Haplogroup G (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup G
Possible time of origin 35,700 YBP[1]
Possible place of origin East Asia
Ancestor M12'G
Descendants G1, G2, G3, G4
Defining mutations 709, 4833, 5108[2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup G is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Origin[edit]

Haplogroup G is a descendant of haplogroup M. Haplogroup G is divided into subclades G1, G2, G3, and G4.

Distribution[edit]

It is an East Asian haplogroup.[3] Today, haplogroup G is found at its highest frequency in indigenous populations of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk.[4][5] Haplogroup G is one of the most common mtDNA haplogroups among modern Ainu, Japanese, Mongol, and Tibetan people (as well as among people of the prehistoric Jōmon culture in Hokkaidō), and it is also found at lower frequency among many other populations of East Asia, Central Asia, Bangladesh,[citation needed] and Nepal.[6][7][8] However, unlike other mitochondrial DNA haplogroups typical of populations of northeastern Asia, such as haplogroup A, haplogroup C, and haplogroup D, haplogroup G has not been found among indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Table of Frequencies of MtDNA Haplogroup G[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source Subtypes
Itelmen 0.681 47 Starikovskaya 2005 G1=32
Koryak 0.419 155 Starikovskaya 2005 G1=65
Chuvantsi (Markovo, Chukotka) 0.281 32 Volodko 2008 G1=9
Negidal 0.273 33 Starikovskaya 2005 G1=9
Tharu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.233 133 Fornarino 2009 G2a=19, G(xG2a)=12
Kazakh (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.200 20 Comas 2004 G2a=4
Ainu 0.196 51 Satou 2009 G1=8, G2=2
Tibetan (Lhasa, Tibet) 0.182 44 Ji 2012 G2a=3, G3b=3, G2(xG2a)=2
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.170 47 Jin 2009 G2a=5, G(xG1a, G2, G3)=2, G3=1
Korean (Arun Banner) 0.167 48 Kong 2003 G2(xG2a)=3, G2a=3, G1a=1, G3=1
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.167 24 Ji 2012 G=4
Oirat Mongol (Xinjiang) 0.163 49 Yao 2004 G2a=3, G2(xG2a)=3, G(xG1a, G2, G3)=2
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.158 19 Ji 2012 G=3
Yukaghir (Lower Kolyma-Indigirka) 0.146 82 Volodko 2008 G1=12
Kyrgyz (Talas) 0.146 48 Yao 2004 G2a=7
Tibetan (Shannan, Tibet) 0.145 55 Ji 2012 G2a=4, G2(xG2a)=3, G3b=1
Uyghur (Xinjiang) 0.128 47 Yao 2004 G2a=5, G3=1
Tharu (Morang, Nepal) 0.125 40 Fornarino 2009 G2a=4, G(xG2a)=1
Japanese (Gifu) 0.116 1617 Fuku 2007 G=188
Ulch 0.115 87 Starikovskaya 2005 G1=9, G2=1
Oroqen (Oroqen Autonomous Banner) 0.114 44 Kong 2003 G(xG1a, G2, G3)=5
