|The factual accuracy of parts of this article (those related to article) may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (December 2012)|
|Possible time of origin||6,300 [95% CI 600–37,000] years ago (Katoh 2004)|
|Possible place of origin||Manchuria or a nearby part of northern East Asia|
|Defining mutations||M176/SRY465, P49, 022454|
|Highest frequencies||Koreans, Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Manchu:|
In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup O-M176 (aka O-SRY465) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is best known for its part in the settlement of Korea and Japan. It is a descendant of Haplogroup O-P31.
- 1 Distribution
- 2 Phylogenetics
- 3 See also
- 4 References
Haplogroup O-M176 is found mainly in the northernmost parts of East Asia, from the Uriankhai and Zakhchin peoples of western Mongolia (Katoh 2004) to the Japanese of Japan, though it also has been detected sporadically in the Buryats (Jin 2003) and Udegeys (Jin 2010) of southern Siberia, very rarely among populations of Southeast Asia including Indonesia (Hammer 2006 and Jin 2003), the Philippines (Jin 2003), Thailand (Jin 2003), and Vietnam (Hammer 2006 and Jin 2003), and Micronesians (Hammer 2006). This haplogroup is found with its highest frequency and diversity values among modern populations of Japan and Korea and is absent from most populations in China, but it has been detected in some samples of Han Chinese from Beijing (Jin 2003), Xi'an (1/34, Kim 2011), Jiangsu (Lu 2008), Wuhan (1/160), and South China outside of Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Shanghai (1/65), Daurs (Xue 2006), Hezhes (Xue 2006), Koreans in China (Xue 2006 and Katoh 2004), Manchus (Xue 2006, Katoh 2004, and Karafet 2001), and Sibes (Xue 2006).
Only branches of this haplogroup that are labeled as Haplogroup O-M176*, i.e., those that do not exhibit the 47z mutation, have been detected among the indigenous populations of Inner Mongolia and northern Manchuria, and even then they are found only at very low frequencies. However, Haplogroup O-M176* Y-chromosomes have been detected with high frequency in Korea, where they account for between 14% (Jin 2003, Jin 2009, and Xue 2006) to 33% (Hammer 2006) of the Korean male population.
|Possible time of origin||7,870 [95% CI 5,720–12,630] years ago (Hammer 2006)|
|Possible place of origin||Japanese Archipelago(Hammer 2006) or Korean Peninsula(see Jin 2003)|
The O-47z subclade of O-M176. The first is that it arose in pre-Neolithic Japan and then spread outwards during the Neolithic.
A subclade of Haplogroup O-M176, Haplogroup O-47z, is found with high frequency among the Japanese people and Ryukyuan populations of Japan. It was likely born there to members of the parent lineage who colonized the Japanese Archipelago much earlier, with the subgroup O-47z subsequently evolving within the proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan population of the western parts of the archipelago. This is suggested by the presence of the parent line's paragroup, O-M176*, among Japanese, although at a relatively low frequency of approximately 4% (Xue 2006) to 8% (Nonaka 2007).
Haplogroup O-47z has also been detected in approximately 22% of all males who speak a Japonic language, while it has not been found at all among a total of twenty Ainu males whose Y-DNA has been sampled in two genetic studies (Hammer 2006 and Tajima 2004). Based on the STR haplotype diversity within Haplogroup O-47z, it has been estimated that this haplogroup began to experience a population expansion among the proto-Japanese of approximately 4,000 years ago. Haplogroup O-47z also has been found among samples of modern Koreans, though with low frequency in comparison to both the frequency of O-47z in samples of Japanese and the frequency of O-M176(x47z) in samples of Koreans.
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
Original research publications
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.
- O-M176 (M176/SRY465, P49, 022454)
- O-47z (47z)
Y-DNA O subclades
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
- 238/744=32.0% O-M176 in a pool of all Japanese samples of (Xue 2006), (Katoh 2004), (Jin 2009), (Nonaka 2007), and all non-Ainu and non-Okinawan Japanese samples of (Hammer 2006).
- 202/677=29.8% O-M176 in a pool of all ethnic Korean samples of (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), (Katoh 2004), (Kim 2007), and (Jin 2009).
