Haplogroup J-M267

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Haplogroup J-M267

HG J1 (ADN-Y).PNG

Possible time of origin 4,000-24,000 years before present (Di Giacomo 2004)
Possible place of origin Western Asia
Ancestor J-P209
Descendants J-M62, J-M365.1, J-L136, J-Z1828
Defining mutations M267, L255, L321, L765, L814, L827, L1030

In Genetic genealogy and human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267, also commonly known as Haplogroup J1 is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209, (commonly known as Haplogroup J) along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172 (commonly known as Haplogroup J2). (All these haplogroups have had other historical names listed below.[Phylogenetics 1][Phylogenetics 2])

Men from this lineage share a common paternal ancestor, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to as M267, which was announced in (Cinnioğlu 2004). This haplogroup is found today in significant frequencies in many areas in order near the Middle East, and parts of the Caucasus, Sudan and the Horn of Africa. It is also found in high frequencies in parts of North Africa and amongst Jewish groups, especially those with Cohen surnames. It can also be found much less commonly, but still occasionally in significant amounts, in Europe and as far east as Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.

Origins[edit]

Since the discovery of haplogroup J-P209 it has generally been recognized that it shows signs of having originated in or near West Asia. The frequency and diversity of both its major branches, J-M267 and J-M172, in that region makes them candidates as genetic markers of the spread of farming technology during the Neolithic, which is proposed to have had a major impact upon human populations.

J-M267 has several recognized subclades, some of which were recognized before J-M267 itself was recognized, for example J-M62 Y Chromosome Consortium "YCC" 2002. With one notable exception, J-P58, most of these are not common (Tofanelli 2009). Because of the dominance of J-P58 in J-M267 populations in many areas, discussion of J-M267's origins require a discussion of J-P58 at the same time.

Distribution[edit]

Africa[edit]

North Africa and Horn of Africa[edit]

North Africa received Semitic migrations, according to some studies it may have been diffused in recent time by Arabs who, mainly from the 7th century a.d., expanded to northern Africa (Arredi 2004 and Semino 2004). However the Canary islands is not known to have had any Semitic language. There J-M267 is dominated by J-P58, and dispersed in a very uneven manner according to studies so far, often but not always being lower among Berber and/or non-urban populations. In Ethiopia there are signs of older movements of J-M267 into Africa across the Red Sea, not only in the J-P58 form. This also appears to be associated with Semitic languages. According to a study in 2011, in Tunisia, J-M267 is significantly more abundant in the urban (31.3%) than in the rural total population (2.5%). According to the authors, these results could be explained by supposing that Arabization in Tunisia was a military enterprise, therefore, mainly driven by men that displaced native Berbers to geographically marginal areas but that frequently married Berber women (Ennafaa 2011).

