Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)
|Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)|
|Possible time of origin||25,000-45,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||South Asia|
|Highest frequencies||Romani people & populations of India|
It is a branch of Haplogroup HIJK, and is believed to have arisen in India between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago. Its probable site of introduction is India since it is concentrated there. It seems to represent the main Y-Chromosome haplogroup of the indigenous paleolithic inhabitants of India, because it is the most frequent Y-haplogroup of tribal populations (25-35%). H-M69 presence in upper castes is around 10%).  
Haplogroup H-M69 is fairly common among populations of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal. It is almost non-existent in Pakistan and Afghanistan, however, some small traces have been found. But the highest frequencies of H-M69 are in India, especially among Dravidians (33%). In Koya speakers (Dravidian tribes) has been found in 71%. All studied F * cases in the Indian subcontient have been shown to belong to a separate subclade of haplogroup H known as H3. H1+H2 is the brother clade of H3 , some old studies label H2 (once called F3) as H* this is not the same clade as the newly discovered clade and is closer to H1 . The numbers below are likely to be underestimates.
In India, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in 27.2% (110/405) of a sample of unspecified ethnic composition from southern India. Another study has found haplogroup H-M69 in 26.4% (192/728) of an ethnically diverse pool of samples from various regions of India.
In Nepal, one study has found Haplogroup H-M69 in approximately 12% of a sample of males from the general population of Kathmandu(including 4/77 H-M82, 4/77 H-M52(xM82), and 1/77 H-M69(xM52, APT)) and in 6% of a sample of Newars (4/66 H-M82).
In Pakistan, Haplogroup H-M52 has been found in 4.1% Burusho, 20.5% Kalash, 4.2% Pashtun, and 2.5% other Pakistanis. Another study has found haplogroup H-M69 in approximately 8% (3/38) of a sample of Burusho (also known as Hunza), including 5% (2/38) H-M82(xM36, M97, M39/M138) and 3% (1/38) H-M36. Due to the small percentage by which the haplogroup is found, modern-day Pakistanis may not necessarily be genetically related to modern-day Indians.
Haplogroup H-M82 is a major lineage cluster in the Balkan Romani group, accounting for approximately 60% of the total. A 2-bp deletion at M82 locus defining this haplogroup was also reported in one-third of males from traditional Romani populations living in Bulgaria, Spain, and Lithuania (Gresham et al. 2001). High prevalence of Asian-specific Y chromosome haplogroup H-M82 supports their Indian origin and a hypothesis of a small number of founders diverging from a single ethnic group in India (Gresham et al. 2001).
Central Asia and the Middle East
Haplogroup H-M69 has been found very rarely outside of the Indian subcontinent and the Romani populations, including approximately 12.5% (2 out of 16 individuals) H-M52 in a sample of Tajiks from Dushanbe, 6% (1/17) H-M52 in a sample of Turks from Turkmenistan, 5% (1/20) H-M69 in a sample of Syrians, 4% (2/45) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Samarkand, 4% (2/53) H-M52 in a sample of Iranians from Samarkand, 3% (2/70) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Khorezm, 3% (1/38) H-M82 in a sample of Balkarians, 2.6% (3/117) H-M82 in a sample from southern Iran, 2% (1/41) H-M52 in a sample of Uyghurs from Kazakhstan, 1% (1/92 H-M82) to 2% (1/50 H-M69) of Ukrainians, 2% (1/56) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Bukhara, 2% (1/57) H-M82 in a sample of Macedonian Greeks, 2% (1/63) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from the Fergana Valley, 0.9% (1/113) H-M82 in a sample of Serbians, 0.6% (3/523) H-M370 in a sample of Turks, and 0.5% (1/201) H-M52 in a sample of Somali immigrants to Denmark.
In the Arabian Peninsula, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in 4.3% (7/164) of males from the United Arab Emirates (including 4/164 = 2.4% H-M69(xM52,Apt) and 3/164 = 1.8% H-M82), approximately 2% of males from Oman, 1.9% (3/157) of males from Saudi Arabia (including 2/157 = 1.3% H-M69(xM52) and 1/157 = 0.6% H-M82), and 1.4% (1/72 H-M82) of males from Qatar.
