodko 2008 D5a1=3, D6=1
Tujia (western Hunan) 0.219 64 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=9, D5a=4, D5(xD5a)=1
Ulchi 0.218 87 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=13, D1a=4, D3=2
Han (Beijing Normal University) 0.215 121 Zheng 2011 D4=15, D5=11
Vietnamese 0.214 42 Jin 2009 D4(xD4a, D4b)=7, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Evenk (53 Stony Tunguska basin & 18 Tugur-Chumikan) 0.211 71 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=13, D3=1, D5=1
Telengit (Altai Republic) 0.211 71 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=15
Guoshan Yao (Jianghua, Hunan) 0.208 24 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=4, D5(xD5a)=1
Tibetan (Chamdo, Tibet) 0.207 29 Ji 2012 D4(xD4a)=3, D5a=2, D4a=1
Tibetan (Shigatse, Tibet) 0.207 29 Ji 2012 D4(xD4a)=4, D5a=2
Oirat Mongol (Xinjiang) 0.204 49 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=9, D5(xD5a)=1
Siberian Eskimos 0.203 79 Starikovskaya 2005 D2=12, D3=4 (4/8 Naukan, 7/25 Sireniki, 5/46 Chaplin)
Karakalpak (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.200 20 Comas 2004 D(xD4c)=4
Kyrgyz (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.200 20 Comas 2004 D(xD4c)=4
Nu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.200 30 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=6
Buryat 0.198 126 Kong 2003 D(xD5)=20, D5a=3, D5(xD5a)=2
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.196 102 Liu 2011 D(xD5)=15, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Tubalar 0.194 72 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=10, D5=3, D3=1
Hmong (Jishou, Hunan) 0.194 103 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=15, D5(xD5a)=3, D5a=2
Bai (Dali, Yunnan) 0.191 68 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=9, D5(xD5a)=4
Mansi 0.190 63 Pimenoff 2008 D=12
Lowland Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.190 42 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=7, D5a=1
Yi (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.188 16 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=3
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.185 54 Ji 2012 D4(xD4a)=9, D5a=1
Kazakh (Kazakhstan) 0.182 55 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=9, D5(xD5a)=1
Hmong (Wenshan, Yunnan) 0.179 39 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=6, D5(xD5a)=1
Han (Denver) 0.178 73 Zheng 2011 D4=10, D5=3
Yukaghir (Lower Kolyma-Indigirka) 0.171 82 Volodko 2008 D9=4, D8=2, D7=2, D5a1=2, D3a1=2, D3a2=1, D2(xD2a1a)=1
Pumi (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.167 36 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=6
Tujia (Yongshun, Hunan) 0.167 30 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=3, D5(xD5a)=2
Yakama 0.167 42 Malhi 2004 D=7
Han (Hunan & Fujian) 0.164 55 Zheng 2011 D4=6, D5=2, D6=1
Uyghur (Kazakhstan) 0.164 55 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=9
Khanty 0.160 106 Pimenoff 2008 D=17
Buryat (Kushun, Nizhneudinsk, Irkutsk) 0.160 25 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=4
Bai (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.158 19 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=3
Khakassians (Khakassia) 0.158 57 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=9
Mien (Shangsi, Guangxi) 0.156 32 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=5
Hui (Xinjiang) 0.156 45 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=6, D5a=1
Tuvinian (Tuva) 0.152 105 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=9, D2=3, D5=3, D3=1
Nogai (Daghestan) 0.152 33 Marchani 2008 D=5
Kim Mun (Malipo, Yunnan) 0.150 40 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=6
Tajik (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.150 20 Comas 2004 D4c=2, D(xD4c)=1
Yi (Shuangbai, Yunnan) 0.150 40 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=4, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Yi (Hezhang County, Guizhou) 0.150 20 Li 2007 D(xD4b, D5)=3
Kyrgyz (Talas) 0.146 48 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=7
Bella Coola 0.143 84 Malhi 2004 D=12
Lahu (Lancang, Yunnan) 0.143 35 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=5
Tuvan 0.137 95 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=9, D3=3, D5=1
Tibetan (Lhasa, Tibet) 0.136 44 Ji 2012 D4(xD4a)=5, D5a=1
