Haplogroup O-M95

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Haplogroup O-M95
Possible time of origin
Possible place of origin
Ancestor O-P31
Descendants O-M88, O-M297
Defining mutations M95

In genetics, Haplogroup O-M95 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-M95 is a descendant branch of Haplogroup O-P31.

Origin[edit]

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup O-M95 is distributed widely in Asia, from southern India to the Altai Mountains and Central Asia in the west, and from Indonesia to northern China and Japan in the east. It is found only at marginally low frequencies of approximately 1% at the periphery of its distribution in southern India, Central Asia, northern China, and Japan, but many populations within the vast intervening territory in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and southern China display a greatly elevated frequency of Haplogroup O-M95 Y-chromosomes. Patrilines within Haplogroup O-M95 predominate among the Austroasiatic-speaking populations of South and Southeast Asia, such as the Khmer of Cambodia and the Khasi of Meghalaya in northeastern India. Some researchers have reported that slightly over half of all men in a composite sample of Austroasiatic speakers belonged to Haplogroup O-M95. Haplogroup O-M122, which attains its peak frequency among the Sino-Tibetan and Hmong–Mien peoples of China and Southeast Asia, and Haplogroup O-M119, which predominates among Taiwanese aborigines and many populations of the Philippines, also generally occur among speakers of Austroasiatic languages in South China and the Indochinese Peninsula, but usually at much lower frequencies than Haplogroup O-M95. The hypothesis that Haplogroup O-M95 was the major Y-chromosome haplogroup of the proto-Austroasiatic population is strengthened by the fact that Haplogroup O-M95 is the only haplogroup found among many Austroasiatic-speaking tribes, such as the Mlabri people of Thailand, Mang people of southern China and northern Vietnam, Juang of mainland India, and the Nicobarese and Shompen of the Nicobar Islands (Sahoo 2006 and Trivedi 2006).

Haplogroup O-M95 also has been observed with high frequency in samples of Tai–Kadai-speaking peoples of Thailand and neighboring areas, which may reflect assimilation of the older Austroasiatic Mon–Khmer populations that have left ample evidence of their presence in the region prior to the immigration of Tai–Kadai speakers.[citation needed]

Outside of the region in which Austroasiatic languages are currently spoken or have a historically attested presence, Haplogroup O-M95 reaches its highest frequencies among the populations of the islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Borneo in western and central Indonesia (Underhill 2001). Haplogroup O-M95 has been found to be by far the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup among the Balinese, occurring in approximately 58.6% (323/551) of a sample of Balinese men; Haplogroup O-M119 and Haplogroup O-M122, which are typical of Austronesian peoples outside of Malaysia and Indonesia, were observed in only 18.1% (100/551) and 6.9% (38/551) of Balinese men (Karafet 2005). Haplogroup O-M95 has also been found to be the most frequently occurring haplogroup among Malay men in Singapore (Yong 2006). The reason for its substantial presence in these populations, all of which are Austronesian-speaking, is yet to be elucidated.

Subclade distribution[edit]

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup O subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree (Karafet 2008) and subsequent published research.

  • O-M95 (M95)
    • O-M88 (M88, M111)