Population Sample size J*(xJ-M172) total J-M267 J-M267(xP58) J-P58 publication previous research on same samples
Algeria (Arabs from Oran) 102 NA 22.5% NA NA Robino 2007
Algeria 20 NA 35% NA NA Semino 2004
Egypt 147 NA 21.1% 1.4% 19.7% Chiaroni 2009 Luis 2004
Egypt 124 NA 19.8% NA NA El-Sibai 2009
Egypt (Western Desert) 35 NA 31.4% NA NA Kujanová 2009
Libya (Tuareg) 47 NA 0.0% NA NA Ottoni 2011
Morocco (Amizmiz Valley) 33 NA 0% NA NA Alvarez 2009
Morocco 51 NA 19.6% NA NA Onofri 2008
Morocco (Arabs) 49 NA 10.2% NA NA Semino 2004
Morocco (Arabs) 44 NA 13.6% NA NA Semino 2004
Morocco (Berbers) 64 NA 6.3% NA NA Semino 2004
Morocco (Berbers) 103 NA 7.8% NA NA Semino 2004
Tunisia 73 NA 30.1% NA NA Semino 2004
Tunisia (Tunis) 148 NA 32.4% 1.3% 31.1% Grugni 2012 Arredi 2004
Tunisia 52 NA 34.6% NA NA Onofri 2008
Tunisia (Bou Omrane Berbers) 40 NA 0% NA NA Ennafaa 2011
Tunisia (Bou Saad Berbers) 40 NA 5% 0% 5% Ennafaa 2011
Tunisia (Jerbian Arabs) 46 NA 8.7% NA NA Ennafaa 2011
Tunisia (Jerbian Berbers) 47 NA 0% NA NA Ennafaa 2011
Tunisia (Sened Berbers) 35 NA 31.4% 0% 31.4% Fadhlaoui-Zid 2011
Tunisia (Andalusian Zaghouan) 32 NA 43.8% 0% 43.8% Fadhlaoui-Zid 2011
Tunisia (Cosmopolitan Tunis) 33 NA 24.2 0% 24.2% Fadhlaoui-Zid 2011
Canary Islands (pre-Hispanic) 30 NA 16.7% NA NA Fregel 2009
Canary Islands (17th-18thC) 42 NA 11.9% NA NA Fregel 2009
Canary Islands 652 NA 3.5% NA NA Fregel 2009
Sahrawi 89 NA 20.2% NA NA Fregel 2009 Bosch 2001 and Flores 2001
Sudan (Khartoum) 35 NA 74.3% 0.0% 74.3% Chiaroni 2009 Tofanelli 2009 and Hassan 2008
Sudan-Arabic 35 NA 17.1% 0.0% 17.1% Chiaroni 2009 Hassan 2008
Sudan (Nilo-Saharan languages) 61 NA 4.9% 3.3% 1.6% Chiaroni 2009 Hassan 2008
Ethiopia Oromo 78 NA 2.6% 2.6% 0.0% Chiaroni 2009 Semino 2004
Ethiopia Amhara 48 NA 29.2% 8.3% 20.8% Chiaroni 2009 Semino 2004
Ethiopia Arsi 85 22% NA NA NA Moran 2004
Ethiopia General 95 21% NA NA NA Moran 2004
Comoros Islands 293 NA 5.0% NA NA Msaidie 2011

Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

J*(xJ-M172) was found in India among Indian Muslims.[1]

Population Sample size J*(xJ-M172) total J-M267 J-M267(xP58) J-P58 Publication
India (Indian Shia) 161 10.6% NA NA NA Eaaswarkhanth 2009
India (Indian Sunni) 129 2.3% NA NA NA Eaaswarkhanth 2009
India (Mappla) 40 10% NA NA NA Eaaswarkhanth 2009

West Asia[edit]

The area including eastern Turkey and the Zagros and Taurus mountains, has been identified as a likely area of ancient J-M267 diversity. Both J-P58 and other types of J-M267 are present, sometimes with similar frequencies.

Population Sample size Total J-M267 J-M267(xP58) J-P58 Publication Previous research on same samples
Turkey 523 9.0% 3.1% 5.9% Chiaroni 2009 Cinnioğlu 2004
Iran 150 11.3% 2.7% 8.7% Chiaroni 2009 Regueiro 2006
Kurds Iraq 93 11.8% 4.3% 7.5% Chiaroni 2009
Assyrians modern Iraq 28 28.6% 17.9% 10.7% Chiaroni 2009
Iraq (Nassiriya) 56 26.8% 1.8% 25.0% Chiaroni 2009 Tofanelli 2009
Assyrians Iran 31 16.1% 9.7% 6.5% Chiaroni 2009
Iran 92 3.2% NA NA El-Sibai 2009
Assyrians Turkey 25 20.0% 16.0% 4.0% Chiaroni 2009

Levant and Jewish populations[edit]

J-M267 is very common throughout this region, dominated by J-P58, but some specific sub-populations have notably low frequencies.

