Haplogroup R-M207

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Haplogroup R-M207

Haplogroup R (Y-DNA).jpg

Possible time of origin 26,800 (24,000 [1] - 34,300) years ago (Karafet 2008)
Possible place of origin Central Asia, South Asia or Europe
Ancestor P-M45
Descendants Paragroup R-M207, R-M173, R-M479
Defining mutations R = M207 (UTY2), P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, S4, S8, S9 and V45 (ISOGG 2010)

In molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup R-M207 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It marks a major split in paleolithic lineages some descendant lines are common throughout Europe, Central Asia and South Asia, and also common in parts of the West Asia and Africa. Others are primarily from West Asia and South Asia. This line is a descendant of haplogroup P-M45.

Origins[edit]

This haplogroup is believed to have arisen around 20,000–34,000 years ago (Karafet 2008), somewhere in Central Asia or South Asia, where its ancestor Haplogroup P-M45 is most often found at polymorphic frequencies (Wells 2001). Haplogroup R has been proven by ancient DNA to be at least 24,000 years old (R* near Lake Baikal) [2]

The two currently defined subclades are R-M173 and R-M479. Haplogroup R-M173 is estimated to have arisen during the height of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), about 18,500 years ago, most likely in southwestern Asia (Underhill 2009).

Distribution[edit]

Y-haplogroup R-M207 is found throughout all continents, but is fairly common throughout Europe, South Asia and Central Asia. Small frequencies are found in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, and Indigenous Australians (Kayser 2003). It also occurs in Caucasus, Near East, West China, Siberia and some parts of Africa.[citation needed]

Subclade distribution[edit]

Paragroup R-M207[edit]

Haplogroup R* y-dna (xR1,R2) was found in 23,000-year old-remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal;[3] The area that the Mal'ta boy was buried is now inhabited by Russians, and several hundred years ago it was inhabited by Buryats, who have a very low frequency of haplogroup R.[4]. But, ancient Mal'ta DNA suggests haplogroup R could have begun in Siberia or Europe [5].

R-M173[edit]

Spread of Haplogroup R-M173 in Native populations.

R-M173 is common throughout Europe and western Eurasia and was historically known as R1. It has many branches (Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000).

In the Americas, it is not a pre-Columbian founding lineage. The presence of R-M173 in the Americas is probably partly or wholly the result of Eurasian admixture (Malhi 2008 and Lell 2002). However, it is the second most common haplogroup in Indigenous peoples of the Americas following haplogroup Q-M242, and spreads specially in Algonquian peoples from United States and Canada (Malhi 2008).

R-M479[edit]

Haplogroup R-M479 is defined by the presence of the marker M479. The paragroup for the R-M479 lineage is found in Pakistan North, Lisbon (Portugal), Sevilla (Andalusia, Spain), Tatars (Bashkortostan, Russia), Italy North, and Osetins South (South Caucasus) (Myres 2010).

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup R-M207. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas.

The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup R-M207. The first three levels of subclades are shown. Additional detail is provided on the linked branch article pages (Krahn 2012).

  • P-M45
    • R-M207 M207, P224, P227, P229, P232, P280, P285, L248.2, L1031
      • R-M173 M173, M306, P231, P233, P234, P236, P238, P241, P242, P245, P286, P294
      • R-M479 M479

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA R-M207 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MP X S
M P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  R 207   1b1b2a1a

References[edit]

  • The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. 1994. ISBN 0-691-08750-4. 
  • Anjana, Saha, Swarkar, Sharma, Audesh, Bhat, Awadesh, Pandit, Ramesh, Bamezai (2005). "Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow". J Hum Genet 50 (1): 49–51. doi:10.1007/s10038-004-0219-3. PMID 15611834. 

External links[edit]

Discussion and projects