Haplogroup J-P209

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Haplogroup J-P209

Haplogroup J (Y-DNA).svg

Possible time of origin 31,700 ± 12,800 Years Before Present Semino 2004
Possible place of origin Arabian Peninsula
Ancestor IJ
Descendants J-M267, J-M172
Defining mutations 12f2.1, L134, M304, P209, S6/L60, S34, S35

Haplogroup J-P209[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Its history since the Iron Age has been tied to the great events and migrations in this area and in particular to the Semitic people.

J-P209 is divided into two main subclades (branches) J-M267 and J-M172.

Origins[edit]

Haplogroup J-P209 is believed to have arisen roughly 31,700 years ago in Southwest Asia (31,700±12,800 years ago according to Semino 2004). It is most closely related to Haplogroup I-M170, as both Haplogroup I-M170 and Haplogroup J-P209 are Haplogroup IJ subclades. Haplogroup IJ and haplogroup K derive from Haplogroup IJK, and only at this level of classification does haplogroup IJK join with Haplogroup G and Haplogroup H as immediate descendants of Haplogroup F. J-P209 is defined by the M304 genetic marker, or the equivalent 12f2.1 marker. The main current subgroups J-M267 and J-M172, which now comprise between them almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago. Nonetheless, Y-chromosomes F-M89* and IJ-M429* were reported to have been observed in the Iranian plateau (Grugni et al. 2012).

On the other hand, it would seem to be that different episodes of populace movement had impacted southeast Europe, as well as the role of the Balkans as a long-standing corridor to Europe from the Near East is shown by the phylogenetic unification of Hgs I and J by the basal M429 mutation. This proof of common ancestry suggests that ancestral Hgs IJ-M429* probably would have entered Europe through the Balkan track sometime before the LGM. They then subsequently split into Hg J and Hg I in Middle East and Europe in a typical disjunctive phylogeographic pattern. Such a geographic hall[clarification needed] is prone to have encountered extra consequent gene streams, including the horticultural settlers. Moreover, the unification of haplogroups IJK creates evolutionary distance from F–H delegates, as well as supporting the inference that both IJ-M429 and KT-M9 arose closer to the Middle East than central or eastern Asia.[citation needed]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup J-P209 is found in greatest concentration in Southwestern Arabian Peninsula. Outside of this region, haplogroup J-P209 has a presence in North Africa. It also has a moderate presence in Southern Europe (especially in central and southern Italy, Malta, Greece, and Albania), Central Asia, and South Asia, particularly in the form of its subclade J-M172. Haplogroup J-P209 is also found in north East Africa, particularly in the form of its J-M267 subclade. The J-M410 subclade is found mostly in Greece, Anatolia, and southern Italy.

Country/Region Sampling N J-M267 J-M172 Total J Study
Algeria Oran 102 22.5 4.9 27.4 Robino 2008
Caucasus Chechen 330 20.9 56.7 77.6 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Ingush 143 2.8 88.8 91.6 Balanovsky 2011
Cyprus 164 9.6 12.9 22.5 El-Sibai 2009[1]
Egypt 124 19.8 7.6 27.4 El-Sibai 2009
Greece Crete/Heraklion 104 1.9 44.2 46.1 Martinez 2007
Greece Crete 143 3.5 35 38.5 El-Sibai 2009
Greece 154 1.9 18.1 20 El-Sibai 2009
Iran 92 3.2 25 28.2 El-Sibai 2009
Iraq Arab, Assyrian, Mandean 117 33.1 25.1 58.2 El-Sibai 2009
Israel Akka 101 39.2 18.6 57.8 El-Sibai 2009
Italy 699 2 20 22 Capelli 2007
Italy Central Marche 59 5.1 35.6 40.7 Capelli 2007
Italy West Calabria 57 3.5 35.1 38.6 Capelli 2007
Italy Sicily 212 5.2 22.6 27.8 El-Sibai 2009
Italy Sardinia 81 4.9 9.9 14.8 El-Sibai 2009
Jordan 273 35.5 14.6 50.1 El-Sibai 2009
Kuwait 42 33.3 9.5 42.8 El-Sibai 2009
Lebanon 951 17 29.4 46.4 El-Sibai 2009
Malta 90 7.8 21.1 28.9 El-Sibai 2009
Morocco 316 1 0.2 1.2 El-Sibai 2009
Morocco Residents in Italy 51 19.6 0 19.6 Onofri 2008
Portugal Portugal 303 4.3 6.9 11.2 El-Sibai 2009
Qatar Qatar 72 58.3 8.3 66.6 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Cadiz 28 3.6 14.3 17.9 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Cantabria 70 2.9 2.9 5.8 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Castille 21 0 9.5 9.5 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Cordoba 27 0 14.7 14.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Galicia 19 5.3 0 5.3 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Huelva 22 0 13.7 13.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Ibiza 54 0 3.7 3.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Leon 60 1.7 5 6.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Malaga 26 0 15.4 15.4 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Mallorca 62 1.6 8 9.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Sevilla 155 3.2 7.8 11 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Valencia 31 2.7 5.5 8.2 El-Sibai 2009
Syria Arab, Assyrian 554 33.6 20.8 54.4 El-Sibai 2009
Tunisia 62 0 8 8 El-Sibai 2009
Tunisia 52 34.6 3.8 38.4 Onofri 2008
Tunisia Tunis 148 32.4 3.4 35.8 Arredi 2004
Turkey 523 9.1 24.2 33.3 El-Sibai 2009
UAE 164 34.7 10.3 45 El-Sibai 2009
Yemen 62 72.5 9.6 82.1 El-Sibai 2009