Tibetan (Qinghai) 0.107 56 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=2, G2a=2, G2(xG2a)=1, G3=1
Mongolian (Ulan Bator) 0.106 47 Derenko 2007 G2a=4, G1=1
Tuvan 0.105 95 Starikovskaya 2005 G2=6, G3=4
Huatou Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.105 19 Wen 2005 G2=2
Japanese 0.104 211 Maruyama 2003 G4a=12, G2a=6, G4b=2, G2(xG2a)=1, G(xG2, G4a, G4b)=1
Tibetan (Chamdo, Tibet) 0.103 29 Ji 2012 G3b=2, G2a=1
Tibetan (Shigatse, Tibet) 0.103 29 Ji 2012 G2a=2, G2(xG2a)=1
Korean (South Korea) 0.103 185 Jin 2009 G2(xG2a)=7, G2a=6, G3=4, G1a=1, G(xG1a, G2, G3)=1
Japanese (Tokyo) 0.102 118 Zheng 2011 G=12
Khamnigan (Buryatia) 0.101 99 Derenko 2007 G2a=9, G3=1
Han (Beijing) 0.100 40 Jin 2009 G2a=2, G2(xG2a)=1, G(xG1a, G2, G3)=1
Manchurian 0.100 40 Jin 2009 G1a=3, G2a=1
Tu Yao (Hezhou, Guangxi) 0.098 41 Wen 2005 G2=4
Japanese (Tōkai) 0.096 282 Umetsu 2005 G1a=13, G(xG1a, G1b)=12, G1b=2
Even (Eveno-Bytantaysky & Momsky) 0.095 105 Fedorova 2013 G1b=9, G2a(xG2a5)=1
Barghut (Hulunbuir) 0.094 149 Derenko 2012 G2=13, G3=1
Chukchi 0.091 66 Starikovskaya 2005 G1=6
Xiban Yao (Fangcheng, Guangxi) 0.091 11 Wen 2005 G2=1
Daur (Evenk Autonomous Banner) 0.089 45 Kong 2003 G1a=2, G2a=2
Hui (Xinjiang) 0.089 45 Yao 2004 G2a=2, G1a=1, G(xG1a, G2, G3)=1
Japanese (Hokkaidō) 0.088 217 Asari 2007 G1a=11, G(xG1a, G1b)=7, G1b=1
Evenk (New Barag Left Banner) 0.085 47 Kong 2003 G(xG1a, G2, G3)=4
Pumi (Ninglang, Yunnan) 0.083 36 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=2, G3=1
Kalmyk (Kalmykia) 0.082 110 Derenko 2007 G2a=7, G1=1, G(xG1, G2a, G3)=1
Buryat 0.080 25 Starikovskaya 2005 G2=1, G3=1
Buryat 0.079 126 Kong 2003 G2a=8, G2(xG2a)=2
Korean (South Korea) 0.079 203 Umetsu 2005 G1a=9, G(xG1a, G1b)=7
Bai (Dali, Yunnan) 0.074 68 Wen 2004 G2(xG2a)=5
Dargin (Dagestan) 0.071 28 Marchani 2008 G=2
Uzbek (Xinjiang) 0.069 58 Yao 2004 G2a=2, G3=1, G(xG1a, G2, G3)=1
Chinese (Shenyang, Liaoning) 0.069 160 Umetsu 2005 G(xG1a, G1b)=8, G1a=3
Korean (South Korea) 0.068 103 Derenko 2007 G2a=3, G1=2, G3=2
Korean (Seoul National University Hospital) 0.068 633 Fuku 2007 G=43
Yakut (northern Yakutia) 0.068 148 Fedorova 2013 G2a5=6, G2a(xG2a5)=2, G1b=2
Chukchi (Anadyr) 0.067 15 Derenko 2007 G1=1
Naxi (Lijiang, Yunnan) 0.067 45 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=3
Tujia (Yongshun, Hunan) 0.067 30 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=1, G2(xG2a)=1
Tuvinian 0.067 105 Derenko 2007 G2a=4, G1=2, G3=1
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.065 31 Li 2007 G2a=2
Mien (Shangsi, Guangxi) 0.063 32 Wen 2005 G2=2
Korean (South Korea) 0.061 261 Kim 2008 G(xG2)=11, G2=5
Mansi 0.061 98 Starikovskaya 2005 G2=6
Japanese (Miyazaki) 0.060 100 Uchiyama 2007 G4a=2, G1a=1, G1b=1, G2a1(xG2a1a)=1, G2a1a=1
Han (Beijing Normal University) 0.058 121 Zheng 2011 G=7
Tibetan (Zhongdian, Yunnan) 0.057 35 Wen 2004 G3=2
Kazakh (Xinjiang) 0.057 53 Yao 2004 G1a=1, G2a=1, G(xG1a, G2, G3)=1
Altai Kizhi 0.056 90 Derenko 2007 G1=4, G2a=1
Tibetan (Nyingchi, Tibet) 0.056 54 Ji 2012 G2(xG2a)=1, G2a=1, G3b=1
Han (Denver, Colorado) 0.055 73 Zheng 2011 G=4
Kazakh (Kazakhstan) 0.055 55 Yao 2004 G2a=3
Japanese (Tōhoku) 0.054 336 Umetsu 2005 G1a=13, G(xG1a, G1b)=5
Nivkh (northern Sakhalin) 0.054 56 Starikovskaya 2005 G1=3
Karakalpak (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 G2a=1
Kim Mun (Malipo, Yunnan) 0.050 40 Wen 2005 G2=2
Tajik (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 20 Comas 2004 G2a=1
Uzbek (Uzbekistan/Kyrgyzstan) 0.050 40 Comas 2004 G2a=2
Yi (Shuangbai, Yunnan) 0.050 40 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=1, G2(xG2a)=1
Orok (Sakhalin) 0.049 61 Bermisheva 2005 G=3
Gelao (Daozhen County, Guizhou) 0.049 102 Liu 2011 G(xG2, G3)=4, G2a1=1
Yakut (vicinity of Yakutsk) 0.049 164 Fedorova 2013 G2a(xG2a5)=6, G2a5=2
Hmong (Jishou, Hunan) 0.049 103 Wen 2005 G3=2, G(xG2, G3)=2, G2=1
Vietnamese 0.048 42 Jin 2009 G1a=1, G3=1
Japanese (northern Kyūshū) 0.047 256 Umetsu 2005 G(xG1a, G1b)=9, G1a=3
Tujia (western Hunan) 0.047 64 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=1, G2(xG2a)=1, G3=1
Tajik (Tajikistan) 0.045 44 Derenko 2007 G2a=1, G3=1
Yukaghir (Verkhnekolymsky & Nizhnekolymsky) 0.045 22 Fedorova 2013 G1b=1
Hazara (North West Frontier Province & Balochistan) 0.043 23 Quintana-Murci 2004 G=1
Mongol (New Barag Left Banner) 0.042 48 Kong 2003 G2(xG2a)=2
Evenk (Krasnoyarsk) 0.041 73 Derenko 2007 G2a=2, G1=1
Aini (Xishuangbanna, Yunnan) 0.040 50 Wen 2004 G2a=2
Korean (northern China) 0.039 51 Jin 2009 G2a=1, G2(xG2a)=1
Kumik (Dagestan) 0.038 26 Marchani 2008 G=1
Lanten Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.038 26 Wen 2005 G2=1
Yakut (Vilyuy River basin) 0.036 111 Fedorova 2013 G2a(xG2a5)=2, G2a5=1, G1b=1
Dong (Tianzhu County, Guizhou) 0.036 28 Li 2007 G(xG1a, G2)=1
Cun (Hainan) 0.033 30 Peng 2011 G=1
Nu (Gongshan, Yunnan) 0.033 30 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=1
Lingao (Hainan) 0.032 31 Peng 2011 G=1
Yi (Luxi, Yunnan) 0.032 31 Wen 2004 G(xG2, G3)=1
Pan Yao (Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.031 32 Wen 2005 G(xG2, G3)=1
Nogai (Dagestan) 0.030 33 Marchani 2008 G=1
Han (Southwest China; pool of 44 Sichuan, 34 Chongqing, 33 Yunnan, & 26 Guizhou) 0.029 137 Ji 2012 G1=3, G2=1
Han (southern California) 0.028 390 Ji 2012 G=11
Telenghit (Altai Republic) 0.028 71 Derenko 2007 G2a=2
Yakut (Yakutia) 0.028 36 Derenko 2007 G2a=1
