Haplogroup K2

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Haplogroup K(xLT)
Possible time of origin 35,000-45,000 years BP
Possible place of origin Most likely Southeast Asia[1]
Ancestor K
Descendants *Major lines K2a-M214 (also known as NOX) as well as K2b-p331 (also known as MP but also ancestor of S and all K* in Aeta and Melanesia+ Australia includes haplogroup R1 y-dna)
  • Minor Lines K2c-P261 minor lineage of Bali(2-3%) and K2d-P402 small line in Java(2-3%). Out of 4226 k samples 5 were unresolved 4 in Sumatra which probably make up another Minor clade [1]
Defining mutations rs2033003 (M526)

In population genetics, Haplogroup K2 is a human Y-DNA Haplogroup (formerly MNOPS).[2] A haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup K(xLT) shares a common ancestor with Paragroup K* and Haplogroup LT, and together they form a macrohaplogroup called Haplogroup K.

Estimates of the interval times for the branching events between M9 and P295 point to an initial rapid diversification process of K-M526 that likely occurred in Southeast Asia, with subsequent westward expansions of the ancestors of haplogroups R and Q.[1]

Haplogroup K(xLT)(also known as K2) is the ancestral haplogroup to two main haplogroups, one of which is NOX (also known as K2a) which includes most Eastern Eurasian and Finno-Ugrian male lineages, another MPS(also known as K2b) Mostly found in Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, Siberia, Eastern Indonesia, Melanesia, and Australia. These two branch's take up all K(xLTS) ever found anywhere, other than Indonesia, including all K in Papua New Guinea. Two other verified branch's exist in K(xLT) one found at a low frequency in Java the other a low frequency in Bali. 6 unresolved K'S exist 5 in Sumatra and 1 in Sulawesi, since these are all found in or near Sumatra they probably make up the 5th and last branch of K2b(KxLT), but that has not been verified.

The naming of K(xLT) was a "revolution" in haplogroup designation, because prior to that the formula "K(xLT)" never designated a single haplogroup, but instead "everything that belongs to K, but does not belong to LT". The traditional way would have been to rename haplogroups K1, K2, K3 and K4 into U, V, W and X, and to rename MNOPS into MNOPSUVWX, but the YCC decided otherwise. This poses a great problem, because there is no way to disambiguate between "K(xLT)" in the traditional and in the new meaning.

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

The basic structure is as follows:


Haplogroup LT (K2). Spotty with L being found at its highest frequency in Baloch of Afghanistan and western cost of India and Pakistan , while T is most common among some Jewish communities, Ethiopan Somalians, some alpine cities, some Aegean Islands and a few tribes of India


K2*

K2* 5 cases in Sumatra and 1 case in Sulawesi


K2a

X-M147. Highly rare lineage in India. 2 samples found so far.




N Found near Arctic Circle, Yakuts, Finno Ugrians (Ancient samples: Most remains from the Yangshao, Hongshan,Ancient elite Hungarians, Xiongnu and prehistoric Yakuts while the Xiajiadian mixed between O3)



O Sino-Tibetans +prehistoric Longshan and Daxi and Xiajiadian which was divided between N and O3 (Xiajiadian was mixed others were pure) (O3), Austronesians + prehistoric Liangzhu (O1), and Austro-Asiatics (O2) dominant east Asian line (O) note O1 and O2 form a clade against O3 called O1'2




K2b


K2b1

M (M-P256*). Found in Papua New Guinea, New Britain and across Melanesia but very rare in Australia .



S (S-P405)Found in Papua New Guinea, New Britain and across Melanesia and Australia but rare in Polynesia found in 1900 ad Australian Aborigine (not to be confused with S-P230).



K2b1-P378 Found exclusively in the Aeta who have it at 60%.



K2b1-P336 found at 26% on the Island of Alor found also in other parts of eastern Indonesia at very low frequency



K2b2


P-P295(x45)

, 28% of Aeta



10% of Timor rare in other parts of Indonesia



P-P295

Q-M242 Kets , Selkups, Turkmen, Altai, Tuvans, Far East Siberia, Americas (Ancient Samples Anzick from Montana, Prehistoric Alaskan + Ancient Greenlander+Xirong, Mongolian Altai Kurgans (R1a-z93 mixed with Q1a2a1-L54) and possibly Afantova.




†R0m* sequence from Mal'ta' in Siberia 24kya y-dna sequence




R2 found in India, Sri Lanka, North Pakistan isolates




R1a found in East Europe, India, Central Asia, Altai, Scandinavia, Uighers(Satem) Ancient samples include 10 out of 11 samples from Tocharians from the Xiaohe Culture, Andronovo, Pazyryk, Mongolian Altai Kurgans (R1a-z93 mixed with Q1a2a1-L54) , The Tagar Culture some Corded ware folk



R1b West Europe, Chadic Langauges, Armenian Highlands (Found in several Bell Beakers from Germany and in late antique Basques of whom it is still common in as well as 13.3% (4):one P probably R1b2-v88: of Guanches from the Canary Islands, (reports of King Tut by iGENEA belonging to R1b have not been verified)









K2c-P261. Minor lineage of Bali.



K2d-P402 Minor lineage of Java



  • Ancient populations haplogroups are assumed from small ancient sample sizes.
    • † Stands for assumed extinction (no living sample of the same haplogroup)
      • [3] Entire Phlogeny except for Hg X + distribution of K2b1 clades K2* clades and K2c+K2d, as well as P(xm45)

[10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17][18][19][20] Modern Populations+Ancient Basques


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karafet et al. 2014
  2. ^ Jacques Chiaroni, Peter A. Underhill, and Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza, "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution," PNAS published online before print November 17, 2009, doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106 PMID 19920170
  3. ^ http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2014106a.html
  4. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v505/n7481/full/nature12736.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20140102
  5. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13025.html
  6. ^ http://www.fsigenetics.com/article/S1872-4973(14)00116-1/abstract
  7. ^ http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2148-9-181.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041252
  9. ^ http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/journals/journal/ca.html
  10. ^ http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0034288
  11. ^ http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0056775
  12. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1287948/
  13. ^ Genetic Structure in Contemporary South Tyrolean Isolated Populations Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu Polymorphisms
  14. ^ Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios
  15. ^ http://www.krepublishers.com/06-Special%20Volume-Journal/T-Anth-00-Special%20Volumes/T-Anth-SI-03-Anth-Today-Web/Anth-SI-03-31-Trivedi-R/Anth-SI-03-31-Trivedi-R-Tt.pdf
  16. ^ http://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/11443
  17. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531513103016352
  18. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051990
  19. ^ yhrd.org
  20. ^ http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/717.long
  21. ^ http://www.phylotree.org/Y/tree/index.htm
  22. ^ http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2013/12/13/000802