Haplogroup NO

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Haplogroup NO
Possible time of origin 34.600±4.700 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin North Eastern Asia [1]
Ancestor NOX
Descendants N, O and NO*
Defining mutations M214, P188, P192, P193, P194, P195.

In human genetics, Haplogroup NO (M214) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup NO is a descendant branch of the greater Haplogroup MNOPS (also known as K(xLT)) and a phylogenetic sibling of Haplogroup M, Haplogroup P, and Haplogroup S.

Origins[edit]

Haplogroup N and Haplogroup O originated in North East Asia, together they are overwhelmingly dominant in most populations of North and East Eurasia.

Distribution[edit]

No confirmed case of Haplogroup NO* has been found. NO-M214(xN1-LLY22g, O-M175), which potentially may belong either to Haplogroup NO* or to Haplogroup N*-M231(xN1-LLY22g), has been found in 5.7% (2/35) of a sample of Buyi[2] and in 2.9% (6/210) of a pool of four samples of Japanese, particularly in Tokushima (4/70 = 5.7%).[3] Y-DNA Haplogroup NO-M214(xN1-LLY22g, O-M175)also has been found sporadically in samples of Han Chinese,[3] Yizu,[3] Malays,[3] Mongolians,[3] Daurs,[2] Manchurian Evenks,[2] Hezhes,[2] Huis,[2] Yaos,[2] South Koreans,[2] and .[4] However, the two published Han Chinese cases of NO-M214(xN1-LLY22g, O-M175) subsequently have been found to belong to N*-M231(xN1-LLY22g).[5]

A pre-NO case was found in Southern India and was labeled haplogroup X. [6]

Subclades[edit]

Tree[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree[7] and subsequent published research.

See also[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rootsi, Siiri et al.; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Baldovič, Marian; Kayser, Manfred; Kutuev, Ildus A; Khusainova, Rita; Bermisheva, Marina A; Gubina, Marina; Fedorova, Sardana A; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Stoneking, Mark; Lin, Alice A; Ferak, Vladimir; Parik, Jüri; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard (2007). "A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (2): 204–211. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201748. PMID 17149388. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu et al. et al. (2006). "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times". Genetics 172 (4): 2431–2439. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Hammer et al. (2005) "Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes," The Japan Society of Human Genetics, 2005
  4. ^ Cai, X; Qin, Z; Wen, B; Xu, S; Wang, Y et al.; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui (2011). "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes". PLoS ONE 6 (8): e24282. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282. PMC 3164178. PMID 21904623. 
  5. ^ Tatiana M. Karafet, Brian Hallmark, Murray P. Cox et al., "Major East-West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification Across Indonesia," MBE Advance Access published March 5, 2010.
  6. ^ Gregory R Magoon, Raymond H Banks, Christian Rottensteiner, et al., Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using “next-generation” sequencing data, bioRxiv posted online November 22, 2013
  7. ^ Karafet, et al.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (2008). "Abstract New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree". Genome Research 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 

External links[edit]