Subclade distribution[edit]

Paragroup J-P209*[edit]

Paragroup J-P209*[Phylogenetics 1] includes all of J-P209 except for J-M267 and J-M172. J-P209* is rarely found outside of the island of Socotra, where it is quite frequent at 71.4%.[2] Haplogroup J-P209* also has been found with lower frequency in Oman (Giacomo 2004), Ashkenazi Jews,[3] Saudi Arabia (Abu-Amero 2009), Greece (Giacomo 2004), the Czech Republic (Giacomo 2004 and Luca 2007), and several Turkic peoples.[4] (Cinnioglu 2004 and Varzari 2006).

The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for J-M267 and J-M172, showing its distribution in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

J-M267[edit]

Haplogroup J-M267[Phylogenetics 2] defined by the M267 SNP is in modern times most frequent in the Arabian Peninsula: Yemen (up to 76%),[5] Saudi (up to 64%) (Alshamali 2009), Qatar (58%),[6] and Dagestan (up to 56%).[4] J-M267 is generally frequent among Arab Bedouins (62%),[7] Ashkenazi Jews (20%) (Semino 2004), Algeria (up to 35%) (Semino 2004), Iraq (up to 33%) (Semino 2004), Tunisia (up to 31%),[8] Syria (up to 30%), Egypt (up to 20%) (Luis 2004), and the Sinai Peninsula. To some extent, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M267 collapses at the borders of Arabic/Semitic speaking territories with mainly non-Arabic/Semitic speaking territories, such as Turkey (9%), Iran (5%) and Northern Indian Shia (11%) (Eaaswarkhanth 2009). However, it should be noted that some figures above tend to be the larger ones obtained in some studies, while the smaller figures obtained in other studies are omitted. It is also highly frequent among Jews, especially the Kohanim line (46%) (Hammer 2009).

ISOGG states that J-M267 originated in the Middle East. It is found in parts of the Near East, Anatolia and North Africa, with a much sparser distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia. But not all studies agree on the point of origin. The Levant has been proposed but a 2010 study concluded that the haplogroup had a more northern origin, possibly Asia Minor.

The origin of the J-P58 subclade is likely in the more northerly populations and then spreads southward into the Arabian Peninsula. The high Y-STR variance of J-P58 in ethnic groups in Turkey, as well as northern regions in Syria and Iraq, supports the inference of an origin of J-P58 in nearby eastern Anatolia. Moreover, the network analysis of J-P58 haplotypes shows that some of the populations with low diversity, such as Bedouins from Israel, Qatar, Sudan and UAE, are tightly clustered near high-frequency haplotypes suggesting founder effects with star burst expansion into the Arabian Desert (Chiaroni 2010).

J-M172[edit]

Haplogroup J-M172[Phylogenetics 3] is found in the highest concentrations in the Caucasus and the Fertile Crescent/Iraq and is found throughout the Mediterranean (including the Italian, Balkan, Anatolian and Iberian peninsulas and North Africa) (Giacomo 2003).