Yukaghir (Verkhnekolymsky & Nizhnekolymsky) 0.136 22 Fedorova 2013 D4j5=1, D4l2=1, D5a2a2=1
Chukchi (Anadyr) 0.133 15 Derenko 2007 D2=2
Kazakh (Xinjiang) 0.132 53 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=7
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.128 47 Jin 2009 D4(xD4a, D4b)=5, D4b=1
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.127 55 Ji 2012 D4(xD4a)=5, D4a=1, D5a=1
Shor (Kemerovo) 0.122 82 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=9, D5=1
Chukchi 0.121 66 Starikovskaya 2005 D2=7, D3=1
Bunu (19 Bu Nu from Dahua & 6 Mu Bin from Tianlin) 0.120 25 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=2, D5a=1
Kurd (northwestern Iran) 0.120 25 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=3
Udmurt (Malo-Purginsky & Tatyshlinsky) 0.119 101 Bermisheva 2002 D=12
Karelian (Viena) 0.115 87 Lappalainen 2008 D5=10
Sulawesi (89 Manado, 64 Toraja, 46 Ujung Padang, & 38 Palu) 0.110 237 Hill 2007 D5=20, D(xD5)=6
Han (Taiwanese) 0.108 111 Chen 2013 D4a=2, D5b1=2, D4b1b=1, D4b2b5=1, D4g2=1, D4j1a(xD4j1a1)=1, D4j6=1, D5(xD5a2a1, D5b)=1, D5a2a1=1, D5b(xD5b1)=1
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.106 47 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=5
Uyghur (Xinjiang) 0.106 47 Yao 2004 D(xD5)=3, D5(xD5a)=1, D5a=1
Kazakh (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.100 20 Comas 2004 D4c=1, D(xD4c)=1
Tharu (Morang, Nepal) 0.100 40 Fornarino 2009 D4e1a=2, D4(xD4e1a, D4j)=2
Tatar (Aznakayevo) 0.099 71 Malyarchuk 2010 D=7
Chuvantsi (Markovo, Chukotka) 0.094 32 Volodko 2008 D3a2a=2, D2a1a=1
Lahu (Simao, Yunnan) 0.094 32 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=2, D5(xD5a)=1
Bashkir (Beloretsky, Sterlibashevsky, Ilishevsky, & Perm) 0.090 221 Bermisheva 2002 D=20
Tharu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.090 133 Fornarino 2009 D4(xD4e1a, D4j)=7, D4j=5
Altay Kizhi 0.089 90 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=6, D3=2
Tibetan (Zhongdian, Yunnan) 0.086 35 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=3
Mansi 0.082 98 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=6, D3=1, D5=1
Lisu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.081 37 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=3
Lanten Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.077 26 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=1, D5(xD5a)=1
Thai 0.075 40 Jin 2009 D(xD4, D5)=2, D4(xD4a, D4b)=1
Uzbek (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.075 40 Comas 2004 D(xD4c)=3
Tu Yao (Hezhou, Guangxi) 0.073 41 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=3
Dong (Tianzhu County, Guizhou) 0.071 28 Li 2007 D(xD4b, D5)=2
Tibetan (Qinghai) 0.071 56 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=4
Ambon 0.070 43 Hill 2007 D(xD5)=2, D5=1
Tujia (Yanhe County, Guizhou) 0.069 29 Li 2007 D5=1, D(xD4b, D5)=1
Tajik (Tajikistan) 0.068 44 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=2, D5=1
Dungan (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.063 16 Comas 2004 D(xD4c)=1
Bapai Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.057 35 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=2
Jino (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.056 18 Wen 2004 D5(xD5a)=1
Komi-Permyak (Komi-Permyak Autonomous District) 0.054 74 Bermisheva 2002 D=4
Taono O'odham 0.054 37 Malhi 2003 D=2
Taiwan aborigines 0.053 640 Peng 2011 D5'6=26, D4=8
Apache 0.053 38 Malhi 2003 D=2
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.053 19 Ji 2012 D=1
Huatou Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.053 19 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=1
Li (Hainan) 0.052 346 Peng 2011 D5'6=13, D4=5
Borneo (89 Banjarmasin & 68 Kota Kinabalu) 0.051 157 Hill 2007 D5=7, D(xD5)=1
Iranian (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 D(xD4c)=1
Karelian (Tver) 0.049 61 Lappalainen 2008 D5=2, D(xD5)=1
Tatar (Buinsk) 0.048 126 Malyarchuk 2010 D=6
Thailand 0.048 105 Kaewsutthi 2011 D=5
Naxi (Lijiang, Yunnan) 0.044 45 Wen 2004 D(xD5)=2
Hindu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.042 24 Fornarino 2009 D4(xD4e1a, D4j)=1
Chuvash (Morgaushsky) 0.036 55 Bermisheva 2002 D=2
Cun (Hainan) 0.033 30 Peng 2011 D4=1
Wuzhou Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.032 31 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=1