Hmong (Wenshan, Yunnan) 0.026 39 Wen 2005 G(xG2, G3)=1
Yakut 0.026 117 Kong 2003 G2a=2, G1a=1
Evenk (Ust-Maysky, Oleneksky, and Zhigansky) 0.024 125 Fedorova 2013 G1b=2, G2a(xG2a5)=1
Uzbek (Surkhandarya, Uzbekistan) 0.024 42 Quintana-Murci 2004 G=1
Evenk (Buryatia) 0.022 45 Derenko 2007 G3=1
Taiwanese (Taipei, Taiwan) 0.022 91 Umetsu 2005 G(xG1a, G1b)=2
Han (Taiwan) 0.021 1117 Ji 2012 G=24
Han (Xinjiang) 0.021 47 Yao 2004 G2a=1
Kyrgyz (Sary-Tash) 0.021 47 Yao 2004 G2a=1
Hindu (New Delhi) 0.021 48 Fornarino 2009 G(xG2a)=1
Kazakh (Kosh-Agachsky, Altai Republic) 0.020 98 Derenko 2012 G2=1, G3=1
Turkish (Anatolia, Turkey) 0.020 50 Quintana-Murci 2004 G=1
Khanty 0.019 106 Pimenoff 2008 G2=2
Uyghur (Kazakhstan) 0.018 55 Yao 2004 G2(xG2a)=1
Khakassian (Khakassia) 0.018 57 Derenko 2007 G3=1
Mansi 0.016 63 Pimenoff 2008 G2=1
Okinawa 0.015 326 Umetsu 2005 G(xG1a, G1b)=3, G1a=2
Persian (eastern Iran) 0.012 82 Derenko 2007 G2a=1
Pakistani (Karachi, Pakistan) 0.010 100 Quintana-Murci 2004 G=1
Li (Hainan) 0.009 346 Peng 2011 G=3
Dolgan (Anabarsky, Volochanka, Ust-Avam, and Dudinka) 0.006 154 Fedorova 2013 G1b=1
Cham (Bình Thuận, Vietnam) 0.006 168 Peng 2010 G=1
Taiwan aborigines 0.002 640 Peng 2011 G=1
Dingban Yao (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.000 10 Wen 2005 -
Yukaghir (Upper Kolyma) 0.000 18 Volodko 2008 -
Filipino (Palawan) 0.000 20 Scholes 2011 -
Yi (Hezhang County, Guizhou) 0.000 20 Li 2007 -
Hindu (Chitwan, Nepal) 0.000 24 Fornarino 2009 -
Guoshan Yao (Jianghua, Hunan) 0.000 24 Wen 2005 -
Bunu (Dahua & Tianlin, Guangxi) 0.000 25 Wen 2005 -
Kurd (northwestern Iran) 0.000 25 Derenko 2007 -
Iu Mien (Mengla, Yunnan) 0.000 27 Wen 2005 -
Andhra Pradesh (tribal) 0.000 29 Fornarino 2009 -
Tujia (Yanhe County, Guizhou) 0.000 29 Li 2007 -
Batak (Palawan) 0.000 31 Scholes 2011 -
Wuzhou Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.000 31 Wen 2005 -
Bapai Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.000 35 Wen 2005 -
Tibetan (Nagchu, Tibet) 0.000 35 Ji 2012 -
Aleut (Commander Islands) 0.000 36 Volodko 2008 -
Eskimo (Sireniki) 0.000 37 Volodko 2008 -
Eskimo (Naukan) 0.000 39 Volodko 2008 -
Nganasan 0.000 39 Volodko 2008 -
Thai 0.000 40 Jin 2009 -
Lowland Yao (Fuchuan, Guangxi) 0.000 42 Wen 2005 -
Eskimo (Chaplin) 0.000 50 Volodko 2008 -
Teleut (Kemerovo) 0.000 53 Derenko 2007 -
Han (Hunan & Fujian) 0.000 55 Zheng 2011 -
Saami (Finland) 0.000 69 Tambets 2004 -
Shor (Kemerovo) 0.000 82 Derenko 2007 -
Eskimo (Canada) 0.000 96 Volodko 2008 -
Saami (Sweden) 0.000 98 Tambets 2004 -
Aleut (Aleutian Islands) 0.000 163 Volodko 2008 -
Saami (Norway) 0.000 278 Tambets 2004 -
Eskimo (Greenland) 0.000 385 Volodko 2008 -