East and Southeast Asia
At the easternmost extent of its distribution, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in Thais from northern Thailand (1/17 = 5.9% H-M69), Balinese (19/551 = 3.45% H-M69), Tibetans (3/156 = 1.9% H-M69(xM52, APT)), Bamars from Myanmar (1/59 = 1.7% H-M82, with the relevant individual having been sampled in Bago Region), Chams from Binh Thuan, Vietnam (1/59 = 1.7% H-M69), and Mongolians (1/149 = 0.7% H-M69). The subclade H-M39/M138 has been observed in the vicinity of Cambodia, including one instance in a sample of six Cambodians and one instance in a sample of 18 individuals from Cambodia and Laos.
Haplogroup H P96
The H-P96 lineage is defined by seven SNPs. They are P96, M282, L279, L281, L284, L285, and L286. H-P96 defines the H-P96 subclade. . There is somewhat of a concentration of F-P96 in France, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. But it is also found in Armenians, Iran, and India.
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup H and its Subclades tree - 2014.
- H-M69 (H1) (M69, M370)
- H-M52 (H1a) (M52)
- H-M82 (H1a1) (M82)
- H-M36 (H1a1a1) (M36, M197)
- H-M97 (H1ab) (M97)
- H-M39 (H1a1c) (M39, M138)
- H-M82 (H1a1) (M82)
- H-APT (H1b1) (APT)
- H-P80 (H1b1a) (P80, P314)
- H-P266 (H1b1b) (P266)
- H-P254 (H1c) (P254)
- H-M52 (H1a) (M52)
- H-M282 (H2) (P96)(formerly known as haplogroup F3, now recognized as H2)
- H-M69 (H1) (M69, M370)
Distribution of H-M82 (H1a1)
The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for M82, showing its distribution in different part of the world.
|Region/Ethnicity||Country/Population||Size||H1a freq. (%)||Reference|
|East/Southeast Asia||Tibet||156||0||Gayden et al. 2007|
|East/Southeast Asia||Cambodia||6||16.67||Sengupta et al. 2006|
|East/Southeast Asia||Cambodia/Laos||18||5.56||Underhill et al. 2000|
|East/Southeast Asia||Japan||23||0||Sengupta et al. 2006|
|North Asia||Siberia||18||0||Sengupta et al. 2006|
|Middle East and North Africa||Qatar||72||1.39||Cadenas et al. 2008|
|Middle East and North Africa||United Arab Emirates||164||1.84||Cadenas et al. 2008|
|Middle East and North Africa||Yemen||62||0||Cadenas et al. 2008|
|Middle East and North Africa||Saudi Arabia||157||0.64||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Oman||121||0||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Egypt||147||0||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Somalia||201||0||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Lebanese||916||0||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Jordan||146||0||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Iraq||203||0||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Turkish||523||0.19||Cinnioglu et al. 2004|
|Middle East and North Africa||Iran||150||2||Abu-Amero et al. 2009|
|Middle East and North Africa||Iran||938||1.2||Grugni et al. 2012|
|Roma-Europe||Slovakian||62||30.65||Pamjev et al. 2011|
|Roma-Europe||Portuguese||126||16.67||Gusmao et al. 2008|
|Roma-Europe||Kosovo, Belgrade, Vojvodina||88||43.18||Regueiro et al. 2011|
|Roma-Europe||Bulgarian||248||39.52||Gresham et al. 2001|
|Roma-Europe||Spanish||27||18.52||Gresham et al. 2001|
|Roma-Europe||Croatians||377||20.16||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Roma-Europe||Macedonians||257||13.23||Perièiæ et al. 2005|
|Roma-Europe||Hungarian||424||16.98||Pamjav et al. 2011|
|Roma-Europe||Lithuvenian Roma||20||50||Gresham et al. 2001|
|Balkans||Greeks||92||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Albanians||55||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Bosniacs||324||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Slovenians||75||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||North-East-Italians||67||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Hungarians||53||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Czechs||75||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Poles||99||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Ukrainians||92||1.1||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Balkans||Herzegovinians||141||0||Perièiæ et al. 2005|
|Balkans||Serbians||113||0.9||Perièiæ et al. 2005|
|Caucasus||Caucasians||1789||0||Yunusbayev et al. 2011|
|Caucasus||Georgians||66||0||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|Caucasus||Balkarians||38||2.6||Battaglia et al. 2009|
|South Asia||Nepal||188||4.25||Gayden et al. 2007|
|South Asia||Afghanistan||204||3.43||Haber et al. 2012|
|South Asia||Malaysian Indians||301||18.94||Pamjav et al. 2011|
|South Asia||Terai-Nepal||197||10.66||Fornarino et al. 2009|
|South Asia||Hindu New Delhi||49||10.2||Fornarino et al. 2009|
|South Asia||Andhra Pradesh Tribals||29||27.6||Fornarino et al. 2009|
|South Asia||Northwest India||842||14.49||Rai et al.2012|
|South Asia||South India||1845||20.05||Rai et al.2012|
|South Asia||Central India||863||14.83||Rai et al.2012|
|South Asia||North India||622||13.99||Rai et al.2012|
|South Asia||East India||1706||8.44||Rai et al.2012|
|South Asia||West India||501||17.17||Rai et al.2012|
|South Asia||Northeast India||1090||0.18||Rai et al.2012|
|South Asia||Andaman Island||20||0||Thangaraj et al. 2003|
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
|L||T||MPS (K2b)||X (K2a)|
- Y-DNA Haplogroup H and its Subclades - 2011
- Cordaux R, et al. (2004). "Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages". Current Biology 14 (3): 231–5. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.024. PMID 14761656.
- Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, et al. (February 2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
- Thanseem I, Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, et al. (2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genet. 7: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-42. PMC 1569435. PMID 16893451.
- Sahoo, S. (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 843–8. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103..843S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. PMC 1347984. PMID 16415161.
- Kivisild, T., Rootsi, S., Metspalu, M. et al. (February 2003). "The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations". American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (313–332): 2003. doi:10.1086/346068. PMC 379225. PMID 12536373.
- Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- Tatiana M. Karafet, J. S. Lansing, Alan J. Redd et al., "Balinese Y-Chromosome Perspective on the Peopling of Indonesia: Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders," Human Biology, February 2005, v. 77, no. 1, pp. 93-114.
- Gayden T, Cadenas AM, Regueiro M, et al. (May 2007). "The Himalayas as a directional barrier to gene flow". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80 (5): 884–94. doi:10.1086/516757. PMC 1852741. PMID 17436243.
- Firasat S, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, et al. (January 2007). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 15 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726. PMC 2588664. PMID 17047675.
- Peter A. Underhill, Peidong Shen, Alice A. Lin et al., "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations," Nature Genetics, Volume 26, November 2000.
- Marc, Haber; Platt, DE; Ashrafian Bonab, M; Youhanna, SC; Soria-Hernanz, DF et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE 7 (3): e34288. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
- Pericić M, Lauc LB, Klarić IM, et al. (October 2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.
- Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, et al. (August 2001). "The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (18): 10244–9. Bibcode:2001PNAS...9810244W. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946. PMID 11526236.
- Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, et al. (November 2000). "The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective". Science 290 (5494): 1155–9. Bibcode:2000Sci...290.1155S. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.
- Vincenza Battaglia, Simona Fornarino, Nadia Al-Zahery et al., "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe," European Journal of Human Genetics (2008), 1 – 11
- Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Gayden T, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2006). "Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration". Hum. Hered. 61 (3): 132–43. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078.
- Cengiz Cinnioğlu, Roy King, Toomas Kivisild et al., "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia," Human Genetics (2004) 114 : 127–148 DOI 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4
- Sanchez, Juan J, Hallenberg, Charlotte, Børsting, Claus, Hernandez, A, Morling, N (2005). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics 13 (7): 856–866. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390. PMID 15756297.
- Cadenas AM, Zhivotovsky LA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (March 2008). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 16 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. PMID 17928816.
- Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M, et al. (March 2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781.
- Abu-Amero, Khaled K., Hellani, Ali, Gonzalez, Ana M., Larruga, JM, Cabrera, VM, Underhill, PA (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955. PMID 19772609.
- He J-D, Peng M-S; Quang, HH; Dang, KP; Trieu, AV et al. (2012). "Patrilineal Perspective on the Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia". PLoS ONE 7 (5): e36437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036437. PMC 3346718. PMID 22586471.
- Min-Sheng Peng, Jun-Dong He, Long Fan et al. (2013), "Retrieving Y chromosomal haplogroup trees using GWAS data." European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.272
- International Society of Genetic Genealogy (25 November 2014). "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2014 Version: 9.127".
- van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, et al. (2013). "Seeing the Wood for the Trees: A Minimal Reference Phylogeny for the Human Y Chromosome.". Hum. Mutat. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.
- The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations. Rai N, Chaubey G, Tamang R, Pathak AK, Singh VK, et al. (2012) The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations. PLoS ONE 7(11): e48477. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048477