Filipino 0.031 64 Tabbada 2010 D5b=1, D6=1
Pan Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.031 32 Wen 2005 D(xD5)=1
Filipino (Mindanao) 0.029 70 Tabbada 2010 D6=2
Karelian (Aunus) 0.028 218 Lappalainen 2008 D5=6
Ket 0.026 38 Starikovskaya 2005 D(xD1a, D2, D3, D5)=1
Tatar (Almetyevsky & Yelabuzhsky) 0.026 228 Bermisheva 2002 D=6
Persian (eastern Iran) 0.024 82 Derenko 2007 D4(xD2, D3)=1, D5=1
Lombok (Mataram) 0.023 44 Hill 2007 D5=1
Filipino (Luzon) 0.023 177 Tabbada 2010 D6=2, D5b=1, D(xD5b, D6)=1
Alor 0.022 45 Hill 2007 D(xD5)=1
Cham (Bình Thuận, Vietnam) 0.018 168 Peng 2010 D4=3
Mari (Zvenigovsky) 0.015 136 Bermisheva 2002 D=2
Koryak 0.013 155 Starikovskaya 2005 D3=2
Bali 0.012 82 Hill 2007 D5=1
Mordvinian (Staroshaygovsky) 0.010 102 Bermisheva 2002 D=1
Filipino (Visayas) 0.009 112 Tabbada 2010 D6=1
Kiliwa 0.000 7 Malhi 2003 -
Seri 0.000 8 Malhi 2003 -
Dingban Yao (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.000 10 Wen 2005 -
Xiban Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.000 11 Wen 2005 -
Cochimí 0.000 13 Malhi 2003 -
Filipino (Palawan) 0.000 20 Scholes 2011 -
River Yuman 0.000 22 Malhi 2003 -
Delta Yuman 0.000 23 Malhi 2003 -
Tibetan (Diqing, Yunnan) 0.000 24 Wen 2004 -
Zuni 0.000 26 Malhi 2003 -
Pai Yuman 0.000 27 Malhi 2003 -
Batek (Malaysia) 0.000 29 Hill 2006 -
Batak (Palawan) 0.000 31 Scholes 2011 -
Lingao (Hainan) 0.000 31 Peng 2011 -
Nahua 0.000 31 Malhi 2003 -
Mendriq (Malaysia) 0.000 32 Hill 2006 -
Temuan (Malaysia) 0.000 33 Hill 2006 -
Jemez 0.000 36 Malhi 2003 -
Akimal O’odham 0.000 43 Malhi 2003 -
Java (incl. 36 from Tengger) 0.000 46 Hill 2007 -
Tofalar 0.000 46 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Udegey 0.000 46 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Itelmen 0.000 47 Starikovskaya 2005 -
Sumba (Waingapu) 0.000 50 Hill 2007 -
Jahai (Malaysia) 0.000 51 Hill 2006 -
Senoi (51 Temiar & 1 Semai, Malaysia) 0.000 52 Hill 2006 -
Filipino 0.000 61 Hill 2007 -
Semelai (Malaysia) 0.000 61 Hill 2006 -
Komi-Zyryan (Sysolsky) 0.000 62 Bermisheva 2002 -
Navajo 0.000 64 Malhi 2003 -
Sumatra 0.000 180 Hill 2007 -

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup D subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

  • D
    • D4
      • D1
        • D1a
        • D1b
        • D1c
        • D1d
      • D4a
        • D4a1
          • D4a1a
          • D4a1b
          • D4a1c
        • D4a2
          • D4a2a
        • D4a3
          • D4a3a
        • D4a4
      • D4b
        • D4b1
          • D3
          • D4b1a
            • D4b1a1
            • D4b1a2
              • D4b1a2a
                • D4b1a2a1
                  • D4b1a2a1a
          • D4b1b
            • D4b1b1
            • D4b1b1a
            • D4b1b2
        • D4b2
          • D4b2a
            • D4b2a1
            • D4b2a2
              • D4b2a2a
              • D4b2a2b
          • D4b2b
            • D4b2b1
              • D4b2b1a
              • D4b2b1b
            • D4b2b2
            • D4b2b3
      • D4c
        • D4c1
          • D4c1a
            • D4c1a1
          • D4c1b
            • D4c1b1
        • D4c2
      • D4d
      • D4e
        • D4e1
          • D2
            • D2a
              • D2a1
                • D2a1a
                • D2a1b
            • D2b
          • D4e1a
            • D4e1a1
            • D4e1a2
      • D4e2
          • D4e2a
          • D4e2b
          • D4e2c
      • D4f
      • D4g
        • D4g1
          • D4g1a
          • D4g1b
          • D4g1c
        • D4g2
          • D4g2a
            • D4g2a1
      • D4h
        • D4h1
          • D4h1a
        • D4h3
      • D4i
        • D4i1
        • D4i2
      • D4j
      • D4k
      • D4l
        • D4l1
        • D4l2
          • D4l2a
      • D4m
        • D4m1
        • D4m2
      • D4n
        • D4n1
      • D4o
        • D4o1
        • D4o2
    • D5'6
      • D5
        • D5a'b
          • D5a
            • D5a1
              • D5a1a
            • D5a2
              • D5a2a
                • D5a2a1
                  • D5a2a1a
                  • D5a2a1b
          • D5b
            • D5b1
              • D5b1a
              • D5b1b
                • D5b1b1
            • D5b2
        • D5c
        • D5d
          • D5d1
      • D6

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock Supplementary material. 2009. pp. page89. 
