Haplogroup P-M45

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Haplogroup K2b2

Yhaplotree.JPG

Possible time of origin 27,000-45,000 years BP (note different definitions of P exist. Increased phylogenic resolution has found that the P clade that makes up Q and R is just one branch of the entire P. A type of P is found in the Aeta and eastern Indonesia. However someone with R is closer to someone with Q than they are to a Aeta-P type)[1]
Possible place of origin Southeast_Asia Indonesia south asia central asia
Ancestor K2b-p331 [1]
Descendants P*, Haplogroup QR
Defining mutations 92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27, S25

In human genetics, K2b2 (M45) or Haplogroup P is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

This haplogroup contains the patrilineal ancestors of many Europeans and almost all of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It also contains approximately one third to two thirds of the males among various populations of Central Asia and Southern Asia, as well as among 1/3 of males in the Aeta.

Origins[edit]

Haplogroup P is a branch of Haplogroup MNOPS, which is a branch of Haplogroup K (M9).

The descendant haplogroups of P include Q (M242) and R (M207).

Distribution[edit]

Haplogroup P is distributed commonly in Europe, Central Asia, North-East Asia.


Besides the haplogroup R and haplogroup Q branches, other patrilines derived from Haplogroup P-M45 are labeled for sake of convenience as Haplogroup P-M45*. They are present at low to moderate frequency among modern South Asian populations.[2] P-M45* is most frequent among the Muslims of Manipur (33%), but this may be due to a very small sample size, 9. P* (or pre-p) is found at a frequency of 28% in the Aeta of the Philippines [2]. Most of the P in South Asia and Central Asia are probably simply unresolved cases or R2 or Q.

Population Group N P (xQ,xR) Q R Paper
Count  % Count  % Count  %
Gope 16 1 6.4 Sahoo 2006
Oriya Brahmin 24 1 4.2 Sahoo 2006
Mahishiya 17 3 17.6 Sahoo 2006
Bhumij 15 2 13.3 Sahoo 2006
Saora 13 3 23.1 Sahoo 2006
Nepali 7 2 28.6 Sahoo 2006
Manipur Muslim 9 3 33.3 Sahoo 2006
Himachal Pradesh Rajpu 15 1 6.7 Sahoo 2006
Lambadi 18 4 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Gujarat Patel 9 2 22.2 Sahoo 2006
Katkari 19 1 5.3 Sahoo 2006
Madia Gond 14 1 7.1 Sahoo 2006
Kamma Chowdary 15 0 0 1 6.7 12 80 Sahoo 2006

Population Frequencies from Studies[edit]

Population Paper N Percentage SNPs Tested
Tuvinian (Turkic) Darenko 2005 113 35.40 P-M45 §
Altaian-Kizhi (Turkic) Darenko 2005 92 28.3 P-M45 §
Todjin (Turkic) Darenko 2005 36 22.2 P-M45 §
Kalmyk (Mongolic) Darenko 2005 68 11.8 P-M45 §
Soyot (Turkic) Darenko 2005 34 8.8 P-M45 §
Khakas (Turkic) Darenko 2005 53 7.6 P-M45 §
Austro-Asiatic (Khasi-Khmuic) Reddy 2009 353 5.40 P-M45(xM173) §
Austro-Asiatic (Mundari) Reddy 2009 64 10.90 P-M45(xM173) §
Nicobarese (Mon-Khmer) Reddy 2009 11 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Austro-Asiatic (Southeast Asia) Reddy 2009 257 1.60 P-M45(xM173) §
Garo (Tibeto-Burman) Reddy 2009 71 1.40 P-M45(xM173) §
Tibeto-Burman (India) Reddy 2009 226 3.10 P-M45(xM173) §
Tibeto-Burman (East Asia) Reddy 2009 214 0.00 P-M45(xM173) §
Indo-European (Eastern India) Reddy 2009 54 18.50 P-M45(xM173) §
Southern Talysh Iran Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Northern Talysh Azerbaijan Nasidze 2009 40 5.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Mazandarana Iran Nasidze 2009 50 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Gilakia Iran Nasidze 2009 50 0.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranians (Tehran) Iran Nasidze 2004 80 4.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranians (Isfahan) Iran Nasidze 2004 50 6.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Bakhtiari Iran Nasidze 2008 53 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Iranian Arabs Iran Nasidze 2008 47 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
North Iran Iran Regueiro 2006 33 9.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
South Iran Iran Regueiro 2006 117 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Georgians South Caucacus Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 77 3.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)
Armenians South Caucacus Nasidze and Stoneking 2001 100 2.00 P-M45(xM124,xM173)

§ These may include members of haplogroup R2.

Subgroups[edit]

The subclades of Haplogroup P with their defining mutation, according to the 2008 ISOGG tree:

  • P (92R7_1, 92R7_2, L138, L268, M45, M74/N12, P27.1_1/P207, P27.1_2, P69, P226, P228, P230, P235,P237, P239, P240, P243, P244, P281, P282, P283, P284, P295/S8, PG83)
    • P*
    • Q (M242)
    • R (M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, V45)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (May 2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Res. 18 (5): 830–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805. PMID 18385274. 
  2. ^ Sahoo, S. (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (4): 843. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. PMC 1347984. PMID 16415161. 

External links[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.