Population Sample size Total J-M267 J-M267(xP58) J-P58 Publication Previous research on same samples
Syria 554 33.6% NA NA El-Sibai 2009 Zalloua 2008
Druzes (Djebel Druze) 34 14.7% 2.9% 11.8% Chiaroni 2009
Syria (Sunni from Hama) 36 47.2% 2.8% 44.4% Chiaroni 2009
Syria (Ma'loula Aramaean) 44 6.8% 4.5% 2.3% Chiaroni 2009
Syria (Sednaya Syriac Catholic) 14 14.3% 0.0% 14.3% Chiaroni 2009
Syrian Catholic Damascus 42 9.5% 0.0% 9.5% Chiaroni 2009
Alawites Syria 45 26.7% 0.0% 26.7% Chiaroni 2009
Assyrian NE Syria 30 3.3% 0.0% 3.3% Chiaroni 2009
Ismaili Damascus 51 58.8% 0.0% 58.8% Chiaroni 2009
Lebanon 951 18.9% NA NA Zalloua 2008
Galilee Druze 172 13.4% 1.2% 12.2% Chiaroni 2009 Shlush 2008
Palestinians (Akka (Acre)) 101 39.2% NA NA Zalloua 2008
Palestine 49 32.7% 0.0% 32.7% Chiaroni 2009
Jordan 76 48.7% 0.0% 48.7% Chiaroni 2009
Jordan 273 35.5% NA NA El-Sibai 2009
Jordan (Amman) 101 40.6% NA NA Flores 2005
Jordan (Dead Sea) 45 8.9% NA NA Flores 2005
Jews (Portugal/Trás-os-Montes) 57 12.3% NA NA Nogueiro 2009
Jews (Cohanim) 215 46.0% 0.0% 46.0% Hammer & Behar 2009
Jews (non Cohanim) 1,360 14.9% 0.9% 14.0% Hammer 2009
Bedouin Negev 28 67.9% 3.6% 64.3% Chiaroni 2009 Cann 2002

Arabian peninsula[edit]

J-P58 is the most common Y-Chromosome haplogroup among men from all of this region.

Population Sample size Total J-M267 J-M267(xP58) J-P58 Publication Previous research on same samples
Saudi Arabia 157 40.1% NA NA Abu-Amero 2009
Qatar 72 58.3% 1.4% 56.9% Chiaroni 2009 Cadenas 2007
UAE 164 34.8% 0.0% 34.8% Chiaroni 2009 Cadenas 2007
Yemen 62 72.6% 4.8% 67.7% Chiaroni 2009 Cadenas 2007
Kuwait 42 33.3% NA NA El-Sibai 2009
Oman 121 38.0% 0.8% 37.2% Chiaroni 2009 Luis 2004

Europe[edit]

J-M267 is uncommon in most of Europe, but it is found in some sub-populations in southern Europe.

Population Sample size Total J-M267 J-M267(xP58) J-P58 publication
Crete 193 8.3% NA NA King 2008
Greece (mainland) 171 4.7% NA NA King 2008
Macedonia (Greece) 56 1.8% NA NA Semino 2004
Greece 249 1.6% NA NA Di Giacomo 2004
Bulgaria 808 3.4% NA NA Karachanak 2013
Romania 130 1.5% NA NA Di Giacomo 2004
Russia 223 0.4% NA NA Di Giacomo 2004
Republic of Macedonia Albanian speakers 64 6.3% NA NA Battaglia 2008
Albania 56 3.6% NA NA Semino 2004
Croats (Osijek) 29 0.0% NA NA Battaglia 2008
Slovenia 75 1.3% NA NA Battaglia 2008
Italians (northeast) 67 0.0% NA NA Battaglia 2008
Italians 915 0.7% NA NA Capelli 2009
Sicily 236 3.8% NA NA Di Gaetano 2008
Provence 51 2% NA NA King 2011
Portugal (North) 101 1.0% NA NA Gonçalves 2005
Portugal (Centre) 102 4.9% NA NA Gonçalves 2005
Portugal (South) 100 7.0% NA NA Gonçalves 2005
Açores 121 2.5% NA NA Gonçalves 2005
Madeira 129 0.0% NA NA Gonçalves 2005

Caucasus[edit]

The Caucasus has areas of both high and low J-M267 frequency. The J-M267 in the Caucasus is also notable because most of it is not within the J-P58 subclade.

