Haplogroup M-P256

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Haplogroup M-P256

Melanesia M ADN-Y.PNG

Possible time of origin 32,000-47,000 years BP (Scheinfeldt 2006)
Possible place of origin Southeast Asia - Melanesia[citation needed]
Ancestor MS-P397
Defining mutations P256

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup M-P256 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

Origins[edit]

M-P256 is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup MS, and is believed to have first appeared between 32,000 and 47,000 years ago (Scheinfeldt 2006).

Distribution[edit]

M-P256 is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western New Guinea (Kayser 2003).

Subclade Distribution[edit]

M-M4[edit]

Haplogroup M-M4
Possible time of origin 8,200 [3,800–20,600] years BP (Kayser 2003)
Possible place of origin Southeast Asia - Melanesia[citation needed]
Ancestor M-P256
Defining mutations M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35[citation needed]

Found frequently in New Guinea and Melanesia, with a moderate distribution in neighboring parts of Indonesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Haplogroup M-M4[Phylogenetics 1] was also found at 1.7% in the Hazara at Balkh, Mazar-e Sharif (Haber 2012).

M-P34[edit]

M-P34[Phylogenetics 2] is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in Western New Guinea. It is also found with moderate frequency in neighboring parts of Indonesia (Maluku, Nusa Tenggara) and throughout Papua New Guinea, including offshore islands (Karafet 2005 and Kayser 2008).

M-P87[edit]

M-P87(xM104/P22) has been found in approximately 18% (20/109) of a pool of samples from New Ireland, approximately 12% (5/43) of a sample of Lavongai from New Hanover, approximately 5% (19/395) of a pool of samples from New Britain (and, in particular, in about 24% (15/63) of Baining from East New Britain), in one Saposa individual from northern Bougainville, and in another individual from the north coast of Papua New Guinea (Scheinfeldt 2006).

M-P22[edit]

M-P22 (AKA M-M104)[Phylogenetics 3] is found frequently in populations of the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville Island, with a moderate distribution in New Guinea, Fiji, Tonga, East Futuna, and Samoa (Kayser 2008 and Scheinfeldt 2006).

M-M353[edit]

Found at a low frequency in Fiji and East Futuna (Kayser 2006).

M-M177[edit]

M-M177 (AKA M-SRY9138)[Phylogenetics 4] is found in one Nasioi individual from the eastern coast of Bougainville and in one individual from Malaita Province of the Solomon Islands (Cox 2006).

M-P117[edit]

Found frequently in populations of New Britain, and also observed occasionally in northern Bougainville, Fiji, and East Futuna (Kayser 2008 and Scheinfeldt 2006).

M-M16[edit]

Please expand this section on M-M16.[Phylogenetics 5]

M-M83[edit]

Please expand this section on M-M83.[Phylogenetics 6]

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic History[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
M-M4 24 VIII 1U 37 Eu16 H17 E M* M M1 M1 - - - - - - -
M-P34 24 VIII 1U 37 Eu16 H17 E M1 M1 M1a M1a - - - - - - -
M-P22/M-M104 24 VIII 1U 38 Eu16 H17 E M2* M2a M1b1 M1b1 - - - - - - -
M-M16 24 VIII 1U 39 Eu16 H17 E M2a M2a1 M1b1a M1b1a - - - - - - -
M-M83 24 VIII 1U 38 Eu16 H17 E M2b M2a2 M1b1b M1b1b - - - - - - -
K-SRY9138/M-SRY9138 23 VIII 1E 25 Eu16 H5 F K1 K1 M2a M2a - - - - - - -

Original Research Publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Discussion[edit]

The Karafet's 2008 paper introduced a number of changes, compared to the previous 2006 ISOGG tree. Before the discovery of the P256 marker, the current subgroup M-M4 (defined by the M4 marker) previously represented the whole of Haplogroup M-P256; and subgroups M2 and M3 were formerly classed as subgroups K1 and K7 of the parent Haplogroup K.[citation needed]

Phylogenetic Trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • M-P256 (P256)
    • M-M4 (M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35)
      • M-P34 (P34)
        • M-P51 (P51)
        • M-P94 (P94)
      • M-P87 (P87)
        • M-M104 (M104/P22)
          • M-M16 (M16)
          • M-M83 (M83)
    • M-M353 (M353, M387)
      • M-M177 (SRY9138/M177)
    • M-P117 (P117, P118)

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA M Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Works Cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Phylogenetics[edit]

  1. ^ This table shows historic names for M-M4 from peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) M-M4
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
    Underhill 2000 VIII
    Hammer 2001 1U
    Karafet 2001 37
    Semino 2000 Eu16
    Su 1999 H17
    Capelli 2001 E
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) M*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) M
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1
  2. ^ This table shows historic names for M-P34 from peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) M-P34
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
    Underhill 2000 VIII
    Hammer 2001 1U
    Karafet 2001 37
    Semino 2000 Eu16
    Su 1999 H17
    Capelli 2001 E
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) M1
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) M1
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1a
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1a
  3. ^ This table shows historic names for M-P22 from peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) M-P22
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
    Underhill 2000 VIII
    Hammer 2001 1U
    Karafet 2001 38
    Semino 2000 Eu16
    Su 1999 H17
    Capelli 2001 E
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) M2*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) M2a
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1b1
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1b1
  4. ^ This table shows historic names for M-SRY9138 (AKA M-M177) from peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) K-SRY9138/M-SRY9138
    AKA M-M177
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 23
    Underhill 2000 VIII
    Hammer 2001 1E
    Karafet 2001 25
    Semino 2000 Eu16
    Su 1999 H5
    Capelli 2001 F
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) K1
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) K1
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) M2a
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) M2a
  5. ^ This table shows historic names for M-M16 from peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) M-M16
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
    Underhill 2000 VIII
    Hammer 2001 1U
    Karafet 2001 39
    Semino 2000 Eu16
    Su 1999 H17
    Capelli 2001 E
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) M2a
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) M2a1
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1b1a
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1b1a
  6. ^ This table shows historic names for M-M83 from peer reviewed literature.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) M-M83
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 24
    Underhill 2000 VIII
    Hammer 2001 1U
    Karafet 2001 38
    Semino 2000 Eu16
    Su 1999 H17
    Capelli 2001 E
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) M2b
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) M2a2
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) M1b1b
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) M1b1b

External links[edit]