- 30/132=22.7% O-M176 in a pool of all Okinawan data from (Hammer 2006) and (Nonaka 2007)
- 45/232=19.4% O-M176 in a pool of all Manchu samples of (Karafet 2001), (Jin 2003), (Katoh 2004), and (Xue 2006))
- 150/628=23.9% O-47z in a pool of all non-Ainu and non-Okinawan Japanese samples of (Jin 2003), (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Nonaka 2007)
- 22/132=16.7% O-47z in a pool of all Okinawan samples of Hammer 2006 and Nonaka 2007
- 41/519=7.9% O-47z in a pool of all ethnic Korean samples of (Jin 2003), (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Kim 2007)
- 9/135=6.7% O-47z in a pool of all "Manchu" or "Manchurian" samples of (Hammer 2006), (Xue 2006), and (Jin 2009)
- Huang Dai-Xin, Yang Qing-En, Yin Hui et al., "Genetic Polymorphism of 23 Y Chromosome Biallelic Markers in Wuhan Han Population," HEREDITAS (Beijing) 28 (7) 791~798, 2006
- Yan, Shi; Chuan-Chao, Wang; Hui, Li et al.; Li, Shi-Lin; Jin, Li; Schurr, Theodore G; Santos, Fabricio R; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; John Mitchell, R; Jin, Li; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Cooper, Alan; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Royyuru, Ajay K; Platt, Daniel E; Parida, Laxmi; Blue-Smith, Jason; Soria Hernanz, David F; Spencer Wells, R (2011). "An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4". European Journal of Human Genetics 19 (9): 1013–1015. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.64. PMID 21505448.
- Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Hammer, Michael F.; Nakahori, Yutaka; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Lee, Ju-Won; Jin, Feng; Jia, Xuming et al. (2003). "Y-chromosomal DNA haplogroups and their implications for the dual origins of the Koreans". Human Genetics 114 (1): 27–35. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1019-0. PMID 14505036.
- Hammer, Michael F.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Park, Hwayong; Omoto, Keiichi; Harihara, Shinji; Stoneking, Mark; Horai, Satoshi (2005). "Dual origins of the Japanese: Common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes". Journal of Human Genetics 51 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0. PMID 16328082.
- Jin, Han-Jun; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Kim, Wook (2009). "The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers". In Batzer, Mark A. PLoS ONE 4 (1): e4210. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004210. PMC 2615218. PMID 19148289.
- Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook (2009). "Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology: NA. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21232.
- Karafet, Tatiana; Xu, Liping; Du, Ruofu; Wang, William; Feng, Shi; Wells, R.S.; Redd, Alan J.; Zegura, Stephen L.; Hammer, Michael F. (2001). "Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes". The American Journal of Human Genetics 69 (3): 615–28. doi:10.1086/323299. PMC 1235490. PMID 11481588.
- Katoh, Toru; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Tounai, Kenichi; Mano, Shuhei; Ando, Harue; Oyungerel, Ganjuur; Chae, Gue-Tae; Han, Huun; Jia, Guan-Jun; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Munkhtuvshin, Namid; Tamiya, Gen; Inoko, Hidetoshi (2005). "Genetic features of Mongolian ethnic groups revealed by Y-chromosomal analysis". Gene 346: 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.10.023. PMID 15716011.
- Kim, Wook; Yoo, Tag-Keun; Kim, Sung-Joo; Shin, Dong-Jik; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Kim, Eun-Tak; Bae, Yoon-Sun (2007). "Lack of Association between Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups and Prostate Cancer in the Korean Population". In Blagosklonny, Mikhail. PLoS ONE 2 (1): e172. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000172. PMC 1766463. PMID 17245448.
- Lu, C.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Xia, Y.; Zhang, F.; Wu, B.; Wu, W.; Ji, G. et al. (2009). "The b2/b3 subdeletion shows higher risk of spermatogenic failure and higher frequency of complete AZFc deletion than the gr/gr subdeletion in a Chinese population". Human Molecular Genetics 18 (6): 1122–30. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddn427. PMID 19088127.
- Nonaka, I.; Minaguchi, K.; Takezaki, N. (2007). "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms". Annals of Human Genetics 71 (4): 480–95. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x. PMID 17274803.
- Tajima, Atsushi; Hayami, Masanori; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Juji, Takeo; Matsuo, Masafumi; Marzuki, Sangkot; Omoto, Keiichi; Horai, Satoshi (2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human Genetics 49 (4): 187–93. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0131-x. PMID 14997363.
- Xue, Y.; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S et al. (2005). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics 172 (4): 2431–9. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223.
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