Population Sample size Total J-M267 J-M267(xP58) J-P58 Publication
Avars 115 59.0% 58.0% 1.0% Balanovsky 2011
Dargins 101 70.0% 69.0% 1.0% Balanovsky 2011
Kubachi 65 99.0% 99.0% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Kaitak 33 85.0% 85.0% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Lezghins 81 44.4% 44.4% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Shapsug 100 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Abkhaz 58 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Circassians 142 11.9% 4.9% 7.0% Balanovsky 2011
Ingush 143 2.8% 2.8% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Ossets 357 1.3% 1.3% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Chechens (Ingushetia) 112 21.0% 21.0% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Chechens (Chechnya) 118 25.0% 25.0% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Chechens (Dagestan) 100 16.0% 16.0% 0.0% Balanovsky 2011
Azerbaijan 46 15.2% NA NA Di Giacomo 2004

Subclade Distribution[edit]

J-P58[edit]

J1-P58 (AKA J-PAGE8) is found in a low frequency in the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula (Janzen 2013).

The P58 marker which defines subgroup J-P58 was announced in (Karafet 2008), but had been announced earlier under the name Page08 in (Repping 2006 and called that again in Chiaroni 2011). It is very prevalent in many areas where J-M267 is common, especially in parts of North Africa and throughout the Arabian peninsula. It also makes up approximately 70% of the J-M267 among the Amhara of Ethiopia. Notably, it is not common among the J-M267 populations in the Caucasus.

Chiaroni 2009 proposed that J-P58 (that they refer to as J1e) might have first dispersed during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, "from a geographical zone, including northeast Syria, northern Iraq and eastern Turkey toward Mediterranean Anatolia, Ismaili from southern Syria, Jordan, Palestine and northern Egypt." They further propose that the Zarzian material culture may be ancestral. They also propose that this movement of people may also be linked to the dispersal of Semitic languages by hunter-herders, who moved into arid areas during periods known to have had low rainfall. Thus, while other haplogroups including J-M172 moved out of the area with agriculturalists who followed the rainfall, populations carrying J-M267 remained with their flocks (King 2002 and Chiaroni 2008).

According to this scenario, after the initial neolithic expansion involving Semitic languages, which possibly reached as far as Yemen, a more recent dispersal occurred during the Chalcolithic or Early Bronze Age (approximately 3000–5000 BCE), and this involved the branch of Semitic which leads to the Arabic language. The authors propose that this involved a spread of some J-P58 from the direction of Syria towards Arab populations of the Arabian Peninsula and Negev.

On the other hand, the authors agree that later waves of dispersion in and around this area have also had complex effects upon the distributions of some types of J-P58 in some regions. They list three regions which are particularly important to their proposal:

  1. The Levant (Syria, Jordan, Israel and Palestine). In this area, Chiaroni 2009 note a "patchy distribution of J1e frequency" which is difficult to interpret, and which "may reflect the complex demographic dynamics of religion and ethnicity in the region".
  2. The northern area of eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and northwest Iran. In this area, Chiaroni 2009 recognize signs that J-M267 might have an older presence, and on balance they accept the evidence but note that it could be in error.
  3. The southern area of Oman, Yemen and Ethiopia. In this area, Chiaroni 2009 recognize similar signs, but reject it as possible a result of "either sampling variability and/or demographic complexity associated with multiple founders and multiple migrations."

The "YCAII=22-22 and DYS388≥15" cluster[edit]

Not only is the J-P58 group itself very dominant in many areas where J-M267 is common, but J-P58 in turn contains a large cluster which had been recognized before the discovery of P58, and is still a subject of research. This relatively young cluster, compared to J-M267 overall, was identified by STR markers haplotypes - specifically YCAII as 22-22, and DYS388 having unusual repeat values of 15 or higher, instead of more typical 13 (Chiaroni 2011) This cluster was found to be relevant in some well-publicized studies of Jewish and Palestinian populations (Nebel 2000 and Hammer 2009). More generally, since then this cluster has been found to be frequent among men in the Middle East and North Africa, but less frequent in areas of Ethiopia and Europe where J-M267 is nevertheless common. The pattern is therefore similar to the pattern of J-P58 generally, described above, and may be caused by the same movements of people (Chiaroni 2009).

