Haplogroup H-M69

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Haplogroup H-M69

Haplogrupo H (ADN-Y).PNG

Possible time of origin 25,000-45,000 years BP
Possible place of origin South Asia
Ancestor HIJK
Defining mutations M69
Highest frequencies Romani people & populations of India

In human genetics, Haplogroup H-M69 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.

This haplogroup is found at a high frequency in South Asia particularly H-M69 and H-M52. Outside South Asia H-M82 subgroup is a major paternal founding lineage of Romani people.

Origins[edit]

It is a branch of Haplogroup HIJK, and is believed to have arisen in India between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago.[1] Its probable site of introduction is India since it is concentrated there. It seems to represent the main Y-Chromosome haplogroup of the indigenous paleolithic inhabitants of India, because it is the most frequent Y-haplogroup of tribal populations (25-35%). H-M69 presence in upper castes is around 10%).[2] [3] [4]

Distribution[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Haplogroup H-M69 is fairly common among populations of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Pakistan. But the highest frequencies of H-M69 are in India, especially among Dravidians (33%).[5] In Koya speakers (Dravidian tribes) has been found in 71%.[6] All studied F * cases in the Indian subcontient have been shown to belong to a separate subclade of haplogroup H known as H3. H1+H2 is the brother clade of H3 , some old studies label H2 (once called F3) as H* this is not the same clade as the newly discovered clade and is closer to H1 [1]. The numbers below are likely to be underestimates.

In India, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in 27.2% (110/405) of a sample of unspecified ethnic composition from southern India.[7][8] Another study has found haplogroup H-M69 in 26.4% (192/728) of an ethnically diverse pool of samples from various regions of India.[3]

In Sri Lanka, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in 25.3% (23/91) of a sample of unspecified ethnic composition[7][8] and in 10.3% (4/39) of a sample of Sinhalese.[6]

In Nepal, one study has found Haplogroup H-M69 in approximately 12% of a sample of males from the general population of Kathmandu(including 4/77 H-M82, 4/77 H-M52(xM82), and 1/77 H-M69(xM52, APT)) and in 6% of a sample of Newars (4/66 H-M82).[9]

In Pakistan, Haplogroup H-M52 has been found in 4.1% Burusho, 20.5% Kalash, 4.2% Pashtun, and 2.5% other Pakistanis.[10] Another study has found haplogroup H-M69 in approximately 8% (3/38) of a sample of Burusho (also known as Hunza), including 5% (2/38) H-M82(xM36, M97, M39/M138) and 3% (1/38) H-M36.[11]

In Afghanistan, it has been found in 6.1% Pashtun.[12]

Romani people[edit]

Haplogroup H-M82 is a major lineage cluster in the Balkan Romani group, accounting for approximately 60% of the total.[13] A 2-bp deletion at M82 locus defining this haplogroup was also reported in one-third of males from traditional Romani populations living in Bulgaria, Spain, and Lithuania (Gresham et al. 2001). High prevalence of Asian-specific Y chromosome haplogroup H-M82 supports their Indian origin and a hypothesis of a small number of founders diverging from a single ethnic group in India (Gresham et al. 2001).

Central Asia and the Middle East[edit]

Haplogroup H-M69 has been found very rarely outside of the Indian subcontinent and the Romani populations, including approximately 12.5% (2 out of 16 individuals) H-M52 in a sample of Tajiks from Dushanbe,[14] 6% (1/17) H-M52 in a sample of Turks from Turkmenistan,[14] 5% (1/20) H-M69 in a sample of Syrians,[15] 4% (2/45) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Samarkand,[14] 4% (2/53) H-M52 in a sample of Iranians from Samarkand,[14] 3% (2/70) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Khorezm,[14] 3% (1/38) H-M82 in a sample of Balkarians,[16] 2.6% (3/117) H-M82 in a sample from southern Iran,[17] 2% (1/41) H-M52 in a sample of Uyghurs from Kazakhstan,[14] 1% (1/92 H-M82)[16] to 2% (1/50 H-M69)[15] of Ukrainians, 2% (1/56) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from Bukhara,[14] 2% (1/57) H-M82 in a sample of Macedonian Greeks,[16] 2% (1/63) H-M52 in a sample of Uzbeks from the Fergana Valley,[14] 0.9% (1/113) H-M82 in a sample of Serbians,[13] 0.6% (3/523) H-M370 in a sample of Turks,[18] and 0.5% (1/201) H-M52 in a sample of Somali immigrants to Denmark.[19]

In the Arabian Peninsula, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in 4.3% (7/164) of males from the United Arab Emirates (including 4/164 = 2.4% H-M69(xM52,Apt) and 3/164 = 1.8% H-M82),[20] approximately 2% of males from Oman,[21] 1.9% (3/157) of males from Saudi Arabia (including 2/157 = 1.3% H-M69(xM52) and 1/157 = 0.6% H-M82),[22] and 1.4% (1/72 H-M82) of males from Qatar.[20]

The subclade H-APT has been found in 1.3% (1/77) of a sample of Greeks.[10]

East and Southeast Asia[edit]

