Haplogroup K(xLT) (Y-DNA)
|Possible time of origin||35,000-45,000 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Most likely Southeast Asia|
|Descendants||*Major lines K2a-M214 (also known as NOX) as well as K2b-p331 (also known as MP but also ancestor of S and all K* in Aeta and Melanesia+ Australia includes haplogroup R1 y-dna)
|Defining mutations||rs2033003 (M526)|
In population genetics, Haplogroup K2 is a human Y-DNA Haplogroup (formerly MNOPS). A haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup K(xLT) shares a common ancestor with Paragroup K* and Haplogroup LT, and together they form a macrohaplogroup called Haplogroup K.
Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q.
Haplogroup K(xLT)(also known as K2) is the ancestral haplogroup to two main haplogroups, one of which is NOX (also known as K2a) which includes most Eastern Eurasian and Finno-Ugrian male lineages, another MPS(also known as K2b) Mostly found in Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, Siberia, Eastern Indonesia, Melanesia, and Australia. These two branch's take up all K(xLTS) ever found anywhere, other than Indonesia, including all K in Papua New Guinea. Two other verified branch's exist in K(xLT) one found at a low frequency in Java the other a low frequency in Bali. 6 unresolved K'S exist 5 in Sumatra and 1 in Sulawesi, since these are all found in or near Sumatra they probably make up the 5th and last branch of K2b(KxLT), but that has not been verified.
The naming of K(xLT) was a "revolution" in haplogroup designation, because prior to that the formula "K(xLT)" never designated a single haplogroup, but instead "everything that belongs to K, but does not belong to LT". The traditional way would have been to rename haplogroups K1, K2, K3 and K4 into U, V, W and X, and to rename MNOPS into MNOPSUVWX, but the YCC decided otherwise. This poses a great problem, because there is no way to disambiguate between "K(xLT)" in the traditional and in the new meaning.
The basic structure is as follows:
Haplogroup LT (K2). Spotty with L being found at its highest frequency in Baloch of Afghanistan and western cost of India and Pakistan , while T is most common among some Jewish communities, Ethiopan Somalians, some alpine cities, some Aegean Islands and a few tribes of India
- Ancient populations haplogroups are assumed from small ancient sample sizes.
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
- Karafet et al. 2014
- Jacques Chiaroni, Peter A. Underhill, and Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza, "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution," PNAS published online before print November 17, 2009, doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106 PMID 19920170
- Genetic Structure in Contemporary South Tyrolean Isolated Populations Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu Polymorphisms
- Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios