Haplogroup L4 (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup L4
Possible time of origin
Possible place of origin East Africa
Ancestor L3'4
Descendants L4a, L4b
Defining mutations 5460, 16362[1]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

It is a small African haplogroup.[2]

Origin[edit]

Distribution[edit]

L4 is important in East Africa and Horn of Africa. The highest frequencies are in Tanzania among the Hadza at 60-83% and Sandawe at 48%.[3]

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L4 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)

  • L1-6
    • L2-6
      • L2'3'4'6
        • L3'4'6
          • L3'4
            • L4
              • L4a (Formerly known as L7)
                • L4a1
                  • L4a1a
                • L4a2
              • L4b
                • L4b1
                • L4b2 (Formerly known as L3g or L4g)
                  • L4b2a
                    • L4b2a1
                    • L4b2a2
                      • L4b2a2a
                      • L4b2a2b
                  • L4b2b

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  2. ^ Haplogroups L4.
  3. ^ Tishkoff, S. et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

External links[edit]