Tofanelli 2009 refers to this overall cluster with YCAII=22-22 and high DYS388 values as an "Arabic" as opposed to a "Eurasian" type of J-M267. This Arabic type includes Arabic speakers from Maghreb, Sudan, Iraq and Qatar, and it is a relatively homogeneous group, implying that it might have dispersed relatively recently compared to J-M267 generally. The more diverse "Eurasian" group includes Europeans, Kurds, Iranians and Ethiopians (despite Ethiopia being outside of Eurasia), and is much more diverse. The authors also say that "Omanis show a mix of Eurasian pool-like and typical Arabic haplotypes as expected, considering the role of corridor played at different times by the Gulf of Oman in the dispersal of Asian and East African genes." Chiaroni 2009 also noted the anomalously high apparent age of Omani J-M267 when looking more generally at J-P58 and J-M267 more generally.

This cluster in turn contains three well-known related sub-clusters. First, it contains the majority of the Jewish "Cohen modal haplotype", found among Jewish populations, but especially in men with surnames related to Cohen. It also contains both the Galilee modal haplotype and Palestinian & Israeli Arab modal haplotype associated with Palestinians and Israeli Arabs by Nebel 2000 and Hammer 2009. Nebel 2002 then pointed out that the Galilee modal is also the most frequent type of J-P209 haplotype found in northwest Africans, and in Yemen, so it is not isolated to the area of Israel and the Palestine. But notably, this particular variant "is absent from two distinct non-Arab Middle Eastern populations, Jews and Muslim Kurds", even though both these populations do have high levels of J-P209 haplotypes.

Nebel 2002 noted not only the presence of the Galilee modal of J-M267 in the Maghreb but also that J-M267 in this region had very little diversity generally. They concluded that J-M267 in this region "is derived not only from the early Neolithic dispersion but also from recent expansions from the Arabian peninsula" proposing that they might have been carried from the Middle East with the Arab expansion in the seventh century AD. Semino 2004 later agreed that this seemed consistent with the evidence and generalized from this that distribution of the entire YCAII=22-22 cluster of J-M267 in the Arabic speaking areas of the Middle East and North Africa might in fact mainly have an origin in historical times.

More recent studies have emphasized doubt that the Islamic expansions are old enough to completely explain the major patterns of J-M267 frequencies. Chiaroni 2009 rejected this for J-P58 as a whole, but accepted that "some of the populations with low diversity, such as Bedouins from Israel, Qatar, Sudan and UAE, are tightly clustered near high-frequency haplotypes suggesting founder effects with star burst expansion in the Arabian Desert". They did not comment on the Maghreb.

Tofanelli 2009 take a stronger position of rejecting any strong correlation between the Arab expansion and either the YCAII=22-22 STR-defined sub-cluster as discussed by Semino 2004 or the smaller "Galilee modal" as discussed by (Nebel 2002). They also estimate that the Cohen modal haplotype must be older than 4500 years old, and maybe as much as 8600 years old - well before the supposed origin of the Cohanim. Only the so-called Palestinian & Israeli Arab modal had a strong correlation to an ethnic group, but it was also rare. In conclusion, the authors were negative about the usefulness of STR defined modals for any "forensic or genealogical purposes" because "they were found across ethnic groups with different cultural or geographic affiliation".

Hammer 2009 disagreed, at least concerning the Cohen modal haplotype. They said that it was necessary to look at a more detailed STR haplotype in order to define a new "Extended Cohen Modal Haplotype" which is extremely rare outside Jewish populations, and even within Jewish populations is mainly only found in Cohanim. They also said that by using more markers and a more restrictive definition, the estimated age of the Cohanim lineage is lower than the estimates of Tofanelli 2009, and it is consistent with a common ancestor at the approximate time of founding of the priesthood which is the source of Cohen surnames.

J-M368[edit]

The correspondence between P58 and high DYS388 values, and YCAII=22-22 is not perfect. For example the J-M368 subclade of J-P58 defined by SNP M368 has DYS388=13 and YCAII=19-22, like other types of J-M267 outside the "Arabic" type of J-M267, and it is therefore believed to be a relatively old offshoot of J-P58, that did not take part in the most recent waves of J-M267 expansion in the Middle East (Chiaroni 2009). These DYS388=13 haplotypes are most common in the Caucasus and Anatolia, but also found in Ethiopia (Tofanelli 2009).

J-M267[edit]

J-M267 clusters are found in Eastern Anatolia & parts of the Caucasus (Givargidze & Hrechdakian 2013).

