Haplogroup IJ

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Haplogroup IJ
Possible time of origin 35,000-40,000 years BP[citation needed]
Possible place of origin Southwest Asia
Ancestor F-L15
Descendants I, J
Defining mutations M429/P125, P123, P124, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22

In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup IJ is a descendant branch of Haplogroup F-L15[1] which in turn derives from the greater Haplogroup F. Descendants are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J. Haplogroup IJ derived populations account for a significant fraction of the present-day populations of Europe, Western Eurasia, North Africa, the Americas, and Australia.

Origin[edit]

The existence of the Haplogroup IJ node has been inferred from the fact that certain mutations are shared in common among all Y-chromosomes belonging to the descendant haplogroups I and J. Until very recently, the lack of examples of Haplogroup IJ* belonging to neither Haplogroup I nor Haplogroup J complicated any attempt to deduce the geographical location where Haplogroup IJ first appeared. Both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J are found among modern populations of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Southwest Asia tends to support the hypothesis that Haplogroup IJ derived from Haplogroup F-L15 (Y-DNA) in the vicinity of West Asia or the Middle East and subsequently spread throughout Western Eurasia. A recent study by Grugni et al. 2012 of genetic diversity in Iran found some examples of Haplogroup IJ(M429). These individuals were reported to be ancestral (negative) for the primary SNPs that define both haplogroup I (M170) and haplogroup J (M304) and therefore appear to represent a yet undefined genetic branch. Because only a select few SNPs were tested, one cannot rule out that these individuals would test positive for one of the other SNPs thought to be phyloequivalent to M170 and M304.[2][3] It may be difficult to draw conclusions given the relatively small number of haplogroup IJ samples that were discovered given the limited scope of testing that was done.

The TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) for the IJ clade, expressed in ky (confidence interval), is 38.5 (30.5-46.2).[4]

On the other hand, it would seem to be that different episodes of populace movement had impacted southeast Europe, as well as the role of the Balkans as a long-standing corridor to Europe from the Near East is shown by the phylogenetic unification of Hgs I and J by the basal M429 mutation. This proof of common ancestry suggests that ancestral Hgs IJ-M429* probably would have entered Europe through the Balkan track sometime before the LGM. They then subsequently split into Hg J and Hg I in Middle East and Europe in a typical disjunctive phylogeographic pattern. Such a geographic hall[clarification needed] is prone to have encountered extra consequent gene streams, including the horticultural settlers. Moreover, the unification of haplogroups IJK creates evolutionary distance from F–H delegates, as well as supporting the inference that both IJ-M429 and KT-M9 arose closer to the Middle East than central or eastern Asia.[citation needed]

Subclades[edit]

Haplogroup I Distribution
Haplogroup J Distribution
  • IJ (M429, P123, P124, P125, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22) per ISOGG 2008

Found at low frequency in parts of Iran [1]

    • I (M170, P19, M258, P38, P212, U179) Haplogroup I notation updated to ISOGG 2008
      • I*
      • I1 (M253, M307, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111) (formerly I1a) Typical of populations of Scandinavia and Northwest Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eastern Europe

I L41, M170, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179 I* - (unobserved) I1 L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, L187, L840, M253, M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, S63, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111 I1* -

  • I1a DF29/S438
    • I1a* -
    • I1a1 M227
      • I1a1* -
      • I1a1a M72
    • I1a2 L22/S142
      • I1a2* -
      • I1a2a P109
      • I1a2b L205
      • I1a2c L287
        • I1a2c* -
        • I1a2c1 L258/S335
          • I1a2c1* -
          • I1a2c1a L296
      • I1a2d L300/S241
      • I1a2e L813/Z719
    • I1a3 S244/Z58
      • I1a3* -
      • I1a3a S246/Z59
        • I1a3a* -
        • I1a3a1 S337/Z60, S439/Z61, Z62
          • I1a3a1a Z140, Z141
          • I1a3a1a* -
          • I1a3a1a1 L338
          • I1a3a1b Z73
          • I1a3a1c L573
        • I1a3a1d L803
        • I1a3a2 Z382
      • I1a3b S296/Z138, Z139
    • I1a4 S243/Z63
  • I1b Z131 [5]
      • I2 (M438/P215/S31) (formerly I1b)
        • I2*
        • I2a (P37.2) (formerly I1b1) Typical of the South Slavic peoples of the Balkans, especially the populations of Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia ; also found with high haplotype diversity values, but lower overall frequency, among the West Slavic populations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic; a node of elevated frequency in Moldavia correlates with that observed for Haplogroup I2a (but not for Haplogroup I1)
          • I2a*
          • I2a1 (M423)
            • I2a1*
            • I2a1a (P41.2/M359.2) (formerly I1b1a)
          • I2a2 (M26) (formerly I1b1b) Typical of the population of the so-called "archaic zone" of Sardinia; also found at low frequencies among populations of Southwest Europe, particularly in Castile, Béarn, and the Basque Country
            • I2a2*
            • I2a2a (M161) (formerly I1b1b1)
        • I2b (M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32) (formerly I1b2)
          • I2b*
          • I2b1 (M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117) (formerly I1b2a - old I1c) Occurs at a moderate frequency among populations of Northwest Europe, with a peak frequency in the region of Lower Saxony in central Germany; minor offshoots appear in Moldavia and Russia (especially around Vladimir, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and the Republic of Mordovia)
            • I2b1*
            • I2b1a (M284) (formerly I1b2a1) Generally limited to a low frequency in Great Britain
            • I2b1b (M379) (formerly I1b2a2)
            • I2b1c (P78) (formerly I1b2a3)
            • I2b1d (P95) (formerly I1b2a4)
    • J (12f2.1, M304, S6, S34, S35)

References[edit]

See also[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.