At the easternmost extent of its distribution, Haplogroup H-M69 has been found in Thais from northern Thailand (1/17 = 5.9% H-M69),[23] Balinese (19/551 = 3.45% H-M69),[8] Tibetans (3/156 = 1.9% H-M69(xM52, APT)),[9] Bamars from Myanmar (1/59 = 1.7% H-M82, with the relevant individual having been sampled in Bago Region),[24] Chams from Binh Thuan, Vietnam (1/59 = 1.7% H-M69),[23] and Mongolians (1/149 = 0.7% H-M69).[7] The subclade H-M39/M138 has been observed in the vicinity of Cambodia, including one instance in a sample of six Cambodians[3] and one instance in a sample of 18 individuals from Cambodia and Laos.[11]

Haplogroup H P96[edit]

The H-P96 lineage is defined by seven SNPs. They are P96, M282, L279, L281, L284, L285, and L286. H-P96 defines the H-P96 subclade. . There is somewhat of a concentration of F-P96 in France, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. But it is also found in Armenians, Iran, and India.

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree[25] and subsequent published research. It is a minimum reference based on previously studied and identified SNPs.

  • H-M3035
    • H-M69 (M69, M370)
      • H-M52 (M52)
        • H-M82 (M82)
          • H-M36 (M36, M197)
          • H-M97 (M97)
          • H-M39 (M39, M138)
      • H-APT (APT)
        • H-P80 (P80, P314)
        • H-P266 (P266)
      • H-P254 (P254)
    • H-M282 (P96)(Once known Haplogroup F3 now known as H2[26])

Since February 2014, ISOGG has updated the H tree. The new tree has had a large number of SNPs added to it, radically complicating the tree within a very short time period:

http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpH.html

Distribution of H-M82 (H1a)[edit]

The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for M82, showing its distribution in different part of the world.[27]

Region/Ethnicity Country/Population Size H1a freq. (%) Reference
East/Southeast Asia Tibet 156 0 Gayden et al. 2007
East/Southeast Asia Cambodia 6 16.67 Sengupta et al. 2006
East/Southeast Asia Cambodia/Laos 18 5.56 Underhill et al. 2000
East/Southeast Asia Japan 23 0 Sengupta et al. 2006
North Asia Siberia 18 0 Sengupta et al. 2006
Middle East and North Africa Qatar 72 1.39 Cadenas et al. 2008
Middle East and North Africa United Arab Emirates 164 1.84 Cadenas et al. 2008
Middle East and North Africa Yemen 62 0 Cadenas et al. 2008
Middle East and North Africa Saudi Arabia 157 0.64 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Oman 121 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Egypt 147 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Somalia 201 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Lebanese 916 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Jordan 146 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Iraq 203 0 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Turkish 523 0.19 Cinnioglu et al. 2004
Middle East and North Africa Iran 150 2 Abu-Amero et al. 2009
Middle East and North Africa Iran 938 1.2 Grugni et al. 2012
Roma-Europe Slovakian 62 30.65 Pamjev et al. 2011
Roma-Europe Portuguese 126 16.67 Gusmao et al. 2008
Roma-Europe Kosovo, Belgrade, Vojvodina 88 43.18 Regueiro et al. 2011
Roma-Europe Bulgarian 248 39.52 Gresham et al. 2001
Roma-Europe Spanish 27 18.52 Gresham et al. 2001
Roma-Europe Croatians 377 20.16 Battaglia et al. 2009
Roma-Europe Macedonians 257 13.23 Perièiæ et al. 2005
Roma-Europe Hungarian 424 16.98 Pamjav et al. 2011
Roma-Europe Lithuvenian Roma 20 50 Gresham et al. 2001
Balkans Greeks 92 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Albanians 55 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Bosniacs 324 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Slovenians 75 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans North-East-Italians 67 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Hungarians 53 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Czechs 75 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Poles 99 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Ukrainians 92 1.1 Battaglia et al. 2009
Balkans Herzegovinians 141 0 Perièiæ et al. 2005
Balkans Serbians 113 0.9 Perièiæ et al. 2005
Caucasus Caucasians 1789 0 Yunusbayev et al. 2011
Caucasus Georgians 66 0 Battaglia et al. 2009
Caucasus Balkarians 38 2.6 Battaglia et al. 2009
South Asia Nepal 188 4.25 Gayden et al. 2007
South Asia Afghanistan 204 3.43 Haber et al. 2012
South Asia Malaysian Indians 301 18.94 Pamjav et al. 2011
South Asia Terai-Nepal 197 10.66 Fornarino et al. 2009
South Asia Hindu New Delhi 49 10.2 Fornarino et al. 2009
South Asia Andhra Pradesh Tribals 29 27.6 Fornarino et al. 2009
South Asia Northwest India 842 14.49 Rai et al.2012
South Asia South India 1845 20.05 Rai et al.2012
South Asia Central India 863 14.83 Rai et al.2012
South Asia North India 622 13.99 Rai et al.2012
South Asia East India 1706 8.44 Rai et al.2012
South Asia West India 501 17.17 Rai et al.2012
South Asia Northeast India 1090 0.18 Rai et al.2012
South Asia Andaman Island 20 0 Thangaraj et al. 2003

See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
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External links[edit]