Haplogroup K-M9

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Haplogroup K-M9
Possible time of origin 47,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin South or West Asia
Ancestor IJK
Descendants K(xLT), and LT
Defining mutations M9, P128, P131, P132

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup K-M9 (M9) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. This haplogroup is a descendant of Haplogroup IJK. Its major descendant haplogroup are Haplogroup LT (L298 = P326) and Haplogroup K(xLT) (M526).[2] Haplogroup K-M9, and its descendant haplogroup Paragroup K* is found in Polynesia, Melanesia, Australia. These lineages are found at low frequency in the Malay Archipelago (see the above table for descendants and mutations of haplogroup K-M9).

Origins[edit]

Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage established approximately 40,000-50,000 years ago whose origins were probably in Southwestern Asia or South Asia. At present this group contains two distinct classes of subgroups: (1) major groups L to T (refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree) and (2) minor groups K* and K1 to K4 which do not have any of the SNPs defining the major groups. These groups are found at low frequencies in various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.[3]

Subgroups[edit]

The basic structure of descent from the common male-line ancestor is as follows:

Haplogroup K-M9* High in some of the Islands of Polynesia, moderate in Melanesia and Australia

Paragroup K*. Especially in Oceania. High in Melanesia Australia moderate in Polynesia. Low in Timor, and Philippines. Low in India where K1 lineage is found more commonly compared to Australia.


LT

Haplogroup L. South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia.



Haplogroup T. Scattered, but mainly found in Fulbe people (Cameroon). Most of them live in East Africa, South and East India and Upper Egypt.



Macro-haplogroup K(xLT)

Haplogroup M. New Guinea, Indonesia, Melanesia and Polynesia.


Haplogroup NO

Haplogroup N. Mainly found in Northern Asia, parts of Polynesia, Northern Europe, and Eastern Europe.



Haplogroup O. Mainly found in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania including Polynesia.



Haplogroup P

Haplogroup Q. Mainly found in Northern Asia and the Americas.


Haplogroup R

Macro-haplogroup R1. Mainly found in Central Asia, South Asia and Europe as well as parts of West Asia, North America, Polynesia (sporadic), and Africa.



Haplogroup R2. Mainly found in South Asia, parts of Central Asia and West Asia.





Haplogroup S. New Guinea, Indonesia, and Melanesia.




A more detailed summary of the subclades of Haplogroup K with their defining mutation, according to Karafet et al. (2008)[1] (abbreviated for clarity to a maximum of three steps away from the root of Haplogroup K). Is given next. Note The 2008 paper made a number of changes compared to the previous 2006 ISOGG tree. The former subgroups K2 and K5 were renamed Haplogroups T and S; the old subgroups K1 and K7 were re-assigned as new subgroups M2 and M3 of a redefined Haplogroup M

  • K-M9

(M9) Typical of populations of Oceania with highest frequencies in the world in Polynesia where K-(M9) lineage is highest in places like Tuvalu = over 45%, Toke-lau, Fiji, Futuna (sub polynesia), Tonga, also found in other places like Samoa and the Cook Islands to a lower extent.[4] Also commonly found in lower frequencies in Melanesia and Australian Aboriginals.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Res. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 
  2. ^ Chiaroni, J.; Underhill, P. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (December 2009). "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (48): 20174–9. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10620174C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106. JSTOR 25593348. PMC 2787129. PMID 19920170. 
  3. ^ ISOGG website[full citation needed]
  4. ^ a b Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific[full citation needed]
  5. ^ Kayser M, Brauer S, Cordaux R, et al. (November 2006). "Melanesian and Asian origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y chromosome gradients across the Pacific". Mol. Biol. Evol. 23 (11): 2234–44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl093. PMID 16923821. 
  6. ^ Hammer MF, Karafet TM, Park H, et al. (2006). "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". J. Hum. Genet. 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082. 
  7. ^ Hurles ME, Sykes BC, Jobling MA, Forster P (May 2005). "The dual origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: evidence from maternal and paternal lineages". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 76 (5): 894–901. doi:10.1086/430051. PMC 1199379. PMID 15793703. 
  8. ^ 2010 ISOGG tree[full citation needed]
  9. ^ Karafet TM, Lansing JS, Redd AJ, et al. (February 2005). "Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders". Hum. Biol. 77 (1): 93–114. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0030. PMID 16114819. 
  10. ^ Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, et al. (November 2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nat. Genet. 26 (3): 358–61. doi:10.1038/81685. PMID 11062480. 
  11. ^ Kayser M, Choi Y, van Oven M, et al. (July 2008). "The impact of the Austronesian expansion: evidence from mtDNA and Y chromosome diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 25 (7): 1362–74. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn078. PMID 18390477. 
  12. ^ Scheinfeldt L, Friedlaender F, Friedlaender J, et al. (August 2006). "Unexpected NRY chromosome variation in Northern Island Melanesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 23 (8): 1628–41. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl028. PMID 16754639. 
  13. ^ Karafet TM, Hallmark B, Cox MP, et al. (August 2010). "Major east-west division underlies Y chromosome stratification across Indonesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 27 (8): 1833–44. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq063. PMID 20207712. 

External links[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MP X S
M P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.