The highest ever reported concentration of J-M172 was 72% in Northeastern Georgia (Nasidze 2004). Other high reports include Ingush 32% (Nasidze 2004), Cypriots 30-37% (Capelli 2005), Lebanese 30% (Wells et al. 2001), Assyrian, Mandean and Arab Iraqis 29.7% (Sanchez et al. 2005), Syrians and Syriacs 22.5%, Kurds 24%-28%, Iranians 23% (Aburto 2006), Ashkenazi Jews 24%, Palestinian Arabs 16.8%-25%, Sephardic Jews 29%[1] and North Indian Shia Muslim (Sayyid) 18%, Chechens 26%, Balkars 24%, Yaghnobis 32%, Armenians 21-24%, and Azerbaijanis 24%-48%.

Some J-M172 haplotypes (as well as some J-M267 ones) belong to the "Cohen Modal Haplotype".

Phylogenetics[edit]

In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
J-12f2a 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J* J J J - - - - - - J
J-M62 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J1 J1a J1a J1a - - - - - - Private
J-M172 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2* J2 J2 J2 - - - - - - J2
J-M47 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2a J2a J2a1 J2a4a - - - - - - J2a1a
J-M68 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2b J2b J2a3 J2a4c - - - - - - J2a1c
J-M137 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2c J2c J2a4 J2a4h2a1 - - - - - - J2a1h2a1a
J-M158 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2d J2d J2a5 J2a4h1 - - - - - - J2a1h1
J-M12 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e* J2e J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M102 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1* J2e1 J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M99 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1a J2e1a J2b2a J2b2a - - - - - - Private
J-M67 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f* J2f J2a2 J2a4b - - - - - - J2a1b
J-M92 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f1 J2f1 J2a2a J2a4b1 - - - - - - J2a1b1
J-M163 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f2 J2f2 J2a2b J2a4b2 - - - - - - Private

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.

Discussion[edit]

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-P209. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.

The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup J-P209 (Krahn & FTDNA 2013). For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • J-P209 12f2a, 12f2.1, M304, P209, L60, L134
    • M267, L255, L321, L765, L814, L827, L1030
      • M62
      • M365.1
      • L136, L572, L620
        • M390
        • P56
        • P58, L815, L828
        • L256
      • Z1828, Z1829, Z1832, Z1833, Z1834, Z1836, Z1839, Z1840, Z1841, Z1843, Z1844
        • Z1842
        • L972
    • M172, L228
      • M410, L152, L212, L505, L532, L559
        • M289
        • L26, L27, L927
        • L581
      • M12, M102, M221, M314, L282
        • M205
        • M241

The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree[edit]

This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008 (Karafet 2008). Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.[9]

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA J subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ El-Sibai 2009 reported results from several studies : Di Giacomo 2003, Al-Zahery 2003, Flores 2004, Cinnioglu 2004, Capelli 2005, Goncalves 2005, Zalloua 2008, Cadenas 2008
  2. ^ Cerny 2008: J-12f2(xM267,M172)(45/63)
  3. ^ Shen 2004: Haplogroup J-M304(xM267,M172) in 1/20 Ashkenazi Jews.
  4. ^ a b Yunusbaev 2006:Stats are for combined Dagestan ethnic groups see the Dagestan article for details. Dargins (91%), Avars (67%), Chamalins (67%), Lezgins (58%), Tabassarans (49%), Andis (37%), Assyrians (29%), Bagvalins (21.4%))
  5. ^
  6. ^ Cadenas 2008: 42/72=58.3% J-M267
  7. ^ Nebel 2001: 21/32
  8. ^ 31% is based on Combined Data
  9. ^ "Y-DNA Haplotree".  Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website.

Works Cited[edit]

Journals

Thesis and Dissertations

Blogs

Mailing Lists

Further reading[edit]

Phylogenetic Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b This table shows the historic names for J-P209 (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304) in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-P209
    (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304)
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9
    Underhill 2000 VI
    Hammer 2001 Med
    Karafet 2001 23
    Semino 2000 Eu10
    Su 1999 H4
    Capelli 2001 B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) J*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J
  2. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-M267 and its earlier discovered and named subclade J-M62 in published peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-M267 J-M62
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 - 9
    Underhill 2000 - VI
    Hammer 2001 - Med
    Karafet 2001 - 23
    Semino 2000 - Eu10
    Su 1999 - H4
    Capelli 2001 - B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) - J1
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J1 J1a
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J1 J1a
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J1 J1a
  3. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-M172 in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-M172
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9
    Underhill 2000 VI
    Hammer 2001 Med
    Karafet 2001 24
    Semino 2000 Eu9
    Su 1999 H4
    Capelli 2001 B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) J2*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J2
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J2
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J2

External links[edit]

Phylogenetic tree and Distribution Maps of Y-DNA haplogroup J[edit]

Other[edit]