Haplogroup P-M45

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Haplogroup P (K2b2)
Yhaplotree.JPG
Possible time of origin 27,000-45,000 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin Southeast_Asia Indonesia South Asia Central Asia
Ancestor MPS [2]
Descendants P*, Haplogroup QR
Defining mutations 92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27, S25

In human genetics, K2b2 (M45) or Haplogroup P is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

This haplogroup contains the patrilineal ancestors of many Europeans and almost all of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It also contains approximately one third to two thirds of the males among various populations of Central Asia and Southern Asia, as well as among 1/3 of males in the Negritos Aeta. Different definitions of P exist. Increased phylogenic resolution has found that the P clade that makes up Q and R is just one branch of the entire P. A type of P is found in the Aeta and eastern Indonesia.

Origins[edit]

Haplogroup P is a branch of Haplogroup MNOPS, which is a branch of Haplogroup K (M9).

The descendant haplogroups of P include Q (M242) and R (M207).

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup P is distributed commonly in Europe, Central Asia, North-East Asia.

Its highest frequency occurs among Turkic peoples of Central Asia and South Siberia (35.4% among Tuvans, 28.3% among Altaians-Kizhi).[3]

Besides the haplogroup R and haplogroup Q branches, other patrilines derived from Haplogroup P-M45 are labeled for sake of convenience as Haplogroup P-M45*. They are present at low to moderate frequency among modern South Asian populations.[4] P-M45* is most frequent among the Muslims of Manipur (33%), but this may be due to a very small sample size, 9. P* (or pre-p) is found at a frequency of 28% in the Aeta of the Philippines.[5] Most of the P in South Asia and Central Asia are probably simply unresolved cases or R2 or Q.

Population group N P (xQ,xR) Q R Paper
Count  % Count  % Count  %
Gope 16 1 6.4 Sahoo 2006
Oriya Brahmin 24 1 4.2 Sahoo 2006
Mahishya 17 3 17.6 Sahoo 2006
Bhumij 15 2 13.3 Sahoo 2006
Saora 13 3 23.1 Sahoo 2006
Nepali 7 2 28.6 Sahoo 2006
Muslims of Manipur 9 3 33.3 Sahoo 2006
Himachal Pradesh Rajput 15 1 6.7 Sahoo 2006
Lambadi 18 4 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Gujarati Patel 9 2 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Katkari 19 1 5.3 Sahoo 2006
Madia Gond 14 1 7.1 Sahoo 2006
Kamma Chowdary 15 0 0 1 6.7 12 80 Sahoo 2006

Population Frequencies from Studies[edit]

Population group (with ethnolinguistic affiliation) Paper N Percentage SNPs Tested
Tuvinian (Turkic) Darenko 2005 113 35.40 P-M45
Nivkh (isolate) Lell 2001 17 35 P-M45
Kizhi (Turkic) Darenko 2005 92 28.3 P-M45
Todjin (Turkic) Darenko 2005 36 22.2 P-M45
Chukchi (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 24 20.8 P-M45
Koryak (Chukotkan) Lell 2001 27 18.5 P-M45
Yupik (Eskimo-Aleut) Lell 2001 33 18.2 P-M45
Uighur (Turkic) Xue 2006 70 17.1 P-M45
Kalmyk (Mongolic) Darenko 2005 68 11.8 P-M45
Turkmen (Turkic) Wells 2001 30 10 P-M45
Soyot (Turkic) Darenko 2005 34 8.8 P-M45
Uriankhai (Mongolic) Katoh 2004 60 8.3 P-M45
Khakas (Turkic) Darenko 2005 53 7.6 P-M45
Kazakh (Turkic) Wells 2001 54 5.6 P-M45
Uzbek (Turkic) Wells 2001 366 5.5 P-M45
Khasi-Khmuic (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 353 5.40 P-M45(xM173) §
Mundari (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 64 10.90 P-M45(xM173) §
Nicobarese (Mon-Khmer) Reddy 2009 11 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Southeast Asia (Austro-Asiatic) Reddy 2009 257 1.60 P-M45(xM173) §
Garo (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 71 1.40 P-M45(xM173) §
India (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 226 3.10 P-M45(xM173) §
East Asia (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 214 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Eastern India (Indo-European) Reddy 2009 54 18.50 P-M45(xM173) §
Iran (Southern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) Nasidze 2009 40 5.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Mazandarani (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Gilaki (Iranian) Nasidze 2009 50 0.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Tehran (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 80 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Isfahan (Iranian) Nasidze 2004 50 6.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Bakhtiari (Iranian) Nasidze 2008 53 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranian Arabs (Arabic) Nasidze 2008 47 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
North Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 33 9.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Iran (Iranian) Regueiro 2006 117 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Georgian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 77 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Caucacus (Armenian) Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 100 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)

§ These may include members of haplogroup R2.

Subgroups[edit]

The subclades of Haplogroup P with their defining mutation, according to the 2008 ISOGG tree:

  • P (92R7_1, 92R7_2, L138, L268, M45, M74/N12, P27.1_1/P207, P27.1_2, P69, P226, P228, P230, P235,P237, P239, P240, P243, P244, P281, P282, P283, P284, P295/S8, PG83)
    • P*
    • Q (M242)
    • R (M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, V45)

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT (K)
I J LT(K1) K (K2)
L T MPS (K2b) X (K2a)
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.