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  4. ^ D. Comas et al., Admixture, migrations, and dispersals in Central Asia: evidence from maternal DNA lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 2004
  5. ^ Agnar Helgason, Gisli Palsson, Henning Sloth Pedersen et al. (2006), "MtDNA Variation in Inuit Populations of Greenland and Canada: Migration History and Population Structure." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20313
  6. ^ Sayaka Maruyama, Kiyoshi Minaguchi, and Naruya Saitou, "Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA lineages in the Japanese population", Int J Legal Med (2003) 117 : 218–225. DOI 10.1007/s00414-003-0379-2
  7. ^ Kazuo Umetsu, Masashi Tanaka, Isao Yuasa et al., "Multiplex amplified product-length polymorphism analysis of 36 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms for haplogrouping of East Asian populations", Electrophoresis (2005), 26, 91–98. DOI 10.1002/elps.200406129
  8. ^ a b Derenko M, Malyarchuk B, Denisova G, Perkova M, Rogalla U, et al. (2012), "Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe." PLoS ONE 7(2): e32179. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032179
  9. ^ East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination in Koreans: haplogroup-level coding region SNP analysis and subhaplogroup-level control region sequence analysis
  10. ^ Qing-Peng Kong, Yong-Gang Yao, Mu Liu et al., "Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms of five ethnic populations from northern China", Hum Genet (2003) 113 : 391–405. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1004-7
  11. ^ Asari M et al., "Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population", Leg Med (2007), doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.007
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  13. ^ Qi-Liang Ding, Chuan-Chao Wang, Sara E. Farina, and Hui Li, "Mapping Human Genetic Diversity on the Japanese Archipelago", Advances in Anthropology (2011). Vol.1, No.2, 19-25. DOI:10.4236/aa.2011.12004
  14. ^ Miroslava Derenko, Boris Malyarchuk, Tomasz Grzybowski et al., "Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007;81:1025–1041. DOI: 10.1086/522933
  15. ^ Ripan S. Malhi, Katherine E. Breece, Beth A. Schultz Shook, and Frederika A. Kaestle, "Patterns of mtDNA Diversity in Northwestern North America", Human Biology, Volume 76, Number 1, February 2004, pp. 33-54. DOI: 10.1353/hub.2004.0023
  16. ^ Ripan S. Malhi, Holly M. Mortensen, Jason A. Eshleman et al., "Native American mtDNA Prehistory in the American Southwest", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 120:108–124 (2003)
  17. ^ Bo Wen, Hui Li, Song Gao et al., "Genetic Structure of Hmong-Mien Speaking Populations in East Asia as Revealed by mtDNA Lineages", Mol. Biol. Evol. 22(3):725–734. (2005) doi:10.1093/molbev/msi055
  18. ^ Catherine Hill, Pedro Soares, Maru Mormina et al., "Phylogeography and Ethnogenesis of Aboriginal Southeast Asians", Mol. Biol. Evol. 23(12):2480–2491. (2006) doi:10.1093/molbev/msl124
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  20. ^ Supannee Kaewsutthi, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, Yutthana Joyjinda et al., "Mitochondrial Haplogroup Background May Influence Southeast Asian G11778A Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy", Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 1;52(7):4742-8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5816
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External links[edit]