Subclades[edit]

Subclade G2 is the most widely distributed, being found with low frequency in many populations all the way from western Siberia (Mansi, Khanty) to Japan (Japanese, Ainu) and from Iran (Persian) to South Central China (Hmong and Tujia in Hunan and Mien in Guangxi). G2 (and especially its subclade G2a) is notably frequent among many Mongolic- or Turkic-speaking populations of northern East Asia and Central Asia. G2a also has been found with high frequency in some samples of Tharus from southern Nepal.[9][10]

Subclade G1 is almost completely responsible for the high frequency of haplogroup G in populations located around the Sea of Okhotsk (Itelmen, Koryak, Negidal, Ulch, Ainu, Chukchi, Nivkh, etc.). G1 in Luoravetlans (Koryak & Chukchi) is essentially G1b, and this subclade is also found with generally low frequency in populations of Yakutia to the west (Evens, Yukaghirs, Evenks, Yakuts, Dolgans) as well as in Japan.[11] G1a has been found in samples from China (Daur, Hui, Kazakh, Korean, Manchu, and a sample of the general population of the city of Shenyang), Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Siberia (Yakut). G1c has been found in China and Korea.

Subclade G3 is relatively rare. It has been found mainly among Koreans,[12] Tibetans, and presently Turkic- or Mongolic-speaking populations in southern Siberia and vicinity, and occasionally among Evenks in Buryatia, Japanese, Pumi, Tajiks, Hmong and Tujia in western Hunan, and Vietnamese.

Subclade G4 has been found in Japan.

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup G subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • G
    • G1
      • G1a
        • G1a1
          • G1a1a
            • G1a1a1
            • G1a1a2
            • G1a1a3
        • G1a2'3
          • G1a2
          • G1a3
            • G1a3a
      • G1b
      • G1c
    • G2
      • G2a
        • G2a1
          • G2a1a
          • G2a1b
          • G2a1c
        • G2a2
        • G2a3
          • G2a3a
        • G2a4
      • G2b
        • G2b1
    • G3
      • G3a
        • G3a1
        • G3a2
      • G3b
        • G3b1
    • G4

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini, Noel Thomson, Maru Mormina, Teresa Rito, Arne Röhl, Antonio Salas, Stephen Oppenheimer, Vincent Macaulay and Martin B. Richards (4 June 2009). "Supplemental Data Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Society of Human Genetics 84 (6): 82–93. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  2. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  3. ^ Haplogroup G.
  4. ^ mtDNA Haplogroup Testing
  5. ^ Natalia V. Volodko, Elena B. Starikovskaya, Ilya O. Mazunin et al., "Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Arctic Siberians, with Particular Reference to the Evolutionary History of Beringia and Pleistocenic Peopling of the Americas", The American Journal of Human Genetics 82, 1084–1100, May 2008. DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.03.019.
  6. ^ Kazuo Umetsu, Masashi Tanaka, Isao Yuasa et al., "Multiplex amplified product-length polymorphism analysis of 36 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms for haplogrouping of East Asian populations", Electrophoresis (2005), 26, 91–98. DOI 10.1002/elps.200406129
  7. ^ Noriyuki Fuku, Kyong Soo Park, Yoshiji Yamada et al., "Mitochondrial Haplogroup N9a Confers Resistance against Type 2 Diabetes in Asians", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007; 80:407–415. DOI: 10.1086/512202
  8. ^ Asari M et al., "Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population", Leg Med (2007), doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.01.007
  9. ^ Simona Fornarino, Maria Pala, Vincenza Battaglia et al., "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:154 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154
  10. ^ Ville N Pimenoff, David Comas, Jukka U Palo et al., "Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers", European Journal of Human Genetics (2008) 16, 1254–1264; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.101
  11. ^ Taketo Uchiyama, Rinnosuke Hisazumi, Kenshi Shimizu et al., "Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation and Phylogenetic Analysis in Japanese Individuals from Miyazaki Prefecture", Japanese Journal of Forensic Science and Technology 01/2007; 12(1):83-96. DOI:10.3408/jafst.12.83
  12. ^ Jin H-J, Tyler-Smith C, Kim W (2009) "The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers." PLoS ONE 4(1): e4210. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004210

External links[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T