J-M62[edit]

J-M62 is found in a very small frequency in Britain.

J-M365.1[edit]

J-M365.1 is found in a small frequency in Eastern Anatolia, Iran & parts of Europe (Costa de Oliveira 2013).

J-L136[edit]

J-L136 if found in a very small frequency in Europe (Janzen 2013).

J-P56[edit]

J-P56 is found sporadically in Anatolia, East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula & Europe (Janzen 2013).

J-L92[edit]

J-L92 is found in a small frequency in South Arabia (Janzen 2013).

J-L147.1[edit]

J-L147.1 accounts for the majority of J-M267, the predominant haplogroup in Yemen (Chiaroni 2009). accounts for the majority of J-M267 in Yemen, Cohen Jews and Ethiopia (Janzen 2013) as well as Quraysh including Seyyed[citation needed].

J-L222.2[edit]

J-L222.1 is found in Saudi Arabia & Sudan as well as in North Africa (Eddali 2013).

Phylogenetics[edit]

In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-M267. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.

The FTDNA J1 Y-DNA Project tree[edit]

A phylogenetic tree for haplogroup J-M267 is maintained by Victar Mas of the FTDNA J1 Y-DNA Project.[2]

The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

Thomas Krahn of the Genomic Research Center developed this draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup J-M267 (Krahn & FTDNA 2013). For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • M267, L255, L321, L765, L814, L827, L1030
    • M62
    • M365.1
    • L136, L572, L620
      • M390
      • P56
      • P58, L815, L828
        • M368.1
        • M369
        • L92.1, L93
        • L147.1, L858, L862, Z643
        • L386
        • L817, L818
        • L860
      • L256
    • Z1828, Z1829, Z1832, Z1833, Z1834, Z1836, Z1839, Z1840, Z1841, Z1843, Z1844
      • Z1842
      • L972

The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree[edit]

This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008 (Karafet 2008). Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.[3]

The ISOGG tree[edit]

Below are the subclades of Haplogroup J-P209 with their defining mutation, according to the ISOGG tree (as of March 2010). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and further refine the tree. For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA J Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ -Middle Eastern and Sub-Saharan lineages in Indian Muslim populations
  2. ^ Mas, V. (2013). Y-DNA Haplogroup J1 phylogenetic tree. doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.741212.  edit
  3. ^ "Y-DNA Haplotree".  Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website.

Footnotes[edit]

Works Cited[edit]

Journals[edit]

Websites[edit]

Haplogroups/Phylogeny

Haplotype/SNP research Projects. See also Y-DNA haplogroup projects (ISOGG Wiki)

  • Schrack; Janzen; Rottensteiner; Ricci; Mas (2013). "Y-DNA J Haplogroup Project". Family Tree DNA.  This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 2300 members.
    • Givargidze; Hrechdakian (2013). "J1* Y-DNA Project". Family Tree DNA.  This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 150 members.
    • Al Haddad (2013). "J1c3 (J-L147)". Family Tree DNA.  This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 550 members.
    • Cone; Al Gazzah; Sanders (2013). "J-M172 Y-DNA Project (J2)". Family Tree DNA.  This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 1050 members.
    • Aburto; Katz; Al Gazzah; Janzen (2013). "J-L24-Y-DNA Haplogroup Project (J2a1h)". Family Tree DNA.  This is an ongoing research project by citizen scientists. Over 450 members.

Haplogroup-Specific Ethnic/Geographical Group Projects

Further reading[edit]

Phylogenetic Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-M267 and its earlier discovered and named subclade J-M62 in published peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-M267 J-M62
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 - 9
    Underhill 2000 - VI
    Hammer 2001 - Med
    Karafet 2001 - 23
    Semino 2000 - Eu10
    Su 1999 - H4
    Capelli 2001 - B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) - J1
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J1 J1a
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J1 J1a
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J1 J1a
  2. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-P209 (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304) in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-P209
    (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304)
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9
    Underhill 2000 VI
    Hammer 2001 Med
    Karafet 2001 23
    Semino 2000 Eu10
    Su 1999 H4
    Capelli 2001 B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) J*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J

External links[edit]