Table of frequencies of O-M95(xM88/M111)[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source SNPs
Nicobarese 1.00 11 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Juang 0.980 49 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Lamet 0.857 35 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Korku 0.814 59 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Inh 0.794 34 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Katu 0.689 45 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Mal 0.660 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Ho 0.658 79 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Bo 0.643 28 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Talieng 0.629 35 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Brau 0.625 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Khmu 0.608 51 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Oy 0.600 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Korwa 0.595 42 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Li (Hlai) 0.588 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Balinese 0.573 641 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Alak 0.567 30 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Suy 0.564 39 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Bit 0.536 28 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Aheu 0.526 38 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Bugan 0.500 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Java (mostly sampled in Dieng) 0.492 61 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Ngeq 0.486 35 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Jeh 0.469 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Santhal 0.468 109 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Munda 0.453 53 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Laven 0.420 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
So 0.420 50 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Muong 0.417 12 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Khasi 0.413 92 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Kharia 0.389 36 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Buyi 0.371 35 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Lao (Luang Prabang, Laos) 0.360 25 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Kinh 0.333 15 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Oraon 0.319 91 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Banjarmasin, Indonesia 0.318 22 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Malaysia 0.313 32 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Mountain Kimmun 0.313 32 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Blang 0.308 52 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Miao (Yunnan) 0.306 49 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Cham (Binh Thuan, Vietnam) 0.305 59 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Lowland Kimmun 0.244 41 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Zhuang 0.235 166 Chen 2006 M95(xM111)
Palyu 0.233 30 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia 0.215 65 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Northern Mien 0.212 33 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Flower-head Mien 0.211 19 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Borneo (Indonesia) 0.209 86 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Southern Mien 0.194 31 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Garo 0.182 33 Kumar 2007 M95(xM88)
Blue Kimmun 0.179 28 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Thai (Northern Thailand) 0.176 17 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Xinhmul 0.172 29 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Malagasy 0.171 35 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Miao (Guizhou) 0.163 49 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Lowland Yao 0.161 31 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Batak Toba (Sumatra) 0.158 38 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Daur 0.154 39 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Western Mien 0.149 47 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Mandar (Sulawesi) 0.130 54 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Pahng 0.129 31 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Kinh (Hanoi, Vietnam) 0.118 76 He 2012 M95(xM88)
Kataang 0.108 37 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Han (South China) 0.092 65 Yan 2011 PK4(xM88)
Qiang 0.091 33 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Top Board Mien 0.091 11 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Thin Board Mien 0.091 11 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Miao (Hunan) 0.090 100 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
She 0.088 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Native Mien 0.073 41 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Vietnamese 0.071 70 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Han Chinese (China) 0.061 165 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Hmong Daw (Laos) 0.059 51 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Hani 0.059 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.057 35 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Bunu 0.056 36 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Kapingamarangi 0.048 21 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Flores 0.046 394 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Japanese 0.043 47 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Western Samoa 0.040 25 Hurles 2005 M95(xM88)
Ewenki (China) 0.038 26 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Northern She (Zhejiang) 0.036 56 Cai 2011 M95(xM88)
Miao (China) 0.034 58 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Han (Lanzhou, Gansu) 0.033 30 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Han (Yili, Xinjiang) 0.031 32 Xue 2006 M95(x88)
Han (North China) 0.031 129 Yan 2011 PK4(xM88)
Han (Chengdu, Sichuan) 0.029 34 Xue 2006 M95(xM88)
Han (East China) 0.024 167 Yan 2011 PK4(xM88)
Japanese 0.024 210 Hammer 2006 M95(xM111)
Philippines 0.021 48 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Yao (China) 0.017 60 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)
Sumba 0.003 350 Karafet 2010 M95(xM111)

Table of frequencies of O-M88/M111[edit]

Population Frequency Count Source SNPs
Xinhmul 0.690 29 Cai 2011 M88
Hani 0.441 34 Xue 2006 M88
She 0.353 51 Karafet 2010 M111
Suy 0.308 39 Cai 2011 M88
Kinh (Hanoi, Vietnam) 0.303 76 He 2012 M88
Lowland Yao 0.290 31 Cai 2011 M88
Kataang 0.270 37 Cai 2011 M88
Zaomin 0.216 37 Cai 2011 M88
Vietnamese 0.200 70 Karafet 2010 M111
Buyi 0.171 35 Xue 2006 M88
Lao (Luang Prabang, Laos) 0.120 25 He 2012 M88
Han (Chengdu, Sichuan) 0.118 34 Xue 2006 M88
Cham (Binh Thuan, Vietnam) 0.085 59 He 2012 M88
Zhuang 0.072 166 Chen 2006 M111
Miao (China) 0.069 58 Karafet 2010 M111
Thai (Northern Thailand) 0.059 17 He 2012 M88
Han (China) 0.055 165 Karafet 2010 M111
Taiwanese aborigines 0.051 39 Hurles 2005 M88
Banjarmasin, Indonesia 0.045 22 Hurles 2005 M88
Pathans (Dir, Pakistan) 0.042 96 Firasat 2007 M88, M111
Malaysia 0.031 32 Karafet 2010 M111
Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia 0.031 65 Hurles 2005 M88
Qiang 0.030 33 Xue 2006 M88
Li (Hlai) 0.029 34 Xue 2006 M88
Yao (Liannan, Guangdong) 0.029 35 Xue 2006 M88
Philippines 0.021 48 Karafet 2010 M111
Taiwanese aborigines 0.021 48 Karafet 2010 M111
Yao (China) 0.017 60 Karafet 2010 M111

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA O subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

Works cited[edit]

Books

  • Underhill, Peter (2005). "Chapter 17: A synopsis of extant Y chromosome diversity in East Asia and Oceania". In Sagart, Laurent; Blench, Roger; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. Psychology Press. pp. 297–314. ISBN 9780415322423. 

Conference Posters

Journals

Further reading[edit]