Haplogroup O-M176

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Haplogroup O-M176
Possible time of origin 6,300 [95% CI 600–37,000] years ago (Katoh 2004)
Possible place of origin Manchuria or a nearby part of northern East Asia[citation needed]
Ancestor O-P31
Defining mutations M176/SRY465, P49, 022454[citation needed]
Highest frequencies Koreans, Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Manchu:

In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup O-M176 (aka O-SRY465) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is best known for its part in the settlement of Korea and Japan. It is a descendant of Haplogroup O-P31.


Haplogroup O-M176 is found mainly in the northernmost parts of East Asia, from the Uriankhai and Zakhchin peoples of western Mongolia (Katoh 2004) to the Japanese of Japan, though it also has been detected sporadically in the Buryats (Jin 2003) and Udegeys (Jin 2010) of southern Siberia, very rarely among populations of Southeast Asia including Indonesia (Hammer 2006 and Jin 2003), the Philippines (Jin 2003), Thailand (Jin 2003), and Vietnam (Hammer 2006 and Jin 2003), and Micronesians (Hammer 2006). This haplogroup is found with its highest frequency and diversity values among modern populations of Japan and Korea and is absent from most populations in China, but it has been detected in some samples of Han Chinese from Beijing (Jin 2003), Xi'an (1/34, Kim 2011), Jiangsu (Lu 2008), Wuhan (1/160),[1] South China outside of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Shanghai (1/65),[2] and Taiwan (1/34 Hakka and 1/258 other miscellaneous Han),[3] and Daurs (Xue 2006), Hezhes (Xue 2006), Koreans in China (Xue 2006 and Katoh 2004), Manchus (Xue 2006, Katoh 2004, and Karafet 2001), Sibes (Xue 2006), and Kham Tibetans.[4]

Subclade distribution[edit]

Paragroup O-M176*[edit]

Only branches of this haplogroup that are labeled as Haplogroup O-M176*, i.e., those that do not exhibit the 47z mutation, have been detected among the indigenous populations of Inner Mongolia and northern Manchuria, and even then they are found only at very low frequencies. However, Haplogroup O-M176* Y-chromosomes have been detected with high frequency in Korea, where they account for between 14% (Jin 2003, Jin 2009, and Xue 2006) to 33% (Hammer 2006) of the Korean male population.


Haplogroup O-47z
Possible time of origin 7,870 [95% CI 5,720–12,630] years ago (Hammer 2006)
Possible place of origin Japanese Archipelago(Hammer 2006) or Korean Peninsula(see Jin 2003)
Ancestor O-M176
Defining mutations 47z
Highest frequencies Include:

The O-47z subclade of O-M176. The first is that it arose in pre-Neolithic Japan and then spread outwards during the Neolithic.

Japan origin[edit]

A subclade of Haplogroup O-M176, Haplogroup O-47z, is found with high frequency among the Japanese people and Ryukyuan populations of Japan. It was likely born there to members of the parent lineage who colonized the Japanese Archipelago much earlier, with the subgroup O-47z subsequently evolving within the proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan population of the western parts of the archipelago.[citation needed] This is suggested by the presence of the parent line's paragroup, O-M176*, among Japanese, although at a relatively low frequency of approximately 4% (Xue 2006) to 8% (Nonaka 2007).

Neolithic expansion[edit]

Haplogroup O-47z has also been detected in approximately 22% of all males who speak a Japonic language, while it has not been found at all among a total of twenty Ainu males whose Y-DNA has been sampled in two genetic studies (Hammer 2006 and Tajima 2004). Based on the STR haplotype diversity within Haplogroup O-47z, it has been estimated that this haplogroup began to experience a population expansion among the proto-Japanese of approximately 4,000 years ago. Haplogroup O-47z also has been found among samples of modern Koreans, though with low frequency in comparison to both the frequency of O-47z in samples of Japanese and the frequency of O-M176(x47z) in samples of Koreans.


Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O-M176 (M176/SRY465, P49, 022454)
    • O-47z (47z)

See also[edit]


Y-DNA O subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 



  1. ^ 238/744=32.0% O-M176 in a pool of all Japanese samples of (Xue 2006), (Katoh 2004), (Jin 2009), (Nonaka 2007), and all non-Ainu and non-Okinawan Japanese samples of (Hammer 2006).
  2. ^ 202/677=29.8% O-M176 in a pool of all ethnic Korean samples of (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), (Katoh 2004), (Kim 2007), and (Jin 2009).
  3. ^ 30/132=22.7% O-M176 in a pool of all Okinawan data from (Hammer 2006) and (Nonaka 2007)
  4. ^ 45/232=19.4% O-M176 in a pool of all Manchu samples of (Karafet 2001), (Jin 2003), (Katoh 2004), and (Xue 2006))
  5. ^ 150/628=23.9% O-47z in a pool of all non-Ainu and non-Okinawan Japanese samples of (Jin 2003), (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Nonaka 2007)
  6. ^ 22/132=16.7% O-47z in a pool of all Okinawan samples of Hammer 2006 and Nonaka 2007
  7. ^ 41/519=7.9% O-47z in a pool of all ethnic Korean samples of (Jin 2003), (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Kim 2007)
  8. ^ 9/135=6.7% O-47z in a pool of all "Manchu" or "Manchurian" samples of (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Jin 2009)

Works cited[edit]

  1. ^ Huang Dai-Xin, Yang Qing-En, Yin Hui et al., "Genetic Polymorphism of 23 Y Chromosome Biallelic Markers in Wuhan Han Population," HEREDITAS (Beijing) 28 (7) 791~798, 2006
  2. ^ Yan, Shi; Chuan-Chao, Wang; Hui, Li; Li, Shi-Lin; Jin, Li; Schurr, Theodore G; Santos, Fabricio R; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; John Mitchell, R; Jin, Li; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Cooper, Alan; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Royyuru, Ajay K; Platt, Daniel E; Parida, Laxmi; Blue-Smith, Jason; Soria Hernanz, David F; Spencer Wells, R (2011). "An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4". European Journal of Human Genetics 19 (9): 1013–1015. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.64. PMC 3179364. PMID 21505448. 
  3. ^ Jean A Trejaut, Estella S Poloni, Ju-Chen Yen et al. (2014), "Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia." BMC Genetics 15:77. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/15/77
  4. ^ Wang C-C, Wang L-X, Shrestha R, Zhang M, Huang X-Y, et al. (2014) "Genetic Structure of Qiangic Populations Residing in the Western Sichuan Corridor." PLoS ONE 9(8): e103772. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103772

Further reading[edit]